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Full text of "A sesqui-centennial history of Kentucky; a narrative historical edition ... preserving the record of the growth and development of the commonwealth, and chronicling the genealogical and memorial records of its prominent families and personages"

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in  2012  with  funding  from 

University  of  Illinois  Urbana-Champaign 

nf  SCntturkg 

fuhlisli^  1945 

I     • 

A  §wqm-(Entt?nmai  History 

of  IC^nturkg 

A  Narrative  Historical  Edition,  Commemorating  One  Hundred  and  Fifty  Years  of 

Statehood,  Preserving  the  Record  of  the  Growth  and  Development  of  the 

Commonwealth,    and    Chronicling    the    Genealogical    and    Memorial 

Records    of    its    Prominent    Families    and    Personages. 


Supervising  Editor 



Author  and  Editor 




The  complete  index  covering  the  histori- 
cal and  biographical  sections  of  this  edition 
will  be  found  at  the  back  of  Volume  IV, 



»— < 











rDUCATiON,  that  is  book  learning,  had  its  beginning  in  Kentucky 
under  conditions  which  would  have  forbidden  it  completely  with  people  less  hardy. 
It  began  during  the  Revolution.  From  the  North  the  blood-thirsty  Shawnees  and 
Mingos,  from  the  South  the  crafty  Cherokees  were  entering  Kentucky,  incited  by 
British  cunning  and  stimulated  by  British  gold.  There  were  mutterings  of  conflict; 
settlers  moved  closer  together;  the  weak  hurried  back  East;  the  strong  girded  for  battle, 
having  come  to  the  beautiful  land  Kentucke  to  stay.  Powder  and  shot  were  low;  most 
of  the  wild  game  frightened  off;  salt  was  at  a  premium;  yet  more  strong  men  came 
from  Virginia  and  North  Carolina  and  Pennsylvania.  The  forest  hung  like  scythes  of 
death  stealthily  awaiting  victims.  The  tomahawk  would  fall,  the  scalping  knife  plied — 
a  lonely  corpse  left  alone  in  the  solitary  woods,  that  skeleton  revealing  the  gruesome 
tragedy  months  later;  while  hideously  painted  savages  with  dripping  scalps  rushed  to 
Detroit  to  collect  British  gold  for  fire-water,  their  coveted  reward. 

No  one  was  safe.  "Families  had  to  flee  in  the  dark  hours  of  a  cold  winter  night 
before  flaming  torches  and  bloody  axes  of  Indians  who  were  skulking  about  frontier 
homes,  or  were  peering  from  the  shadows  of  bushes,  waiting  for  a  crucial  moment  to 
give  the  signal  war  whoop  to  bands  of  savages  who  knew  no  mercy,"  fiends  who  would 
scalp,  torture  by  gouging  out  the  eyes,  plying  the  red  hot  iron,  and  burning  at  the 
stake  by  slow  fire  amid  taunts,  jeers,  and  diabolic  hilarity. 

In  the  midst  of  these  perilous  conditions  a  brave  pioneer  woman,  Mrs.  William 
Coomes,  opened  a  school  at  Harrodsburg,  the  first  school  ever  taught  in  Kentucky. 
What  though  every  cabin  on  the  frontier  was  threatened  with  the  torch?  What 
though  death  stalked  within  the  forest?  The  pioneers  had  determined  to  build  a  western 
commonwealth  with  the  lamp  of  knowledge  lighting  the  way  of  progress.  Although 
the  pupils  carried  rifles  to  school  instead  of  books,  the  stout-hearted  pioneers  were  con- 
vinced that  education  was  worth  fighting  for.  The  following  year,  1777,  John  May 
opened  a  school  at  McAfee's  Station.  Although  the  teaching  was  crude,  the  unchinked 
cabins  were  cold,  and  the  puncheon  benches  uncomfortable,  it  was  a  beginning,  and 
those  with  vision,  undismayed  by  the  threatening  danger,  could  picture  universities  in 
in  the  future." 

Scarcely  had  these  rude  schools  opened  when  the  long-threatened  blow  from  the 
North  fell — and  the  desperate  siege  of  Boonesboro  began. 

In  the  year  1779  Joseph  Doniphan,  an  able  young  surveyor,  conducted  a  school 
inside  the  stockade  at  Boonesboro.'  The  instruction  given  in  the  first  of  these 
stockade  schools  (later  "oldfield"  schools)  consisted  of  reading,  writing  and  ciphering 
to  the  rule  of  three.  Writes  Professor  Lewis:  "Geography  and  arithmetic  were  taught 
orally — the  former  especially — often  in  doggerel  verse,  which  was  frequently  sung  in 
recitation  and  in  studying,  the  pupils  who  were  not  reciting  adding  to  the  monotonous 
uproar  of  the  class  by  studying  aloud,  as  they  were  usually  allowed  to  do.  Tho  only 
textbooks  used  at  first  were  Dilworth's  Speller  and  the  Bible.4  The  rules  of  the 
schools  were  many,  and  often  read,  and  the  discipline  was  strict;  yet  the  pupils  learned; 
they  learned  practical  living,  discipline  and  morals — and  practiced  them! 

The  pioneer  teachers,  while  often  as  crude  as  their  crude  surroundings,  nevertheless 
rendered  a  great  service  to  the  country.     They  dared   the   rigors  and  dangers  of  the 

566  A     S  E  S  Q.  U  I  -CENTENNIAL 

frontier.  Although  in  most  cases  not  as  well  equipped  physically  to  endure  the  ex- 
igencies of  the  new  environment  as  other  pioneers,  they  nevertheless  did  endure  it,  and 
many  paid  the  supreme  sacrifice  for  daring  to  come  to  the  frontier  to  educate  pioneer 
children.  In  1783,  John  McKinney,  teacher  of  the  school  at  Lexington,  was  seriously 
mangled  in  an  encounter  with  a  wildcat  at  the  school.  In  1788,  near  Losantiville 
(Cincinnati),  John  Filson,  founder  of  an  academy  at  Lexington  and  Kentucky's  first 
historian,  was  killed  by  the  Indians.  The  same  fate  befell  John  May,  teacher  at  Mc- 
Afee's Station,  while  traveling  down  the  Ohio  in  1790.'  But  nothing  could  quench 
the  pioneer's  thirst  for  knowledge  and  nothing  could  deter  teachers  from  pursuing  their 


Following  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  the  stations  leveled  their  stockades; 
old  settlements  expanded;  and  new  communities  were  settled.  At  that  time  the  "Old 
Field"  School  really  came  into  use  in  Kentucky.  This  school,  elementary  in  training, 
was  so-called  because  the  school  building  was  usually  erected  on  a  bit  of  open  space 
which  had  been  cleared  by  the  Indians  or  early  settlers,  and  by  this  time  was  more  or 
less  unfit  for  cultivation/ 

These  "Old  Field"  schools  were  one-room  cabins  made  of  unhewn  logs  and,  if  at  all, 
poorly  chinked.  The  chimneys  were  "stack"  chimneys;  doors  and  windows  were  of 
rough  clapboard,  the  latter  employing  greased  paper  instead  of  glass  to  admit  light; 
mother  earth  usually  was  the  floor,  and  the  miserable  benches  were  made  of  rude 
puncheons.  The  instruction  at  these  schools  was  for  the  most  part  rather  primitive. 
The  teacher  was  usually  some  elderly  man  "whose  main  qualification  for  the  position 
was  often  that  he  did  not  know  how,  or  did  not  care,  or  have  the  energy  to  do  anything 
else,  having  probably  failed  in  everything  else  he  had  undertaken;  or  he  was  some 
stranger,  a  traveling  Irishman,  or  Englishman,  or  wandering  Yankee,  whose  qualifications 
for  the  place  were  presumed  from  the  fact  that  he  had  seen  a  good  deal  of  the 

These  men  could  not  have  made  teaching  a  profession,  as  their  wages  were  very  low. 
"When  teaching,  however,  they  were  required  to  take  up  early  and  turn  out  late,  giving 
short  recesses  and  noon  intermissions,  the  idea  being  that  they  must  earn  their  money. 
They  were  under  no  supervision,  except  such  as  the  pupils  chose  to  put  upon  them, 
and  taught  according  to  their  own  peculiar  theories,  temperaments  and  habits.  They 
were  often  as  rough  and  passionate  as  they  well  could  be,  and  liberal  in  their  use  of 
the  rod,  even  knocking  down  impertinent  pupils."  While,  on  the  other  hand,  some  of 
them  allowed  the  scholars  to  do  as  they  pleased.  On  the  whole  the  pupils  probably 
dreaded  "the  frown  and  birch  of  the  master  more  than  the  screams  of  the  wild  animals 
they  sometimes  heard  on  their  way  to  an  from  the  lonely  school  house."8 

Continuing  upon  the  idea  of  supervision,  Professor  Lewis  states:  "Practically  the  only 
supervision  to  which  the  teacher  was  subjected  was  exercised  by  the  pupils.  This  was 
regulated  by  custom,  with  which  the  patrons  of  the  school  never  in  any  way  interfered 
as  long  as  it  was  at  all  within  reason.  It  only  concerned  such  things  as  threats  upon 
certain  recognized  occasions,  the  granting  of  holidays,  and  similar  matters,  and  was  en- 
forced by  the  larger  boys  of  the  school,  who  rode  the  teacher  upon  a  rail,  ducked  him 
in  some  convenient  spring  or  pond,  or  otherwise  made  things  so  unpleasant  for  him  that 
he  was  forced  to  yield.  A  very  common  practice  was  to  "turn  him  out"  until  he 
granted  the  desired  concession.  This  is  well  illustrated  by  the  following  characteristic 
incident  taken  from  an  article  by  Col.  R.  T.  Durrett,  in  the  Louisville  Courier-Journal, 
on  April  2,  1881:  "On  the  28th  of  April,  1809,  the  first  show,  so  the  boys  called  it, 
occurred  in  Louisville.     It  was  the  exhibition  of  an  elephant,  and  there  was  a  general 


uprising  in  all  the  schools  for  a  holiday  .  .  .  the  schools  at  the  head  of  which  were 
teachers  conversant  with  the  habits  of  the  place  gave  the  boys  a  holiday  without  trouble, 
but  there  was  a  New  England  teacher,  recently  come  to  the  charge  of  one  of  the  log 
schoolhouses,  who  could  not  understand  why  the  boys  were  to  be  permitted  to  lay  aside 
their  books  a  whole  day  to  see  an  elephant.  He  would  not  grant  the  holiday  asked 
and  the  boys  went  to  work  in  the  usual  way  to  make  him  yield.  On  the  morning  of  ' 
the  28th  this  Yankee  teacher,  as  they  called  him,  came  to  his  schoolhouse  and  found 
the  door  well  barred  with  benches,  fence  rails,  and  logs  of  wood,  and  the  boys  inside 
laughing  at  his  futile  attempts  to  get  in.  They  promptly  told  him  the  terms  upon  which 
the  fort  would  be  surrendered,  which  were  simply  to  give  them  that  day  as  a  holiday, 
so  they  could  go  to  see  the  elephant.  The  teacher  was  indignant,  and  not  being  able 
to  get  through  the  door,  climbed  upon  the  roof  and  attempted  to  descend  the  chimney. 
For  this  contingency  the  boys  had  prepared  a  pile  of  dry  leaves,  and  when  the  teacher's 
legs  appeared  at  the  top  of  the  chimney  the  leaves  were  lighted  in  the  fireplace.  Down 
came  the  teacher,  for  having  once  started  he  could  not  go  back  and  the  flames  scorched 
him  and  the  smoke  smothered  him,  so  that  he  was  the  powerless  autocrat  of  the  school 
and  knight  of  the  ferule.  He  gave  the  holiday  and  went  home  to  lay  up  for  repairs, 
as  the  boys  expressed  it,  and  the  boys  went  to  the  show  as  if  nobody  had  been  either 
burnt  or  smoked."" 

Schools  of  higher  learning  than  that  afforded  in  the  stockade  and  "old  field"  (or 
"hedgerow")  schools  soon  appeared.  John  Filson  established  a  seminary  in  Lexington 
in  or  before  1784.  The  Rev.  Elijah  Craig,  the  pioneer  Baptist  preacher,  established 
one  at  Georgetown  in  1788,  and  the  same  year  the  celebrated  Dr.  James  Priestly  be- 
came master  of  Salem  Academy  at  Bardstown,  a  school  founded  as  early  as  1786  and 
taught  by  a  Mr.  Shackelford.  Salem  for  a  time  was  perhaps  the  most  famous  in  the 
district  and  state;  many  of  the  outstanding  public  men  of  the  state's  early  history  were 
trained  there.  These  seminaries  or  academies  became  quite  popular  and  were  well 
supported  by  the  public.1"  Writes  Humphrey  Marshall:  "There  are  many  educated 
and  more  means  to  be  applied  in  that  way  than  most  other  countries  could  afford, 
while  a  general  propensity  for  giving  and  receiving  literary  instruction  was  obviously 
a  prevaling  sentiment  throughout  the  country."" 

Actually  the  principal  educational  interest  of  Kentuckians  during  the  early  period 
was  in  higher  education.  States  Professor  Lewis:  "Lexington,  soon  after  its  establish- 
ment, reserved  land  for  Latin  and  English  schools,  and  by  this  inducement,  as  early 
as  1787,  caused  Mr.  Isaac  Wilson,  late  of  Philadelphia  College,  as  he  describes  him- 
self in  an  advertisement  in  the  Kentucky  Gazette  to  open  Lexington  Grammar  School; 
but  state  patronage  of  higher  education  came  even  earlier,  as  Transylvania  Seminary, 
one  of  the  first  "public  schools,"  or  seminaries,  of  learning  in  the  Mississippi  Valley, 
.  .  .  was  endowed  by  an  act  of  the  Virginia  legislature  in  1780,  and  further  endowed  and 
chartered  in  1783,  and  other  foundations  and  endowments  by  the  Mother  State  and 
by  Kentucky  followed  rapidly,  until  soon  a  state  educational  system  was  developed  quite 
unusual  in  its  circumstances  and  quite  in  advnce  of  the  ideas  of  the  day  elsewhere  in 
this  country  at  least."1' 


In  settling  its  trans-Appalachian  territory,  the  state  of  Virginia  was  not  unmindful 
of  the  necessity  for  education.  And  so,  as  early  as  1780  through  the  influence  of  the 
Rev.  John  Todd,  a  prominent  Presbyterian  minister  of  Louisa  County,  Virgina,  and 
his  nephew,  John  Todd,  then  a  representative  from  Kentucky  County,  an  act  was 
pressed  through  the  legislature  providing  for  the  appropriation  of  8,000  acres  of  land 


in  Kentucky  for  the  purpose  of  a  public  school,  or  seminary  of  learning,  to  be  erected 
in  Kentucky  County.  Out  of  this  grant  was  established  Transylvania  Seminary,  which 
opened  at  Danville  in  1785  and  moved  to  Lexington  in  1787.  Under  the  leadership 
of  Judge  Caleb  Wallace,  one  of  the  earliest  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Ken- 
tucky, other  seminaries  or  academies  were  established. 

It  appears  that  the  friends  of  education  in  the  Virginia  legislature  intended  that  a 
system  of  seminaries  would  be  established  in  Kentucky  County  by  means  of  land  grants 
ranging  from  6,000  to  12,000  acres  of  land.  A  second  academy,  Salem,  was  located 
at  Bardstown  and  incorporated  by  Virginia  in  1788. 

Following  the  same  system  as  that  inaugurated  by  Virginia,  the  Kentucky  legisla- 
ture by  an  act  of  December  12,  1794,  incorporated  Kentucky  Academy  at  Pisgah, 
near  Lexington;  a  short  time  later  Bethel  Academy,  in  Jessamine  County;  and  a  third, 
on  December  15,  1795,  Franklin  Academy  at  Washington  in  Mason  County.  The 
first  really  important  academy  act  passed  by  the  Kentucky  legislature  was  enacted  in 
1798  when  six  thousand  acres  of  land  each  were  given  to  Kentucky,  Franklin,  Salem, 
Bethel,  Lexington  and  Jefferson  seminaries,  the  last  two  having  been  established 
by  the  Act  at  Lexington  and  Louisville  respectively.  All  of  these  academies  were  to 
be  vested  in  cooperative  boards  of  trustees  and  were  to  be  held  free  from  taxes.  In- 
dicating that  the  Kentucky  legislature  of  that  year  were  cognizant  of  the  importance 
of  education,  the  act  further  stated:  "And  whereas  it  is  generally  true  that  people  will 
be  happiest  whose  laws  are  best  and  best  administered,  and  that  laws  will  be  wisely 
and  honestly  administered  in  proportion  as  those  who  form  and  administer  them  are 
wise  and  honest;  whence  it  becomes  expedient  for  promoting  the  public  happiness  that 
those  persons  whom  nature  hath  endowed  with  genius  and  virtue  should  be  rendered, 
by  liberal  education,  worthy  to  receive  and  able  to  guard  the  sacred  deposit  of  the 
rights  and  liberties  of  their  fellow-citizens,  and  that  to  aid  and  accelerate  this  most 
desirable  purpose  must  be  one  of  the  first  duties  of  every  wise  government."14  These 
legislators  were  influenced  by  the  language  of  the  noble  ordinance  of  1787.  Not  only 
did  they  believe  that  the  state  should  provide  for  the  education  of  its  children  of 
ability  by  means  of  supplying  academies,  they  believed  that  a  system  of  state  education 
should  be  provided  with  a  state  university  at  the  head.  Another  act  of  1798  in- 
corporated Transylvania  University.  Thus  with  the  contemplation  of  scores  of 
academies,  established  by  land  grants  and  a  university  already  established,  the  entire 
work  indicates  the  intention  of  a  grand  university  system.  There  were  to  be  established 
academies  in  every  county  of  the  state  which  could  feed  the  state  university.  It  was 
truly  a  noble  conception,  and  the  main  credit  is  due  to  the  intelligence  and  industry 
of  Judge  Caleb  Wallace.  "It  is  certainly  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  combined  acts  of 
.  .  .  1798  established  the  most  enlightened,  practical  and  complete  system  of  educa- 
tion that  could  at  that  time  be  witnessed  in  America  or  perhaps  anywhere  else  in  the 
civilized  world,"  declares  Professor  Lewis.15 

The  Academy  system  grew  apace  and  by  1820  the  state  had  endowed  as  many  as 
forty-seven  county  academies  with  from  6,000  to  12,000  acres  of  land.  The  teaching 
in  these  academies  for  the  most  part  was  of  a  high  order.  The  president  was  required 
to  be  "a  man  of  the  most  approved  abilities  in  literature."  Greek,  Latin  and  the 
"different  branches  of  science"  were  required  to  be  taught  in  most  academies,  thus 
furnishing  to  the  students  the  elements  of  a  good  classical  education.  The  discipline 
in  these  schools  appears  to  have  been  of  a  better  grade  than  in  the  "old  field"  schools. 

As  early  as  1815,  however,  the  academy  system  was  showing  signs  of  failure.  There 
were  evidences  of  a  lack  of  public  interest.  The  people  after  the  relief  from  Indian 
dangers    became    engrossed    in    acquiring    wealth,    and    were    inclined    to    consider    the 


clearing,  the  tobacco  patch,  and  the  corn  field  as  affording  the  best  possible  schooling 
for  their  boys.  Moreover,  in  1815,  the  legislature  conferred  upon  the  trustees  the 
absolute  right  of  disposing  of  all  the  academy  lands. 

Unfortunately  lands  at  that  time  were  unusually  plentiful  and  disheartingly  cheap. 
Many  trustees  were  not  only  not  interested  in  providing  good  schools  but  were  often 
utterly  selfish,  and  at  times  unscrupulous,  so  that  thousands  of  acres  of  valuable  lands 
were  sold  for  a  mere  pittance.  It  has  been  estimated  that  had  the  lands  been  held, 
each  county  would  have  enjoyed  today  an  annual  income  of  $60,000,  in  many  cases 
very  much  more.  Thus  a  magnificent  financial  foundation  for  a  state  educational  system 
was  thrown  to  the  winds.  Had  the  lands  been  retained,  the  public  educational  system 
in  Kentucky  would  be  fifty  years  in  advance  of  its  present  status.  What  sins  have  been 
committed  against  education  in  Kentucky!  The  noble  scheme  dreamed  by  the  Todds 
and  Judge  Wallace  was  permitted  by  a  lesser  breed  of  men  to  languish  and  die,  but  not, 
however,  before  "many  of  our  early  lawyers,  doctors,  ministers  and  other  professional 
men  obtained  all  their  education  in  these  seminaries." 


Until  after  1800  the  schools  of  Kentucky  afforded  little  opportunity  for  the  educa- 
tion of  girls.  The  "old  field"  schools,  to  which  females  were  admitted,  did  not  provide 
an  atmosphere  altogether  conducive  to  refinement.  As  has  been  remarked,  many  of 
the  teachers  of  these  schools  "were  often  destitute  both  of  a  knowledge  of  polite 
literature  and  good  manners."  The  early  academies  excluded  girls  so  that  practically 
no  opportunity  was  afforded   for  females  to  acquire  grammar-school  education. 

In  1806  at  Paris,  the  Rev.  John  Lyle,  a  Presbyterian  minister,  opened  a  seminary  for 
girls,  the  first  female  academy  in  the  West.  This  school  flourished  for  a  time  and 
closed  in  1809  or  1810.  At  Washington,  in  Mason  County,  Mrs.  Louisa  Fitzherbert 
Keats  in  1807  established  a  school  for  girls,  which  discont  nued  in  1812.3' 


The  first  female  academy  was  established  by  the  Catholics  in  what  is  now  Marion 
County  in  1812. 

During  the  pioneer  period  many  Catholics  came  to  Kentucky  from  Maryland  and 
Virginia.  They  settled  very  largely  in  the  present  counties  of  Nelson,  Washington, 
Marion,  Bullitt,  Hardin,  Jefferson  and  Breckinridge.  Much  of  the  land  on  which 
these  people  had  settled  was  unfertile,  and  the  people  were  poor.  Although  high 
spirited  they  were  in  most  cases  uneducated  and  without  a  numerous  leadership.  One 
of  the  first  priests  who  came  to  them,  Father  Whelan,  said,  "During  their  brief  sojourn 
in  the  wilderness  his  little  flock  had  gradually  fallen  into  many  practices  which  were 
dangerous  to  piety.  They  were  in  the  habit  of  gathering  promiscuously  on  Saturday 
evenings  and  Sundays,  and  of  dancing  until  a  late  hour.  In  the  rude  state  of  society 
at  that  time  these  meetings  were  often  attended  with  great  disorders." 

"Besides  these  difficulties  with  his  own  flock,  he  (Father  Whelan)  had  to  encounter 
the  fierce  opposition  of  the  sectarians,  whose  prejudices  against  the  Catholic  Church 
were  of  the  grossest  character.  Misled  by  the  erroneous  opinions  which  their  fore- 
fathers had  inherited  in  England,  the  Protestant  settlers  were  in  the  habit  of  viewing 
Catholics  as  idolaters,  and  the  priests  as  a  species  of  jugglers.  Nor  were  they  at  all 
reserved  in  the  manner  of  exhibiting  this  prejudice."1"' 

One  may  well  imagine  that  the  Protestants,  who  were  during  this  period  engaged  in 
violent  and  acrimonious  denominational  struggles  among  themselves,  were  not  disposed 
to  aid  the  Catholics  in  providing  facilities  for  education. 

2— Vol.    II 


Until  the  arrival  in  Kentucky  of  Father  Charles  Nerinckx  in  the  summer  of  1805, 
little  attention  was  paid  to  education  in  the  Catholic  section  of  the  state.  Almost 
single-handed  Father  Nerinckx  led  a  district  from  backwardness,  wildness  and  ignorance 
to  an  appreciation  for  education,  both  spiritual  and  academic.  Well  educated,  power- 
ful in  physique,  with  the  zeal  of  Peter  the  Hermit,  he  set  about  to  administer  to 
hundreds  of  families,  scattered  over  hundreds  of  miles,  in  a  wild  primitive  country. 
"His  courage  was  unequaled;  he  feared  no  difficulties  and  was  appalled  by  no  dangers. 
Through  rains  and  storms,  through  snow  and  ice,  over  roads  almost  impassable  by 
the  mud,  over  streams  swollen  by  the  rains  or  frozen  by  the  cold,  by  day  and  by  night, 
in  winter  and  in  summer,  he  might  be  seen  traversing  all  parts  of  Kentucky  in  the 
discharge  of  his  religious  duties.  .  .  .  He  crossed  wilderness  districts,  swam  rivers,  slept 
in  the  woods  among  the  wild  beasts.  .  .  .  He  never  took  any  rest  or  recreation.  He 
seemed  always  most  happy  when  most  busily  engaged.  .  .  .  But  it  was  on  the  children 
that  he  lavished  his  labor  with  the  greatest  relish."" 

To  establish  a  teaching  order  of  women  seems  to  have  been  a  fixed  idea  of  Father 
Nerinckx,  and  an  inspiration  as  early  as  September,  1805.  At  that  time  he  had  twenty 
young  women  eager  to  be  taught  and  to  teach.  Father  Nerinckx's  idea  was  to  build  a 
large  log  house  for  them  and  to  have  them  support  themselves  by  spinning,  weaving 
and  sewing.  Aside  from  teaching  these  young  ladies  were  "to  take  care  of  the  sick 
irrespective  of  religious  belief." 

In  1808,  a  wilderness  philanthropist,  a  Mr.  Dant,  donated  a  hundred  acre  tract  of 
land  on  which  to  build  the  proposed  convent.  With  the  help  of  Father  Stephen 
Theodore  Badin,  Father  Nerinckx  set  about  to  erect  a  log  structure,  doing  a  large 
part  of  the  manual  work  himself.  When  the  building  was  practically  completed,  it 
took  fire  and  burned  to  the  ground.  However,  undismayed  Father  Nerinckx  set  about 
to  establish  another  school. 

In  1812,  with  the  help  of  Miss  Mary  Rhodes,  who  had  been  attempting  to  teach 
the  little  girls  of  the  neighborhood,  Miss  Christine  Stuart,  Miss  Ann  Havern  and  Miss 
Ann  Rhodes,  the  dream  of  a  Catholic  Academy  to  provide  teachers  came  true.  Miss 
Ann  Rhodes,  that  year,  with  $75  which  constituted  her  savings  and  $450  which  she 
had  received  from  the  sale  of  her  slave,  bought  fifty  acres  of  land  on  Hardin's  Creek 
in  what  is  now  Marion  County  on  which  stood  a  log  house.  To  this  house  these 
consecrated  young  women,  amid  the  uncharitable  remarks  of  course  scandal-mongers, 
went  to  live  in  it.  Already  Miss  Mary  Rhodes  had  secured  another  log  house  in 
which  girls  of  the  community  were  being  taught.  Miss  Mary  Rhodes  was  a  talented 
and  well  educated  woman  lately  arrived  from  Maryland.  This  "cabin  had  only  the 
bare  ground  for  a  floor,  but  the  roof  and  walls  kept  out  a  part  at  least  of  the  snow 
and  rain.  .  .  .  The  little  building  was  soon  filled  to  its  utmost  capacity  with  others 
still  eager  for  the  same  advantages.""" 

It  was  a  grand  day  in  the  life  of  Father  Nerinckx  when  on  June  29,  1812,  the 
young  ladies  were  consecrated  at  his  little  log  church  of  St.  Charles.  At  the  foot  of 
a  rude  altar,  after  words  of  encouragement  from  Father  Nerinckx,  these  young  women, 
the  first  Lorettines,  "made  their  application  in  form  and  gave  their  solemn  promise 
to  renounce  the  world  and  persevere  in  the  choice  of  life  they  had  made.  They  were 
then  clothed  with  the  habit  of  novices.""1 

They  took  vows  to  live  a  life  of  sacrifice  and  suffering.  Their  dress  was  to  be  of 
black  and  homespun.  Shoes  were  to  be  worn  in  winter,  but  in  summer  all  were  to  go 
barefooted.  They  were  to  sleep  on  straw  "with  convenient  covers,  but  no  fancy  quilts." 
The  meals  were  to  be  in  accordance  with  the  poverty  which  they  professed.  The  day 
was  to  begin  at   four  o'clock   in  summer,  and  at  half-past  four  in  winter.     "The  sick 


were  to  be  tenderly  cared  for,  and  the  dead  buried  in  the  religious  habit,  without 
coffiins  .  .  .  charity,  love  and  concord  were  especially  inculcated  and  ...  a  poverty 
disengaged  from  the  least  affection  to  ownership  in  any  kind  of  property  .  .  .  ,  and 
they  were  to  do  all  kinds  of  labor  for  their  own  support  and  that  of  the  orphans."' 

The  cabin  in  which  the  novices  lived  was  enlarged  by  Father  Nerinckx,  in  order 
to  receive  those  who  had  asked  to  be  received.  Lofts  were  prepared  where  the  sisters 
could  sleep,  and  the  beds  of  the  boarders  were  laid  on  the  floor  of  their  living  rooms 
at  night.  "They  had  a  combined  kitchen  and  refectory,  and  the  table  was  made  of 
boards  nailed  on  a  stump  that  had  been  left  standing  in  the  middle  of  the  cabin. 
...  A  work  table  was  made  from  half  of  a  log  with  the  split  side  upwards,  and  sup- 
ported by  four  legs  set  into  the  lower  side  with  an  auger.  The  rest  of  their  furniture 
was  in  keeping  with  this." 

The  pupils  who  came  in,  many  of  whom  were  orphans,  were  instructed  in  sewing, 
spinning,   weaving,   music,   culinary  work,  Latin,   Mathematics  and  religion. 

Thus  did  Father  Nerinckx's  dream  come  true.  Thus  was  the  beginning  of  the  first 
permanent  school  for  girls  in  the  West.  It  began  a  spark,  but  now  it  is  a  flame  which 
warms  and  enlightens  on  three  continents. 


As  can  well  be  imagined  higher  education  in  Kentucky  was  not  fast  in  developing, 
although  as  early  as  1783  an  institution  of  higher  learning  was  contemplated  by  a  few 
able  men.  Professor  Lewis  thinks  that  "Judge  Caleb  Wallace  was  perhaps  more 
thoroughly  identified  with  the  cause  of  education,  at  least  higher  education,  in  Ken- 
tucky than  any  other  one  man  before  or  since  his  time." 

After  the  chartering  of  a  seminary  in  Kentucky  and  the  giving  of  land  for  its  sup- 
port by  Virginia,  the  matter  of  establishing  such  a  school  was  partially  forgotten. 
In  1783,  however,  Judge  Wallace,  then  representative  from  Kentucky  in  the  Virginia 
Legislature,  recalled  the  grant  and  pressed  through  the  Legislature  a  measure  pro- 
viding for  twenty-five  trustees — the  most  prominent  men  in  Kentucky — and  for  a 
name  for  the  proposed  seminary.  The  name  given  was  Transylvania.  A  further  grant 
of  twelve  thousand  acres  of  land  was  made,  which  enhanced  the  proposed  seminary's 
land  holding  to  twenty  thousand.  The  trustees  were  made  a  self-perpetuating  body  by 
the  charter,  which  further  provided  that  the  seminary  might  grant  degrees  and  assume 
with  ease  the  role  of  college.  Although  the  proposed  academy  was  looked  upon  as 
a  state  school,  "most  of  its  chief  promoters  were  Presbyterians,  a  denomination  then 
and  for  sometime  afterward  largely  predominent,  as  an  intellectual  factor  at  least  in 
Kentucky  affairs.  .  .  .  The  Presbyterians  are  undoubtedly  entitled  to  the  credit  of 
inaugurating  higher  education  in  Kentucky.""" 

Under  their  auspices  Transylvania  Seminary  was  opened  at  Danville,  February  1, 
1785,  at  the  home  of  Rev.  David  Rice,  a  Presbyterian  minister.  The  tuition  was  fixed 
at  four  pistoles  ($3.60)  per  year,  and  the  Rev.  James  Mitchell  was  employed  as 
teacher  at  £30  ($100)  per  year.  The  school  was  taught  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Rice, 
because  no  other  suitable  place  could  be  found  for  it.  "Such  were  the  humble  be- 
ginnings of  the  first  institution  west  of  the  Alleghany  Mountains,  an  institution 
which  after  a  comparatively  obscure  history  of  a  few  years  was  to  blaze  forth  with 
sudden  effulgence  and  to  remain  for  two  generations  the  highest  star  of  the  Western 
literary  firmament."26 

Professor  Mitchell  remained  as  head  of  the  new  school  long  enough  to  woo  and  win 
the  daughter  of  "Father"  Rice  and  then  with  his  bride  returned  to  North  Carolina. 
A   period  of   nominal   existance   of   Transylvania   Seminary    followed   this   change.     As 


the  thoughts  of  the  good  people  of  Danville  were  occupied  at  this  time  with  Indian 
affairs  and  political  conventions,  the  trustees  of  the  new  Seminary  decided  in  1789  to 
move  the  languishing  school  to  Lexington  where  it  was  hoped  that  the  literary  inclined 
gentlemen  of  that  thriving  metropolis  of  the  West  would  patronize  it.  The  school 
grew  slowly  under  the  preceptorships  of  Mr.  Isaac  Wilson  and  later  under  Rev.  James 
Moore,  a  Presbyterian.  In  1793  the  Transylvania  Land  Company,  under  the  leader- 
ship of  John  Bradford,  editor  of  the  Kentucky  Gazette,  gave  a  lot  and  a  building  to 
the  institution  on  condition  of  its  permanent  location  in  Lexington. 

The  progress  of  Transylvania  at  Lexington  was  slow,  but  satisfactory.  Before  the 
turn  of  the  century,  however,  other  demominations  growing  strong  in  Kentucky,  there 
was  some  opposition  to  the  Presbyterian  controlled  board.  People  were  very  sensitive 
concerning  doctrinal  matters  at  that  time,  being  certain  that  no  space  existed  in  Heaven 
for  those  who  did  not  follow  the  beliefs  of  their  peculiar  sect.  Some  of  the  Presbyterian 
members  of  the  board  retired.  They  were  satisfied  with  the  school  and  were  willing  to 
patronize  it  as  long  as  it  conformed  to  their  ideals  of  what  such  a  school  should  be, 
but  when  its  religious  tone  or  teaching,  by  reason  of  other  control,  became  what  they 
considered  dangerous,  they  simply  withdrew  their  patronage  and  established  one  that 
better  suited  their  ideas  and  aims,  one  of  which  was  to  prepare  suitable  ministers  for 
the  church." 

With  a  change  in  the  personnel  of  the  board  the  Rev.  James  Moore  for  some  reason 
became  unsatisfactory  and  retired.  In  1794  the  Rev.  Harry  Toulmin,  a  prominent 
Baptist  minister  recently  come  from  Virginia,  was  elected  as  master.  Unfortunately  for 
him  Mr.  Toulmin,  a  very  able  man  indeed,  he  had  been  a  friend  of  Thomas  Jefferson, 
"which  was  not  in  his  favor,  especially  in  the  eyes  of  the  Presbyterians,  as  on  that 
account  he  was  supposed  to  be  tinctured  with  French  philosophy,  or  infidelity,  as  they 
considered  it."29 

To  have  been  a  friend  of  Jefferson  was  bad  enough  but  to  have  been  a  Baptist  at 
the  same  time  was  more  than  some  of  the  pious  brethren  could  endure.  There  was  a 
move,  therefore,  on  the  part  of  "Father"  Rice,  Judge  Wallace,  and  other  prominent 
Presbyterians  to  establish  another  school  more  to  their  denominational  tastes.  Kentucky 
Academy  was  consequently  granted  a  charter,  December  12,  1794.  It  is  interesting  to 
note  that  in  seeking  funds  for  the  new  school,  the  trustees  sent  the  Rev.  David  Rice 
and  Rev.  James  Blythe  to  the  East  to  solicit  among  prominent  men  there.  They  suc- 
ceeded in  obtaining  $10,000.  Among  the  contributors  were  George  Washington,  who 
is  said  to  have  inquired  very  carefully  in  regard  to  the  state  of  learning  and  literature 
in  the  West,  as  Kentucky  was  then  called,0  John  Adams,  and  Aaron  Burr,  who  was 
unusually  interested  in  education.  Many  friends  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  contributed 
books  as  well  as  money.  The  new  school  was  located  at  Pisgah,  seven  miles  southwest 
of  Lexington,  near  the  home  of  Judge  Wallace.  The  Kentucky  Academy  got  off  to  a 
good  start.  However,  it  was  short-lived,  because  in  1796  Mr.  Toulmin  voluntarily 
withdrew  from  the  headship  of  Transylvania  Seminary.  With  the  obnoxious  Mr.  Toul- 
min, later  Secretary  of  State  under  Governor  Garrard,  out  the  Presbyterian  trustees  of 
Kentucky  Academy  saw  no  reason  why  the  two  schools,  Transylvania  and  Kentucky 
Academy,  should  not  be  united.  Accordingly,  on  December  22,  1798,  an  act  was 
passed  by  the  Legislature  providing  for  the  consolidation  of  the  two  schools  into  a 
university,  Transylvania  University.  And  on  January  1,  1799,  with  the  Rev.  James 
Moore  as  first  president,  Transylvania  University  was  born,  an  institution  worth  from 
$40,000  to  $179,000.  The  University  was  established,  "contemplating,"  as  the  preamble 
to  the  bill  stated,  "the  many  singular  advantages  to  be  derived  to  this  remote  country 
from    promoting   therein   a   university   well-endowed   and   properly   conducted,   more   es- 


pecially  as  by  this  measure  many  of  our  youths  can  be  prevented  from  going  into  other 
countries  to  complete  their  education,  where  they  must  greatly  exhaust  their  fortunes, 
and  from  whence  they  may  probably  return  with  corrupted  principles  and  morals  to  be 
the  pests  and  not  the  ornaments  of  the  community." 

As  trustees,  the  Legislature  selected  a  number  of  the  state's  most  prominent  men, 
among  whom  were  Judge  Wallace,  John  Bradford,  George  Nichols,  one  of  the  out- 
standing lawyers  of  the  entire  nation,  and  James  Garrard,  later  Governor  of  Kentucky. 
And  among  the  faculty  members  were  Rev.  James  Blythe  and  Rev.  Robert  Stuart,  of 
the  academic  department;  George  Nicholas,  of  the  department  of  law;  and  Drs.  Samuel 
Brown  and  Frederick  Ridgely,  of  the  department  of  medicine.  Later  at  various  times 
Henry  Clay,  James  Munroe,  John  Pope,  and  John  Breckinridge  lectured  in  the  depart- 
ment of  law.  Thus  from  the  initial  years  able  and  prominent  men  were  associated  with 
Transylvania  University. 

This  institution  developed  rather  rapidly,  reaching  between  1817  and  1828  a  plane 
of  brilliancy  seldom  reached  by  any  university  at  any  time  and  perhaps,  considering 
the  time,  higher  than  any  state  university  has  ever  reached. 

This  position  of  eminence  blossomed  into  effulgence  under  the  brilliant  leadership 
of  Dr.  Horace  Holley  who  came  to  the  presidency  in  November,  1818.  "The  new 
president  aimed  to  make  of  Transylvania  a  genuine  University.  Complete  in  every 
college  and  liberally  endowed.  He  was  in  many  ways  admirably  fitted  for  the  under- 
taking. Having  graduated  at  Yale  in  the  class  of  1763,  when  about  22  years  of  age, 
he  had,  after  studying  law  for  a  while  in  New  York  and  then  abandoning  it  for  the 
ministry,  pursued  the  study  of  theology  under  Dr.  Dwight  in  New  Haven,  when  he 
had  become  a  Unitarian,  not  under  his  preceptor,  but  from  his  personal  conviction. 
Since  1809,  he  had  been  the  pastor  of  the  Hollis  Street  Unitarian  Church  of  Boston, 
Massachusetts,  where  he  was  greatly  beloved  and  admired.  He  was  a  man  of  en- 
gaging manners  and  of  great  personal  magnetism.  Besides,  his  learning  was  very  wide 
and  his  eloquence  so  stirring  as  to  cause  a  staid  New  England  audience  to  burst  into 
noisy  applause  on  the  occasion  of  his  delivering  a  sermon  before  the  Ancient  and 
Honorable  Artillery  Company  of  Boston.  In  Lexington  he  entertained  freely  patrons 
of  learning  and  distinguished  strangers,  and  captivating,  as  he  did,  all  who  came  near 
him,  was  calculated  to  interest  them  in  the  welfare  of  the  university.  This  he  did  in 
a  very  successful  way  in  the  case  of  the  State  Legislature  and  of  such  public-spirited 
citizens  as  Col.  James  Morrison,  Henry  Clay,  and  others."32 

Circumstances  were  highly  favorable  at  that  time  for  the  pursuit  of  Dr.  Holley's  aims. 
The  state  had  recently  emerged  from  the  War  of  1812  with  everlasting  glory  to  herself, 
and  Indian  troubles  for  her  were  extinguished.  The  people  were  disposed  to  look  upon 
education  more  favorably  and  the  Legislature  once  more  took  a  lively  interest  in  the 
University.  The  names  of  the  members  of  the  board  of  trustees,  the  chairman  of  which 
was  the  celebrated  Robert  Wickliffe,  were  so  prominent  that  they  seem  to  have  been 
taken  from  the  pages  of  history.  These  men  for  the  time  being  were  unusually  friendly 
to  Dr.  Holley,  and,  being  as  influential  as  they  were,  had  little  difficulty  in  influencing 
legislative  aid. 

Reading  the  roster  of  names  of  Transylvania's  faculty  during  Dr.  Holley's  administra- 
tion is  like  perusing  a  directory  of  the  empyream,  so  distinguished  was  it.  Among  the 
names  were:  John  Roche,  master  of  languages;  Constantine  S.  Rafinesque,  eminent 
instructor  of  natural  history;  B.  O.  Peers,  tutor  and  great  friend  of  popular  education; 
William  T.  Barry  and  Judge  Jesse  Bledsoe,  instructors  in  law;  Dr.  Charles  Caldwell, 
Dr.  B.  W.  Dudley,  Dr.  Samuel  Brown,  Dr.  Daniel  Drake,  Dr.  James  Blythe,  all  of 
the  medical  department. 


Professor  Constantine  S.  Rafinesque  was  probably,  at  that  time,  the  most  eminent 
scientist  in  America.  The  names  Drake  and  Dudley  are  still  household  names  in  the 
medical  profession.  Both  were  regarded  as  among  the  outstanding  men  of  medicine 
not  only  in  America  but  Europe  as  well.  Barry  and  Bledsoe,  both  eminent  lawyers, 
achieved  places  in  public  life  acclaimed  not  only  by  the  state  but  by  the  nation  as 

"Dr.  Drake  tells  us,  in  speaking  of  this  faculty  .  .  .  *that  they  were  men  of  brilliant 
talents  and  wide  reputation,  and  collectively  constituted  a  greater  array  of  strength  and 
brilliancy  than  was  scarcely  ever  collected  in  any  institution  at  one  time'."J 

During  Dr.  Holley's  presidency  the  library  increased  from  1,300  volumes  to  about 
6,500,  among  which  were  some  of  the  priceless  books  of  Europe.  Furthermore,  the 
enrollment  was  astonishing  for  the  time.  In  March,  1821,  Transylvania  had  282 
students;  while  Yale  had  319,  Harvard  286,  and  Princeton  150. 

Dr.  Holley's  administration  lived  through  the  era  of  "good  feeling"  in  the  nation — 
that  time  when  there  was  peace  at  home  and  abroad,  great  expansion,  prosperity, 
spiritual  growth  and  happiness.  Kentucky's  rich  lands  were  producing  lavish  wealth 
and  the  Ohio  River  trade  was  increasing  spectacularly.  Her  people,  feeling  that  they 
had  won  the  War  of  1812.  were  proud,  confident,  able  and  contented.  Magnificent 
mansions,  the  pride  of  the  Old  South,  were  being  erected,  and  beautiful  nature — the 
fine  blue  grass  and  stately  oaks — enhanced  their  charm.  A  degree  of  opulence  had 
come  which  permitted  leisure  for  study  and  the  pursuit  of  the  social  graces;  a  gallant, 
courtly,  handsome  gentry  and  a  class  of  womankind  lovely,  charming,  and  gracious  arose 
to  make  Kentucky  Blue  Grass  society  the  most  charming,  the  most  hospitable,  the. 
most  fascinating  in  the  West.  Truly,  Lexington  was  both  the  Athens  and  the  Versailles 
of  the  West.34 

At  the  very  zenith  of  this  era  of  good  feeling  the  aging  hero  General  LaFayette 
visited  Kentucky.  The  occasion  was  an  epoch-making  time  for  the  people  of  the  state; 
they  could  show  to  the  world  their  attractiveness  and  hospitality — and  they  did.  Amid 
pageantry — music,  flags,  soldiers,  flowers,  beauty,  gallantry,  dazzling  splendor,  the  old 
hero  of  the  Revolution  entered  Lexington,  on  a  bright  May  day,  1825. 

By  1825,  in  spite  of  the  brilliancy  of  Dr.  Holley's  administration,  bickerings  could 
be  heard  against  him,  particularly  among  the  Presbyterians,  who,  in  fact,  had  opposed 
him  throughout.  He  was  a  Unitarian  and  a  free-thinker  and  rash  enough  to  proclaim 
his  beliefs.  His  ideas  of  living  were  rather  free,  too.  Doubtless,  though,  had  he  been 
quieter  before  students  and  townspeople,  he  could  have  avoided  trouble.  He  did  not, 
however,  and  lost  his  position. 

The  story  of  the  vicissitudes  of  the  noble  old  institution  in  the  years  following  the 
golden  era  of  Holley  is  quoted  from  Mr.  Hamlett.    It  follows: 

The  Rev.  Alva  Woods,  D.D.,  was  president  from  1828  to  1831,  when  he  resigned 
to  become  the  first  President  of  the  University  of  Alabama.  During  his  term  the 
City  of  Lexington  donated  over  ten  thousand  dollars  to  meet  expenses  of  the  school. 
On  May  9,  1829,  occurred  the  loss  by  fire  of  the  central  hall,  built  during  the  pre- 
ceding administration.  John  Lutz,  A.M.,  was  at  the  head  of  the  University  from 
1831  to  1833. 

"From  1833  to  1834,  the  Rev.  Benjamin  O.  Peers  was  president.  On  November  4, 
1833,  a  new  building,  the  present  Morrison  College,  was  dedicated.  This  was  built 
from  funds  from  the  bequest  of  James  Morrison,  a  wealthy  landowner  and  a  trustee 
of  the  University.  This  hall  was  located  about  two  hundred  yards  north  of  the  old 
college  row,  upon  an  eminence  in  the  centre  of  an  additional  campus  of  fourteen  acres 
adjoining  the  smaller  one. 


"The  next  administrations  were  those  of  Rev.  Thomas  W.  Colt,  D.D.,  1835  to  1837; 
of  Rev.  Louis  Marshall,  D.D.,  1838  to  1840;  and  of  Rev.  Robert  Davidson,  D.D.,  1840 
to  1842.  In  1841,  the  trustees  committed  the  academic  department,  then  known  as 
Morrison  College,  to  the  Kentucky  Conference  of  the  Methodist  Church.  Under  its 
auspices  the  Rev.  Henry  B.  Bascom,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  held  the  presidency  from  1842  to 
1849.  He,  like  Holley,  was  a  man  of  great  natural  power;  but,  unlike  Holley,  he 
enjoyed  none  of  the  advantages  of  collegiate  training.  He  was,  however,  in  all  his 
youthful  wanderings  as  a  circuit  rider  a  hard  student  and  his  own  severe  master.  An 
orator  and  a  natural  leader  of  men,  he  had  attracted  the  notice  of  Henry  Clay,  through 
whose  commendation  Bascom  was,  in  1823,  made  Chaplain  of  the  House  of  Represen- 
tatives at  Washington.  A  second  era  of  great  growth  began  for  the  University;  in 
1843,  five  hundred  and  fifty-two  students  were  in  attendance,  a  revival  of  influence 
which  continued  after  Bascom's  resignation  in  1849,  to  become  later  a  bishop  of  his 

"James  B.  Dodd,  A.M.,  was  acting-president  until  the  academic  department  was 
reorganized  in  1856,  under  the  presidency  of  the  Rev.  Lewis  W.  Green,  D.D.,  as  a 
State  school  for  teachers.  At  the  close  of  his  administration  in  1858,  the  University, 
owing  to  the  unrest  of  the  years  of  the  Civil  War,  became  almost  dormant.  Only 
small  classes  were  in  attendance  in  Morrison  College,  chiefly  in  the  Law  Department. 
During  the  height  of  the  war,  the  buildings  were  seized  by  the  Federal  Government  as 
military  hospitals:  'groans  of  wounded  and  dying  filled  the  classic  halls  which  had  sa 
often  echoed  to  the  logic  of  Holley,  the  fire  of  Bascom,  or  the  eloquence  of  Clay.' 

"During  the  seventy-five  years  of  old  Transylvania's  existence,  thousands  of  students 
from  all  over  the  South  had  been  in  attendance  and  about  two  thousand  degrees  had 
been  granted  in  Arts,  Medicine  and  Law.  The  Medical  Department  alone  had  registered 
six  thousand,  four  hundred  and  six  pupils,  and  had  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
fifty-four  graduates. 

"On  February  28,  1865,  through  the  efforts  of  John  B.  Bowman,  LL.D.,  Transylvania 
University  was  consolidated  with  Kentucky  University,  then  located  at  Harrodsburg 
under  the  patronage  of  the  Disciples  of  Christ. 

"Kentucky  University  had  grown  out  of  Bacon  College,  the  earliest  literary  insti- 
tution of  its  grade  among  the  Disciples  of  Christ,  which  had  been  established  in 
Georgetown,  Kentucky,  in  1836.  The  college  was  removed  to  Harrodsburg  in  1839, 
where  it  was  conducted  until  insufficient  means  led  to  its  suspension  in  1850. 

"In  the  winter  of  1855-56,  Major  James  Taylor  and  Mr.  John  B.  Bowman,  both  of 
Mercer  County,  entered  on  the  work  of  founding  a  university  which  should  be  the 
successor  of  Bacon  College.  Mr.  Bowman's  appeals  for  financial  aid  were  successful 
beyond  expectation,  and  the  preparatory  department  was  opened  in  1857.  An  amended 
charter,  approved  January  15,  1858,  in  which  the  provisions  of  the  first  charter  were 
greatly  extended  and  the  name  of  the  institution  changed  to  Kentucky  University  was 
accepted  by  the  trustees  of  Bacon  College,  February  2,  1858.  The  collegiate  department 
was  opened  under  the  presidency  of  Robert  Milligan,  A.M.,  September,  1859.  The 
destruction  of  the  college  building  by  fire  in  1864,  necessitated  the  removal  of  the  in- 
stitution from  Harrodsburg.  After  invitations  from  Louisville  and  Covington  had 
been  considered,  an  offer  of  the  property  of  Transylvania  University  that  had  been 
made  and  declined  in  1860,  and  that  was  now  renewed,  was  accepted. 

"The  first  session  of  Kentucky-Transylvania  University  began  in  Lexington,  October 
2,  1865.  To  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts  and  the  Academy,  which  had  been  conducted 
at  Harrodsburg,  the  College  of  the  Bible  was  added  and  the  College  of  Law  was 
resumed.     The  office   of   regent   of   the   University  was  created  July   17,    1865.     John 


B.  Bowman,  LL.D.,  the  founder  of  Kentucky  University,  was  elected  regent,  which 
office  he  held  until  June,  1878.  During  his  administration,  in  1865,  the  Agricultural 
and  Mechanical  College  of  Kentucky  was  affiliated  with  the  University.  This  ar- 
rangement proved  unsatisfactory,  and  was  discontinued  in  1878. 

"In  this  year  also  the  last  session  of  the  College  of  the  Bible  under  the  charter  of 
Kentucky  University  closed,  and  the  new  College  of  the  Bible,  which  had  been 
established  in  1877,  took  its  place.  Since  then  this  college,  organized  under  its  own 
charter,   is  in  administration   and   control   entirely   independent  of   the   Transylvania. 

"The  office  of  regent  was  discontinued  June  12,  1878,  at  which  time  Henry  H. 
White,  LL.D.,  was  elected  president  of  the  University.  He  filled  this  office  until,  on 
his  resignation  in  1880,  Charles  Louis  Loos,  LL.D.,  was  elected  to  succeed  him.  In  his 
administration,  in  1887,  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts  and  the  Academy  were  opened  to 
women.    The  department  of  physical  culture  was  opened  in  1894. 

"The  presidency  of  the  University  having  again  become  vacant  by  resignation, 
Reuben  Lindsay  Cave,  A.M.,  was,  in  the  summer  of  1897,  elected  to  succeed  President 

"The  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  opening  of  Transylvania  University  was  com- 
memorated in  Morrison  Chapel  on  the  evening  of  January  1,  1899.  The  Governor 
of  the  Commonwealth  was  present,  and  the  parts  of  an  appropriate  program  were 
borne  by  gentlemen  at  the  head  of  sister  institutions  of  learning  and  by  prominent 

"On  the  resignation  of  President  Cave,  in  February,  1900,  Alexander  R.  Milligan, 
A.M.,  served  as  acting-president  until  June,  1901,  when  Burris  A.  Jenkins,  A.M.,  B.D., 
was  elected  president  of  the  University. 

"At  the  annual  commencement  in  June,  1905,  the  fortieth  anniversary  of  the 
removal  of  Kentucky  University  to  Lexington  and  its  consolidation  with  Transylvania 
University  was  celebrated  with  a  great  reunion  of  alumni.  Wednesday,  June  14, 
was  devoted  to  anniversary  exercises. 

"In  October,  1906,  ill-health,  which  had  been  increasingly  recurrent  for  more  than 
a  year,  forced  President  Jenkins  to  lay  down  the  duties  of  office.  Thomas  Benton 
Macartney,  Jr.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  Dean  of  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts,  was  forthwith 
elected  acting-president  of   the   University,   which   office   he   held   until   October,    1908. 

"By  an  act  of  Legislature,  approved  March  20,  1908,  and  effective  on  June  12  of 
that  year,  the  charter  of  that  University  was  so  amended  as  to  confer  upon  the  Cura- 
tors of  Kentucky  University  all  the  rights  and  privileges  of  the  Trustees  of  old  Tran- 
sylvania University;  the  requirement  as  to  particular  church  affiliations  of  the  members 
of  the  Board  was  annulled  and  the  name  of  the  institution  was  changed  back  to 
Transylvania  University.  In  the  same  year  the  Medical  Department,  in  Louisville, 
and  the  Commercial  College,  in  Lexington,  were  discontinued.  The  College  of  Law 
was  suspended  in  June,  1912. 

"In  June,  1908,  Richard  Henry  Crossfield,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  was  elected  president  of 
the  University,  assuming  the  duties  of  office  October  22,  1908."'° 


Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  numerous  elementary  schools  and  academies  were 
established  during  the  pioneer  period  and  following,  a  vast  majority  of  the  children 
of  the  state  were  not  in  school  and  the  percentage  of  illiteracy  was  appalling.  The 
masses  of  the  people  in  the  rural  districts,  however,  were  apathetical  toward  education 
and  saw  no  reason  why  their  children  should  be  sent  to  school,  especially  as  long  as 
there  was  work  to  be  done  on  the  farm.     Many  of  the  true  friends  of  democracy  and 


learning,  viewing  the  situation  sorrowfully,  yet  hopefully,  set  about  to  make  possible 
the  education  of  a  larger  number  of  children.  This,  they  realized,  could  be  done  only 
by  making  education  cheaper  and  by  convincing  the  people  that  public  education  was 
worthwhile.  Massachusetts  had  furnished  a  model  system  of  public  education  and 
other  states  had  followed  her  lead.  Kentucky  leaders,  therefore,  were  not  obliged  to 
leap  in  the  dark.  Accordingly,  in  the  year  1821,  an  attempt  was  made  to  establish 
a  system  of  public  education.  That  year  the  state  Legislature  passed  an  act  providing 
that  one-half  of  the  clear  profits  realized  from  the  state's  Bank  of  the  Common- 
wealth was  to  be  set  aside  as  the  "Literary  Fund"  and  devoted  to  the  establishing 
of  a  public  school  system.  Most  of  the  members  of  the  Legislature  were  uncommonly 
interested.  The  time  appeared  to  be  auspicious.  Pursuant  to  this  act  a  committee  of 
able  men  was  appointed  to  devise  a  system  of  common  schools.  This  committee  corres- 
ponded with  John  Adams,  Thomas  Jefferson,  James  Madison,  and  Robert  Y.  Hayne, 
each  of  whom  expressed  their  faith  in  schools  and  suggested  a  plan  of  democratic 
education.  The  committee  reported  an  elaborate  and  ambitious  program.  Unfortu- 
nately, however,  the  Legislature  by  the  time  that  the  report  was  submitted  had  lost 
some  of  its  ardor  for  public  education.  Furthermore,  in  a  few  years  the  Bank  of 
the  Commonwealth  failed,  causing  a  school  fund  of  sixty  thousand  dollars  per  annum 
to  dwindle  to  practically  nothing.  Then  the  Legislature  inaugurated  the  policy  of 
making  the  school  fund  subservient  to  every  other  public  interest:  The  revenue  proper 
became  insufficient  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  state  government;  the  little  funds 
which  the  school  fund  retained  were  seized,  and  naturally  enough  this  attempt  to 
establish  a  general  system  of  education  ended  a  total  failure. "" 

After  this  system  of  education  had  languished  helplessly  for  a  number  of  years,  an 
opportunity  was  afforded  the  Legislature  to  make  a  third  attempt  to  establish  a  system 
of  common  schools.  This  opportunity  was  made  possible  by  a  large  gift  from  the 
Federal  Government.  As  early  as  1821  a  Kentucky  Legislature  had  passed  reso- 
lutions calling  upon  Congress  to  pass  a  law  allotting  to  Kentucky  her  equitable  portion 
of  the  public  domain,  the  return  from  which  was  to  be  devoted  to  public  education.  The 
appropriation  was  finally  made  by  an  act  passed  by  Congress  in  June  of  1836,  under 
which  act  Kentucky  received  the  sum  of  $1,433,757.  Unfortunately  an  act  of  the 
state  Legislature  passed  in  February,  1837,  providing  for  the  investment  of  the  fine 
gift  from  the  Federal  Government,  dedicated  only  $1,000,000  to  education,  thus  ignoring 
at  the  outset  the  pledge  to  devote  the  entire  gift  to  the  advancement  of  learning/' 

It  would  have  been  well  had  the  fund  remained  at  $1,000,000,  but  the  act  of  1837 
was  an  entering  wedge.  At  that  time  an  internal  improvement  program  was  the  most 
popular  function  on  the  legislative  mind,  a  costly  internal  improvement  program.  In 
that  mind  this  program  must  not  be  slighted,  no  matter  what  else  suffered.  By  an 
act  of  1838  the  school  fund  was  reduced  from  $1,000,000  to  $850,000.  However,  for 
the  sum  which  the  state  took  bonds  were  caused  to  be  issued  to  the  State  Board  of 
Education,  a  corporation  created  by  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly,  and  an  interest 
of  6 (/<  per  annum  was  authorized. 

The  most  important  feature  relating  to  educational  legislation  passed  during  the 
session  of  1838  was  the  general  law  establishing  a  system  of  common  schools,  a  law 
which  was  approved,  February  16,  1838.  The  most  important  provisions  of  this  law 
were:  (1)  The  entire  school  fund,  which  was  the  interest  on  $850,000,  amounting  to 
$42,500  annually,  was  to  be  distributed  among  the  counties  in  proportion  to  the 
number  of  children  reported  to  the  commissioner,  but  a  schoolhouse  had  to  be  erected 
and  a  school  tax  levied  in  the  district  before  a  school  was  entitled  to  its  proration. 
(2)    A  state  board  of  education,  consisting  of  the  attorney  general,  secretary  of  state, 


and  the  superintendent  of  public  instruction,  was  provided.  (3)  The  office  of  state 
superintendent  of  public  instruction,  the  superintendent  to  be  appointment  by  the 
governor  every  two  years  and  confirmed  by  the  senate,  was  established.  (4)  The 
counties  were  to  be  divided  into  school  districts,  no  district  to  contain  more  than  one 
hundred  pupils  nor  fewer  than  thirty  pupils.  (5)  The  people  of  each  district  were 
to  vote  as  to  whether  or  not  they  wanted  the  new  system.  (6)  Provision  was  made 
for  the  school  affairs  of  the  county  to  be  managed  by  five  commissioners  appointed  by 
the  state  superintendent  and  for  the  election  by  the  people  of  five  trustees  in  each 
district.  (7)  The  commissioners  and  district  trustees  were  empowered  to  examine 
teachers  and  grant  certificates  to  teach  in  the  common  schools.  (8)  "No  district  was 
entitled  to  any  part  of  the  state  fund  until  a  common  school  had  been  regularly 
organized,  a  schoolhouse  procured  at  the  expense  of  the  inhabitants  thereof,  and  a 
tax  levied  upon  the  inhabitants  thereof  sufficient,  when  added  to  the  state  fund,  to 
equal  the  expenses  of  the  school."  (9)  The  whole  number  of  white  children  over 
seven  and  under  seventeen  were  pupil  children.     (Hamlett,  pp.  11,12) . 

Scarcely  had  the  school  system  begun  to  function  even  feebly  before  the  Legisla- 
ture began  to  deny  the  State  Board  of  Education  the  funds  which  were  due  it  by 
every  law  of  ethics  known.  Here  was  a  state  with  thousands  of  illiterate  and  un- 
schooled people.  Here  was  a  state  which  had  been  given  $1,433,000  to  be  devoted  to 
education.  Here  was  a  state  that  had  launched  a  system  of  public  schools,  to  give 
educational  opportunities  to  the  countless  thousands  to  the  end  that  life  might  be 
abundant  and  democracy  might  live.  Here  was  a  state  whose  representatives  were 
rapidly  depriving  her  of  a  fund  which  had  been  consecrated  to  the  noblest  of  all 

Fortunately,  during  the  trying  infancy  of  public  education  in  Kentucky,  Dr.  Robert 
J.  Breckinridge,  in  1847,  became  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction.  Few  men  of 
the  nation,  if  a  single  one,  were  as  well  qualified  for  the  task  as  was  Dr.  Breckinridge. 
A  man  of  recognized  scholarship  in  both  America  and  Europe,  powerful  of  intellect, 
indomitable  in  courage,  eloquent  of  expression,  pleasing  mien  and  polished  manner, 
fascinating  in  conversation,  resourceful,  aggressive  and  confident,  this  unusual  man 
brought  all  the  powers  of  his  great  personality  to  play  in  an  heroic  fight  for  popular 
education  in  Kentucky.  "For  long  years  the  system  (of  general  instruction)  had  dragged 
along  heavily,  one  after  another  (superintendent)  accepting  reluctantly  the  herculean 
task  of  trying  to  bring  order  out  of  confusion,  only  to  become  discouraged  and  abandon 
the  task  to  some  one  else  who  could  be  found  willing  to  make  the  trial.""  But  Dr. 
Breckinridge,  after  a  hard  fight  which  continued  for  a  number  of  years,  succeeded 
where  others  had  failed.  Under  his  wizardous  guidance,  in  less  than  a  year  after 
his  accession  to  office,  Dr.  Breckinridge  had  been  instrumental  in  securing  a  bond 
from  the  state  for  the  arrears  of  interest  due  the  School  Board,  an  arrear  of  $308,- 
268.42  and  had  gone  before  a  people,  who  had  been  practically  dead  to  the  cry  of 
public  education,  with  a  plea  so  eloquent  and  compelling  that  by  a  large  majority  they 
voted,  in  1848,  a  general  property  tax  upon  themselves  of  two  cents  on  each  one 
hundred  dollars  of  property.  In  less  than  three  years'  time  under  Dr.  Breckinridge's 
vigorous  administration,  instead  of  the  170  public  schools  in  the  state  in  1847,  there 
were  3,704;  instead  of  20,000  school  children  reported  for  1847,  there  were  in  1850 
reported  by  the  counties  178,559.  But  the  most  dramatic  episode  in  the  educational 
career  of  this  great  superintendent  was  his  heroic  fight,  in  1850,  to  save  the  School 



In  1850  Governor  John  J.  Crittenden,  a  staunch  friend  of  public  education,  resigned 
the  governorship  to  accept  a  post  in  the  cabinet  of  President  Fillmore.  The  guber- 
natorial vacancy  was  filled  by  Lieutenant  Governor  John  L.  Helm.  At  that  time  the 
constitution  of  1850  was  going  into  effect.  Governor  Helm  thought  that  a  .section  of 
this  new  instrument  was  so  worded  as  to  relieve  the  Commissioners  of  the  Sinking 
Fund  from  further  responsibility  of  the  payment  of  interest  on  the  school  bonds.  In 
endeavoring  to  establish  his  contention,  the  Governor  devoted  more  than  half  of  his 
message  of  1850  to  the  General  Assembly  to  this  unusual  construction.  He  contended, 
among  other  suggestions,  that  under  the  constitution  it  was  the  Assembly's  duty  to 
make  provision  by  law  for  payment  of  the  interest  on  the  school  bonds.  He  denied 
that  the  intention  on  the  part  of  the  state  to  pay  the  principal  of  the  school  bonds 
had  ever  existed.  Governor  Helm  further  stated  that  the  Sinking  Fund  should  have 
no  connection  with  the  School  Fund  whatsoever.  "Let  each  look  to  and  rely  upon  its 
own  resources,"  he  said.  "The  general  education  of  the  people,"  he  had  stated  further, 
"is  an  object  of  very  high  importance  in  all  possible  conditions  of  human  society,  and 
is  absolutely  vital  in  free  states  .  .  .  Now,  more  than  ever,  we  must  consider  it  as  one 
of  the  settled  and  most  important  questions  of  public  policy  of  Kentucky,  to  bring 
the  blessings  of  education  within  the  reach  of  all  our  youth.'*  Yet  in  spite  of  this 
friendly  gesture  to  public  education,  one,  in  analizing  Governor  Helm's  message,  is 
impressed  with  the  idea  that  his  principal  purpose  was  not  to  help  education  but  to 
save  money  for  the  Sinking  Fund,  so  that  the  indebtedness  from  public  improvements 
could  be  paid  quickly.  Desiring  to  rid  the  state  of  indebtedness,  the  Governor 
naturally  wished  to  be  relieved  of  the  indebtedness  of  $1,400,000.01  to  the  Board  of 
Education,  although  each  would  mean  leaving  the  schools  to  the  generosity  of  the 
General  Assembly  or  leaving  them  to  look  out  for  themselves  as  best  they  could. 
But — a  fact  that  had  not  been  mentioned — the  state  was  honor-bound  to  repay  the 
money  which  she  had  arbitrarily  borrowed  from  the  School  Fund;  that  solemn  obligation 
hovered  about  the  state  government  like  the  ghost  of  Banquo,  giving  it  no  rest.  When 
it  appeared  that  the  state  would  repudiate  finally  her  sacred  obligation,  when  it  seemed 
that  public  education  in  Kentucky  was  doomed,  Robert  J.  Breckinridge,  stirred  to 
indignation  by  outraged  honor,  like  a  crusader  of  old  thrilled  by  the  prospect  of  battle 
in  a  holy  cause,  rose  to  the  defense  of  waning  education,  and  with  all  his  enthusiasm, 
with  all  his  great  powers  of  intellect,  with  all  the  force  of  his  masterful  personality, 
prepared  for  battle. 

The  scene  of  Dr.  Breckinridge's  great  fight  to  save  the  school  fund  was  the  chamber 
of  the  House  of  Representatives.  This  hall  is  in  the  Old  Capitol  at  Frankfort,  and 
is  now  used  as  a  museum  by  the  State  Historical  Society.  The  time  was  the  evening 
of  December  10,  1850.  Dr.  Breckinridge  had  been  invited  by  the  two  houses  to 
speak  on  the  condition  of  education  in  Kentucky. 


He  was  tall,  perhaps  six  feet,  and  slender.  His  complexion  was  rather  fair;  grayish 
blue  eyes  and  reddish  brown  hair.  His  general  demeanor  suggested  culture,  refine- 
ment, and  scholarship;  his  voice  was  soft  and  resonant,  having  rare  range,  and  was 
strangely  compelling;  it  was  perhaps  a  high  baritone.  His  mood  in  speaking  was 
usually  serious,  humor  only  now  and  then  appearing;  yet  he  often  became  thoroughly 
aroused,  at  which  times  he  was  likely  to  be  impulsive;  there  was  a  compelling  con- 
ciseness, simplicity,  and  logic  about  his  diction,  which,  although  at  times  trenchant, 
was   usually   beautiful  and  eloquent.    The   qualities  which  he  was   able   to   bring   forth 


in  debate  were  often  overwhelming,  so  overwhelming  indeed  that  he  was  often 
characterized  as  truculent.  As  Dr.  Breckinridge  had  had  the  honor  many  times  of 
having  engaged  in  public  debate  with  a  few  of  the  most  famous  controversialists  of 
both  the  United  States  and  Europe,  he  was  not  lacking,  as  one  can  easily  imagine, 
in  self-control  and  confidence  upon  this  occasion.  Being  a  minister,  he  wore  sombre 
ministerial  clothes.  He  was  usually  very  neat  and  tastefully,  yet  not  conspicuously, 
dressed.  His  general  personality  was  such  that  he  was  fascinating  to  most  people, 
particularly  women.  On  the  present  occasion,  the  Doctor  was  stirred  to  indignation 
by  the  aspect  of  a  public  school  system  threatened  with  ruin,  a  public  school  system 
which  if  destroyed  would  leave  the  youth  of  the  state  without  the  hope  of  enlighten- 
ment— all  because,  he  thought,  political  leaders,  blind  to  plighted  honor,  were  selfishly 
bent  upon  enhancing  their  own  political  fortunes,  with  little  regard  for  the  welfare 
of  future  generations. 

The  high  point  of  the  scene  came  at  a  point  in  Dr.  Breckinridge's  speech  which  was 
delivered  on  Tuesday  evening,  December  10,  1850,  before  the  General  Assembly. 
There  were  approximately  a  hundred  legislators  present,  beside  numerous  spectators, 
men  and  women,  who  filled  every  available  seat  in  the  main  hall  and  in  the  balcony 
behind  and  above.  Dr.  Breckinridge  stood  in  front  of  the  speaker's  desk;  he  was 
straight,  dignified,  and  impressive.  On  the  wall  directly  behind  the  speaker's  desk 
hung  two  large  portraits:  that  of  Washington  on  the  right;  that  of  Daniel  Boone  on 
the  left.  A  clerk  sat  at  a  small  table  immediately  in  front  of  and  to  the  right  of  the 
speaker's  desk.  George  W.  Johnston,  of  Shelby  County,  was  the  Speaker.  Among 
the  well-known  personages  of  the  General  Assembly  (House  and  Senate)  were: 
Joseph  H.  Lewis,  George  W.  Williams,  Samuel  Hanson,  Lucius  Desha,  Norvis  Green, 
Alexander  Churchill,  Samuel  Geiger,  William  Preston,  Thomas  Todd,  James  P.  Met- 
calfe, Col.  Richard  M.  Johnson,  Hiram  McElroy,  Thomas  S.  Grundy,  Caleb  B. 
Wallace,  Robert  A.  Patterson,  Benjamin  Edwards  Grey,  Hamilton  Pope,  Camden 
Ballard,  William  C.  Bullock,  Thomas  P.  Linthicum,  James  P.  Barbour,  Beriah 
Magoffin  and  John  P.  Bruce. 

The  Frankfort  Commonwealth,  December  17,  1850,  made  the  following  comment 
upon  Dr.  Breckinridge's  address:  "The  great  power  of  the  speaker  was  shown  not  only 
in  the  manner  in  which  he  treated  his  subject,  but  in  holding,  as  he  did,  the  profound 
attention  of  a  very  large  audience  for  two  hours  and  a  half — a  speech,  which  could 
only  be  properly  appreciated  by  those  who  heard  it;  and  which,  considered  merely  as 
an  effort  of  human  intellect  and  eloquence,  was  such  as  has  seldom  fallen  upon  our 



"It  would  be  impossible,  on  an  occasion  like  the  present,  to  attempt  any  reply  to 
the  various  arguments  that  have  been  brought  forward,  and  which  able  and  ingenius 
men  may  easily  multiply,  upon  this,  as  upon  every  other  subject — to  favor  views 
opposite  to  those  here  stated.  I  the  more  readily  omit  any  such  attempt — not  only  be- 
cause I  have  much  reason  to  believe  that  the  interpretation  I  have  given  will  turn  out 
to  be  in  full  accordance  with  the  sense  of  the  convention  which  made  the  constitution 
— many  of  whose  members  are  now  in  the  two  houses  of  the  general  assembly — as  I  feel 
satisfied  it  is  the  necessary  sense  of  the  language  they  have  used;  but  also  because  I 
have  very  lately  had  the  honor  of  going  over  the  whole  ground,  first,  before  a  joint 
meeting  of  the  two  legislative  committees  on  education,  and,  secondly,  before  the 
legislature  itself.  I  cannot,  however,  wholly  omit  to  notice  one  topic  which  has 
occasioned  me  great  surprise.  It  is  alleged  that  the  bonds  of  the  state,  held  by  the  board 
of  education,   are  not — in   any  proper  sense — much   less  in  any  constitutional  sense,  a 


state  debt,  or  any  part  of  that  state  debt,  and,  for  that  reason,  are  not  chargeable  on 
the  sinking  fund.  For  myself,  I  cannot  tell  what  language  means,  what  facts  signify, 
or  what  it  is  men  intend  by  public  faith,  or  by  the  obligations  of  law  and  equity,  truth 
and  honor — if  these  bonds  do  not  constitute,  in  the  clearest,  fullest,  and  most  complete 
sense,  a  public  debt.  There  they  are.  Executed,  one  after  another,  by  authority  of 
law.  Signed,  all  of  them,  by  successive  chief  magistrates  of  the  state.  All  of  them 
recognized  in  act  after  act,  by  many  legislatures,  as  bonds  of  the  state  of  Kentucky; 
and  finally  by  an  act  of  absolute  sovereignty,  recorded  upon  the  face  of  her  constitution 
— as  debts  which  her  plighted  faith,  her  stainless  honor,  and  her  most  enduring  interests 
not  only  require  her  to  pay,  but  having  paid,  to  manage  as  a  sacred  trust,  as  long  as 
her  everlasting  mountains  stand  unmoved,  and  her  broad  plains  nourish  patriots.  If 
we  consider  the  origin  of  this  fund,  the  debt  is  thereby  rendered  only  the  more  im- 
pressive in  its  vast  obligation.  It  was  a  gift  from  a  great  nation  to  a  generous  state; 
a  gift  accepted  only  to  be  used  for  noble  ends,  and  with  a  high  instinct,  consecrated  to 
the  noblest  of  them  all.  So  to  that  very  end — how  does  it  magnify  and  enlarge  the 
obligation — to  pay  the  debt,  if  it  should  cost  our  very  last  farthing;  the  glory  of  our 
race — the  hopes  of  our  children — the  destiny  of  all  who  are  to  follow  us!  Nay,  if  we 
go  behind  the  bonds,  and  beside  all  collateral  consideration  of  their  validity — there  is 
one  single  and  conclusive  fact,  final  both  against  the  state  and  the  sinking  fund.  The 
sinking  fund  was  created,  by  law,  to  pay,  first,  the  interest  and  then  the  principal  of 
the  internal  improvement  debt  of  the  state.  The  money  represented  by  every  dollar  of 
state  bonds  held  by  the  board  of  education  went  into  the  internal  improvement  system; 
for  the  whole  of  these  bonds  represent  the  original  sum  dedicated,  and  the  larger 
portion  of  its  accruing  interest,  since  its  dedication.  These  bonds  are,  therefore,  in 
every  equitable  view  of  them,  a  portion  of  the  specific  debt  which  the  sinking  fund  was 
originally  created  to  discharge;  and  would  be  entitled  to  be  placed  on  that  fund  upon 
principles  of  general  equity,  independently  of  any  specific  provision  of  the  new  consti- 
tution— and  were  so  placed,  upon  those  principles,  as  I  have  clearly  shown — before  the 
act  of  March  1,  1850,  and  before  the  new  constitution  existed.  It  would  require  a  very 
clear  declaration  of  that  instrument,  under  such  circumstances,  to  disallow  a  state  debt 
of  this  description;  and  to  do  it,  in  the  face  of  contrary  provisions,  clearly  recognizing 
it,  would  be  an  act  which  I  will  forbear  to  characterize,  and  one  which  I  do  not  believe 
the  state  of  Kentucky  will  ever  perpetrate."40 

A  short  time  following  Dr.  Breckinridge's  address,  a  bill  was  introduced  into  the 
Senate  by  Br.  Beriah  Magoffin,  directing  the  Commissioners  of  the  Sinking  Fund  to 
pay,  out  of  any  moneys  in  their  hands,  the  amount  of  interest  due  the  common  school 
fund.  This  bill  passed  both  houses  but  was  vetoed  by  Governor  Helm.  It  then  repassed 
both  houses  by  28  to  6  and  64  to  26  majorities,  thereby  becoming  law,  and  Dr.  Breckin- 
ridge had  won  his  great  fight.  Free  common  school  education  now  was  assumed  in 

In  1849  a  constitutional  convention  met  in  Kentucky,  perhaps  the  most  important 
constitutional  convention  ever  held  in  the  state.  One  of  the  burning  questions  was 
public  education.  The  friends  of  the  denominational  schools  and  public  academies,  and 
the  politicians  who  wished  never  to  repay  the  school  fund — it  could  be  more  conveniently 
employed  for  things  more  political — were  determined  and  bitter  in  their  opposition  to 
free  public  education.  Yet  there  was  an  able  group  of  the  friends  of  public  education 
in  the  convention,  and  they  were  ably  directed  by  the  brilliant  state  superintendent  of 
public  instruction.  The  debate  which  issued  was  a  battle  of  giants.  Allied  with  the 
group  to  thwart  the  public  school  system  was  one  of  the  ablest  lawyers  of  the  state, 
an  exCongressman,  a  veteran  debater,  a  master  of  repartee,  sarcasm,  ridicule,  irony,  as 


well  as  of  eloquence,  Hon  Ben  Hardin,  of  Bardstown,  No  champion  of  the  common 
schools  was  as  well-known  as  the  aging  Hardin;  yet  the  friends  of  popular  education, 
feeling  that  their  cause  was  just  and  noble  and  right,  threw  themselves  into  the  battle 
with  all  their  might.  The  blows  struck  on  each  side  were  not  of  the  sewing  circle  variety, 
but  were  strong,  sometimes  bitter,  and  always  virile.  The  debate  on  education  began 
early  in  December,  1849,  after  the  reading  of  the  report  by  the  chairman  of  the  com- 
mittee on  education.  The  bill,  reported  sought  to  put  into  the  new  constitution  a  clause 
recognizing  the  legitimacy  of  the  state's  debt  to  the  State  Board  of  Education  and 
requiring  the  regular  annual  payment  of  interest  on  the  school  fund.  Mr.  Hardin  jumped 
to  the  floor  immediately  following  Mr.  Taylor's  report,  and  the  battle  was  on. 
The  education  section  of  the  constitution  of  1849  is  here  carried  in  full: 
"The  capital  of  the  fund  called  and  known  as  the  'Common  School  Fund,'  con- 
sisting of  $1,225,768.42,  for  which  bonds  have  been  executed  by  the  State  to  the  Board 
of  Education,  and  $73,500.00  of  stock  in  the  Bank  of  Kentucky;  also  the  sum  of 
$51,223.29,  balance  of  interest  on  the  school  fund  for  the  year  1848,  unexpended, 
together  with  any  sum  which  may  be  hereafter  raised  in  the  State  by  taxation  or 
otherwise  for  purposes  of  education,  shall  be  held  inviolate,  for  the  purpose  of  sus- 
taining a  system  of  common  schools.  The  interest  and  dividends  of  said  funds  together 
with  any  sum  may  be  produced  for  that  purpose  by  taxation  or  otherwise,  may  be 
appropriated  in  aid  of  common  schools,  but  for  no  other  purpose.  The  General 
Assembly  shall  invest  said  $51,223.29  in  some  safe  and  profitable  manner;  and  any  other 
portion  of  the  interest  and  dividends  of  said  school  fund,  or  other  money  or  property 
raised  for  school  purposes,  which  may  not  be  needed  in  sustaining  common  schools,  shall 
be  invested  in  like  manner.  The  General  Assembly  shall  make  provision,  by  law,  for  the 
payment  of  the  interest  of  said  school  fund:  Provided,  That  each  county  shall  be  entitled 
to  its  proportion  of  the  income  of  said  fund,  and  if  not  called  for,  for  common  school 
purposes,  it  shall  be  reinvested  from  time  to  time  for  the  benefit  of  such  county. 

"A  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  shall  be  elected  by  the  qualified  voters  of 
this  Commonwealth  at  the  same  time  the  Governor  is  elected,  who  shall  hold  his  office 
for  four  years;  and  his  duties  and  salary  shall  be  prescribed  and  fixed  by  law."4" 


The  condition  of  the  common  schools  in  1867  when  the  able  Superintendent  of  Public 
Instruction,  Zachariah  Frederick  Smith,  took  office  was  critical.  This  condition  had 
been  predicted  by  Robert  J.  Breckinridge  in  1850  as  a  result  of  a  lack  of  funds.  He 
had  stated  that  without  local  support  the  school  fund  would  be  able  to  keep  open  the 
schools  not  longer  than  six  weeks  during  the  year  even  though  in  1848  the  people  had 
voted  a  two-cent  property  tax.  Dr.  Breckinridge  asked  that  the  districts  make  greater 
efforts  at  cooperation.  It  should  be  noted  that  the  schools  established  during  his  ad- 
ministration were  not  free,  although  it  was  not  his  fault. 

Z.  F.  Smith  found  that  the  tax  of  five  cents  being  collected  at  the  beginning  of  his 
administration  was  producing  $185,000.  He  suggested  that  the  amount  should  be 
increased  to  the  unheard  of  sum  of  $740,000  annually.  This  amount  would  keep  open 
the  schools  for  five  months  during  the  year,  pay  the  teachers  from  $19  to  $25  per 
month;  it  would  actually  amount  to  $2.37  per  pupil  child!  But  this  stupendous  sum 
(as  it  was  regarded  by  the  public)  would  require  a  property  tax  of  twenty  cents!  Z.  F. 
Smith,  himself,  probably  thought  this  tax  high,  yet  when  he  considered  the  sad  plight 
of  the  school  system  he  was  emboldened.  He  declared,  "I  assumed  the  duties  of  my 
office  in  September  last,  under  the  prejudicial  conviction  of  the  popular  mind,  that  the 
Common    School    System    of   Kentucky,    no    longer   worthy   of   the   grave   consideration 


of  our  men  of  public  trust,  had  been  discarded  from  the  policies  of  State  legislation, 
and  abandoned  to  whatever  fate  fortune  might  hold  in  reserve  for  it.  This  popular 
conviction  was  the  logical  conclusion  of  the  treatment  it  had  received  at  the  hands  of 
those  who  should  have  felt  an  ever-abiding  obligation  to  sustain,  foster,  and  build  up 
so  vital  and  important  an  interest  to  the  people  of  the  state — the  legislators  of  the 
sessions  of  the  past  thirty  years.  Beyond  the  acts  for  local  and  personal  accommodation, 
in  which  the  Legislatures  inclined  to  be  prodigal,  but  little  attention  had  been  given  to 
the  wants  of  the  institution  (the  common  school  system) .  The  pro  rata  distribution 
of  funds  had  fallen  off  thirty-three  per  cent  .  .  .  the  vitality  and  efficiency  of  the 
administration  of  local  interests  of  the  system  were  becoming  continually  more  impaired. 
The  fatal  and  steady  processes  of  decay  were  .  .  .  painfully  evident  from  year  to 
year,  where  sagacious  and  conscientious  statesmanship  should  have  infused  life,  strength 
and  energy  in  the  only  measure  of  general  benefit  for  the  people  now  incorporated  in 
the  policy  of  our  State."4' 

The  grand  work  of  the  brilliant  Dr.  Breckinridge  was  being  permitted  to  fall  into 
decay.  Children  in  the  back  country  were  growing  up  in  ignorance;  they  ran  through 
the  forests  like  animals.  Ambitious  parents  were  leaving  Kentucky  that  their  children 
might  have  better  educational  opportunities.  And  in  vain  did  the  journals  of  the  state 
attempt  to  entice  foreigners  to  the  old  land  of  Daniel  Boone. 

Somehow  "Zack"  Smith,  masterful  man  that  he  was,  succeeded  against  the  most 
determined  opposition  in  getting  the  General  Assembly  to  adopt  most  of  his  program, 
and  the  people  ratified  it.  The  tax  was  increased  from  five  to  twenty  cents,  thus  in- 
creasing the  school  receipts  from  $185,000  in  1867  to  $968,176.80  in  1871.  Districts 
were  consolidated;  teachers  were  better  paid;  the  school  term  was  increased  from  a  few 
weeks  each  year  to  five  months;  something  was  done  toward  uniform  textbook  adoption. 
And  began  a  new  public  school  system — a  free  public  school  system. 

Z.  F.  Smith's  comprehensive  work  infused  new  life  into  the  educational  development 
of  Kentucky.  Great  improvement  was  quickly  realized.  The  increase  of  funds  did 
wonders,  and  for  a  number  of  years  all  seemed  well  with  the  common  schools. 

Yet,  great  as  was  the  reformation  brought  about  by  Mr.  Smith,  all  of  the  abuses 
were  not  eradicated,  and  so  by  1887,  the  year  of  the  beginning  of  Ed  Porter  Thompson's 
administration,  the  public  school  system,  although  receiving  about  $2,000,000  annually, 
was  failing  to  achieve  the  expected  results.  Mr.  Thompson  struck  at  the  heart  of  the 
difficulty  when  he  indicted  persons  of  the  districts  in  charge  of  the  school  administration, 
the  trustees  for  failing  to  do  their  duty.  He  stated:  "Instead  of  considering  the  school 
money  as  a  donation  made  by  the  state  to  her  pupil  children,  to  be  devoted  to  the 
express  purpose  of  educating  them,  it  seems  to  be  regarded,  in  many  instances,  as  a 
kind  of  bonus  to  the  district,  to  which  some  kinsman  or  other  favorite  has  more  claim 
than  the  children  to  whom  it  is  meant  to  furnish  the  key  to  the  temple  of  knowledge. 
.  .  .  The  fact  that  it  is  a  sacred  trust  is  lost  sight  of.  Its  power  to  give  the  poor,  as 
well  as  the  rich,  a  priceless  boon,  receives  no  consideration."  Mr.  Thompson  stated  that 
some  applicants  for  schools,  with  no  thought  of  fitness,  actually  go  to  the  polls  and 
work  for  the  election  of  the  trustee  who  has  promised  to  give  him  or  her  the  school; 
that  there  is  constant  dissatisfaction,  strife,  and  dissention  in  hundreds  of  communities. 

Mr.  Thompson,  aside  from  advocating  a  change  in  the  district  and  trustee  system 
advocated  a  longer  school  term,  and  especially  the  transferring  of  the  power  of  appointing 
teachers  from  the  district  trustee  to  a  county  board.  But  Ed  Porter  Thompson  ac- 
complished very  little.  The  General  Assembly  again  was  interested  in  things  more 
political  and  the  masses  of  the  people  were  unconcerned.  The  noble,  intelligent  Wil- 
liam M.  Beckner,  of  Winchester,  by  constant  vigilance  and  active  fighting  in  the  con- 


stitutional  convention  of  1899  kept  the  new  constitution  free  from  clauses  which  would 
limit  state  support  of  public  education  to  the  common  schools,  thus  paving  the  way 
for  public  high  schools  and  larger  support  of  schools  of  higher  learning.  But  Judge 
Beckner  was  unable  to  insert  clauses  in  the  constitution  providing  for  educational  reform. 

By  1905,  the  Kentucky  Educational  Association  had  come  to  the  realization  that  if 
a  revival  in  education  were  not  given  to  the  people,  who  seemingly  were  steadily  be- 
coming more  apathetic,  that  Kentucky  would  sink  to  the  lowest  place  among  the  states 
of  the  Union  in  education.  The  Educational  Improvement  Commission  which  drew 
up  a  reform  program  and  carried  a  plea  for  modernized  education  to  the  people. 
Marked  results  were  obtained  in  the  General  Assembly  of  1906,  when  the  normal 
schools  were  established. 

The  most  enthusiastic  campaigns  to  cause  Kentucky's  citizens  to  be  conscious  of  the 
value  of  education  and  of  educational  reforms  was  launched  by  Dr.  John  Grant  Crabb 
in  1909,  while  State  Superintendent.  Dr.  Crabb,  aside  from  being  highly  intelligent 
and  highly  learned,  was  deeply  interested  in  the  educational  and  spiritual  growth  of 
Kentucky,  and  used  his  indefatigable  energy,  always  cheerfully  to  further  it.  He  knew 
how  to  get  along  with  people  and  was  a  born  organizer.  Dr.  Crabb  called  his  cam- 
paigns the  "Whirlwind"  campaigns.  These  were  conducted  for  a  few  days  in  1908 
and  in  1909.  He  marshalled  aid  of  the  K.  E.  A.,  the  press,  the  women's  clubs,  prominent 
laymen  and  scores  of  able  school  men.  "The  campaign  was  a  continuous  cyclone  bom- 
bardment against  illiteracy  and  ignorance,"  wrote  Mr.  Hamlett.4°  The  entire  state  was 
canvassed  and  every  county  was  visited  by  a  speaker  or  speakers.  There  were  rallies  in 
the  county  seats,  with  special  programs,  brass  bands,  placards,  and  general  enthusiasm. 
Loyal,  poverty-bitten  women  teachers  donned  in  their  gigantic  hats,  tight  shirtwaists, 
and  sweeping  skirts,  lifted  their  chins,  and  marched  in  the  parade  for  a  better  Kentucky. 
Governor  Augustus  E.  Wilson,  Tom  McGregor,  Judge  John  P.  Haswell,  H.  H. 
Cherry,  Harry  V.  McChesney,  Cotton  Noe  and  numerous  others  took  the  stump. 
T.  J.  Coates,  McHenry  Rhodes  made  the  welkin  ring  for  better  education.  Miss  Lelia 
M.  Patridge,  Mrs.  Desha  Breckinridge,  Mrs.  J.  M.  Mitchell  told  the  story  on  many 
platforms.  George  Colvin  raised  his  great  voice — there  were  enthusiastic  speakers 
everywhere.  The  state  was  moved  for  education  as  it  never  had  been  before.  And 
a  new  day  began  in  education  in  Kentucky.  The  old  delapidated  district  system  was 
swept  away,  and  in  its  place  the  county  district  system  was  inaugurated.  Local  taxes 
in  the  counties  and  districts  increased  from  $180,000  in  1907-08  to  $1,000,000  in  1909. 
A  child  labor  law  was  enacted.  A  compulsory  school  attendance  law  was  passed. 
Large  appropriations  were  made  to  the  State  University  and  to  the  two  normal  schools, 
and  a  law  was  passed  providing  for  the  establishing  of  an  educational  planning  com- 


Superintendent  Crabb's  administration  marked  the  beginning  of  a  new  era  in  public 
education  in  Kentucky.  Since  his  time  progress  has  been  steadily  made.  Subsequent  to 
his  progressive  era  there  have  been  seasons  of  transcendent  melioration.  In  1920  George 
Colvin  became  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction.  He  loved  the  school  child  and 
public  education  to  a  degree  of  few  others.  To  improve  standards  of  teaching  and  to 
give  the  country  child  an  opportunity  equal  to  that  of  the  city  child  he  gave  all  his 
great  magnetic  strength.  Day  in  and  day  out  all  the  elements  of  that  fine  personality 
and  powerful  physical  strength  were  freely,  joyously  given  for  finer  educational  op- 
portunity in  Kentucky. 

George  Colvin  caused  the  people  of  Kentucky  to  feel  that  a  heart  and  a  soul  existed 
in  education.  Neither  the  taunts  of  enemies  nor  pain  of  sickness  could  kill  his  faith 
that  every  person  was  worth  educating.     Even  when  his  great  strength  was  exhausted, 


his  fine  love  for  the  school  child  and  for  teachers  was  as  bright  and  unselfish  as  when 
in  the  full  strength  of  happy  manhood  he  had  found  joy  in  fighting  for  the  weak. 
George  Colvin's  administration  will  be  remembered  as  a  landmark  in  the  history  of 
public  education  in  Kentucky.  ' 

As  if  the  gods,  sorry  for  the  tardy  growth  of  public  education  in  Kentucky  during 
her  early  history,  would  make  recompense,  soon  after  the  administration  of  George 
Colvin  came  that  notable  season  of  progress  under  James  H.  Richmond,  a  man  with 
an  idea  for  betterment  of  education  and  with  the  determination  and  tact  to  carry  it 
through.  Mr.  Richmond  gave  his  strength  unsparingly  for  the  advancement  of  learning 
in  Kentucky.  He  sympathized  with  the  teachers,  and  grieved  that  Kentucky  was  not 
in  the  front  rank  in  education  among  the  states  of  the  Union.  His  work  was  great, 
his  achievements  were  many.  Among  many  outstanding  achievements,  the  most  out- 
standing of  all  was  the  adoption  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  School  Code,  an 
educational  law  so  replite  with  reforms  that  the  state  has  not  yet  begun  to  realize  fully 
the  complete  scope  of  its  benefits.  In  years  to  come  Kentucky  will  be  deriving  benefit 
from  it.  The  last  thirty  or  more  years  have  been  brilliant  ones  in  the  history  of 
education  in  Kentucky. 

Following  the  administration  of  Dr.  Richmond,  progress  in  public  education  continued 
satisfactorily.  Superintendent  Harry  W.  Peters  concentrated  the  efforts  of  the  De- 
partment upon  the  improvement  of  the  rural  school,  particularly  the  establishment  of 
county  high  schools.  Superintendent  John  W.  Brooker  centered  his  objectives  around 
two  points,  namely  equalization  and  curriculum.  Concerning  the  first  objective,  a 
constitutional  amendment  was  passed  which  enabled  the  superintendent  to  distribute 
funds  other  than  upon  the  per  capita  basis  up  to  10%  of  the  per  capital  appropriation. 
This  was  an  outstanding  achievement  which  made  possible  the  distribution  of  funds  to 
poor  counties  with  sparce  populations  for  the  purpose  of  raising  teachers'  salaries.  As 
its  making  is  a  gradual  and  long-time  process,  curriculum  development  under  Mr. 
Brooker  cannot  be  easily  measured;  however,  progress  was  made,  and  certainly  movement 
along  this  line  was  a   needed  advance  in  the  right  direction. 

Unfortunately  war  conditions  brought  an  acute  crisis  to  the  public  school  system  of 
Kentucky.  The  war  caused  salaries  (in  most  fields  other  than  education) ,  prices  and 
costs  of  living  to  skyrocket.  The  severest  need  of  the  state's  educational  system  has 
been  always  adequate  funds.  Educational  funds  did  not  appreciably  increase  with  the 
other  rises  caused  by  the  war.  Consequently  teachers  began  leaving  the  schoolroom  for 
the  factory,  the  plant  and  the  office;  county  superintendents  began  finding  that  their 
available  dollars  would  purchase  very  little;  and  school  plants  began  to  fall  into  dis- 
repair. More  than  5,000  of  Kentucky's  18,000  teachers  quit  the  profession — and  few 
blamed  them.  The  average  salary  for  the  Kentucky  teacher  in  1942-1943  was  $782  per 
year,  or  $85  per  month.  Instructors  found  that  maintaining  themselves  upon  salaries 
received,  with  living  costs  steadily  mounting,  to  be  a  very  difficult  matter  indeed.  They 
discovered  that  they  could  easily  make  $1,800  a  year  working  in  a  war  plant  or  office — 
and  hundreds  changed.  In  fact,  they  discovered  that  waitresses,  with  no  education 
whatsoever,  were  earning  more  money  than  they. 

With  the  loss  of  several  thousand  teachers,  the  system  suffered.  County  superintend- 
ents had  to  close  many  schools,  and  the  State  Department  began  issuing  emergency 
certificates  enabling  high  school  graduates  with  no  teaching  experience  to  teach.  In 
1943,  the  Department  issued  4,100  of  these  emergency  certificates,  and  during  1944 
it  will  issue  roughly  4,500.  Of  course,  all  this  confusion,  to  the  child  and  to  the 
state  is  so  stupendous  and  overwhelming  that  it  is  palpably  incalculable.  The  war  is 
not  altogether  to  blame   for  this  devastating  crisis.     The  studied  niggardliness  of  the 

3— Vol.    II 


public    and    of    the    Legislature    upon    matters    of   public   education    for   more    than   a 
century  is  the  main  cause;  the  war  simply  brought  the  thing  to  a  head. 

Governor  Keen  Johnson  sought  to  improve  the  situation  in  1943  by  appropriating 
from  the  Governor's  Emergency  Fund  between  $600,000  and  $700,000  to  supplement 
teachers'  salaries.  Though  the  idea  was  good,  the  amount  was  not  enough — approxi- 
mately $3.00  per  month  increase — not  a  drop  in  the  bucket! 

The  Republican  Party  in  its  canvass  of  1943  pledged  support  of  a  $15  per  capita,  as 
did  also  the  Democratic  Party.  The  successful  Republicans,  true  to  their  promise, 
appealed  under  the  leadership  of  Governor  Simeon  S.  Willis  and  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction,  John  Fred  Williams,  to  the  Legislature  for  approximately  $15,000,000 
upon  the  per  capita  and  equalization  basis.  So  many  people  had  left  the  state  that  the 
per  capita  rate  actually  amounted  to  $19,  by  far  the  largest  in  the  state's  history.  Though 
the  amount  requested  was  granted,  the  fund  yet,  in  the  light  of  present  day  conditions,  is 
not  large  enough.  Comparison  of  the  well-educated  teacher's  salary  with  that  of  the 
uneducated  war  plant  or  factory  worker — even  the  bus  or  taxi  driver — is  very  sad  indeed 
for  the  former.  Even  though  the  Kentucky  teacher  (1944)  is  receiving  a  larger 
salary  than  ever  before,  he  (really  should  be  she,  because  low  salaries  have  practically 
driven  men  from  the  profession)  is  not  receiving  adequate  pay. 

War  conditions,  for  one  thing,  have  made  children  restive,  so  that  thousands  have 
quit  school  to  do  other  things.  The  entire  school  system  has  come  in  for  acute  public 
scrutiny  and  criticism — curriculum,  buildings,  facilities,  seemingly  everything  but  the 
teacher  (who  is  himself  doing  a  bit  of  criticising,  fortunately) . 

A  recent  report  of  the  National  Commission  for  the  Defense  of  Democracy  Through 
Education  reveals  Kentucky's  educational  conditions  as  very  unsatisfactory.  These  are 
some  of  the  findings:  (1)  Per  cent  of  population  25  years  of  age  and  over  who  have 
completed  four  years  of  college  or  more — Kentucky  with  2.9  per  cent  ranks  forty- 
seventh  among  the  states.  (2)  Percentage  of  high  school  graduates — Kentucky  with 
15.5  per  cent  ranks  forty-eighth.  (3)  Percentage  who  have  completed  one  year  of 
high  school  or  more — Kentucky  with  25.2  percent  ranks  forty-ninth.  (4)  Percentage 
who  have  completed  only  the  sixth  grade  or  less — Kentucky  with  36.1  per  cent  ranks 

Obviously  vast  reforms  need  to  be  made.  These  are  a  few  things  which  seem  most 
obviously  to  need  being  achieved: 

(1)  Twenty- five  dollar  per  capita;  (2)  a  change  in  the  law  enabling  counties  to  levy 
up  to  a  maximum  of  $1.50  on  each  $100  worth  of  taxable  property  for  school  purposes, 
so  that  the  rural  areas  will  be,  in  a  measure,  on  the  same  footing  as  city  districts; 
(3)  a  minimum  of  $100  per  month  per  teacher  for  twelve  months — salary  on  the  twelve 
months  basis;  (4)  a  minimum  of  nine  months  of  school  for  every  public  school  in  the 
state,  with  each  school  beginning  in  September;  (5)  a  more  satisfactory  arrangement 
of  the  school  bus  program,  with  the  State  Department  assuming  greater  leadership  in 
the  matter — perhaps  in  time  buying,  financing  and  operating  them  altogether;  (6) 
Federal  aid  (the  South  attempts  to  educate  a  larger  proportionate  group  of  children 
on  less  per  capita  money  than  any  other  section  of  the  nation;  (7)  in  general  a  state- 
wide campaign  for  school-community  building,  progress  and  uplift,  which  will  inspire  the 
entire  state  to  a  realization  of  the  vast  importance  of  Kentucky's  catching  up  and  forg- 
ing ahead  in  education — for  the  sake  of  the  happiness  and  well-being  of  Kentucky  in 
the  years  just  ahead — is  most  desirable. 




In  1838  when  Kentucky  was  passing  legislation  to  provide  for  the  establishment  of 
a  system  of  common  schools,  Massachusetts  was  establishing  her  first  state  school  for 
the  training  of  teachers.  However,  the  first  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  in 
Kentucky,  the  Rev.  Joseph  J.  Bullock,  asked  the  General  Assembly  in  1839  to  estab- 
lish a  school  or  schools  for  the  training  of  teachers,  saying  that  "in  those  countries 
where  education  has  been  carried  to  the  greatest  perfection,  schools  for  teachers  have 
formed  an  important  feature  in  their  systems,  and  with  the  best  results."  But  Mr. 
Bullock's  plea  went  unheeded  by  the  State  Legislature. 

Every  Superintendent  from  1838  to  1906  pled,  begged,  implored  the  General  As- 
semblies to  establish  normal  schools.  Even  the  brilliant  Dr.  Robert  J.  Breckinridge 
speaking  with  logic  and  eloquence,  "with  the  power  to  move  mountains,"  pled  in  vain. 
In  1856  when  Transylvania  University  was  given  to  the  Legislature —  money,  equipment, 
faculty,  library,  all — to  be  converted  into  a  state  normal  school,  the  General  Assembly 
accepted  reluctantly  and  made  an  appropriation  only  after  it  was  discovered  that  no 
sensible  argument  against  doing  so  could  be  found.  "No  school  of  similar  character 
in  this  country  ever  commenced  .  .  .  under  such  favorable  auspices  .  .  .  (yet)  the  day 
of  its  birth  was  the  day  of  its  manhood."  Even  though  the  school  was  surpassingly 
successful  and  promised  a  brilliant  success  in  the  future,  the  next  General  Assembly 
with  wanton  recklessness,  demolished  their  school  for  teachers  by  repealing  the  previous 
act,  and  the  friends  of  public  education  were  plunged  into  grief  once  more. 

In  1859,  Robert  Richardson,  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  said  to  the  Legis- 
lature, "Teaching  is  a  profession  and,  like  other  professions,  must  be  learned  in  schools 
of  a  higher  grade.  ...  In  deep  conviction  that  schools  for  teachers  are  necessary,  I 
recommend  them.  .  .  .  Established  they  must  be.  We  should  provide  Kentucky  teachers 
for  Kentucky  youths,  to  guard  against  that  degeneracy  and  decline  which  will  always 
threaten  us  without  them."*  This  recommendation,  like  others,  went  unheeded. 
Legislators  were  uninterested.  The  people  were  apathetic,  and  the  private  schools, 
which  profited  by  helping  to  kill  all  movements  for  the  state  normal  schools,  were 
actively  arrayed  against  such  institutions,  both  at  home  and  at  Frankfort. 

In  1880  the  Normal  School  Department  of  the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College 
at  Lexington  was  authorized.  "The  atmosphere  of  this  institution  was  not  conducive 
to  develop  trained  teachers,"  and  it  failed  to  reach  any  considerable  number  of 
teachers.     But   the   teachers   of   the   department  did   noble   work   with   what   they   had. 

By  1880  there  were  many  private  normal  schools,  some  little  better  than  "old  field" 
schools  and  some  much  better — fine  schools  with  able  teachers.  Perhaps  the  out- 
standing private  normal  school  in  Kentucky  at  that  time  was  Southern  Normal  School, 
established  at  Glasgow  and  moved  to  Bowling  Green  in  the  fall  of  1884.  This  institu- 
tion at  Bowling  Green  was  known  as  the  Southern  Normal  School  and  Business  College. 
The  school  after  a  trying  decade  was  reorganized  by  two  remarkable  school  men,  the 
Cherry  brothers,  H.  H.  and  T.  C,  and  chartered  as  the  Bowling  Green  Business 
College  and  Literary  Institute.  After  a  few  years  T.  C.  Cherry  became  superintendent 
of  the  city  school  of  Bowling  Green,  in  which  capacity  he  has  enjoyed  a  long,  honorable 
and  distinguished  career.  Henry  Hardin  Cherry  continued  as  head  of  the  reorganized 
Southern  Normal  School  until  he  became  President  of  the  Western  Kentucky  State 
Normal  School.  So  remarkable  was  H.  H.  Cherry's  career  in  the  training  of  men 
and  women  that  no  history  of  education  of  Kentucky  would  be  complete  without  de- 
voting a  chapter  to  his  life  and  achievements. 

Born  in  Warren  County,  Kentucky,  one  of  numerous  children,  Henry  Hardin  Cherry 


somehow  was  too  restless  and  ambitious  to  remain  a  farm  boy.  He  appeared  in 
Bowling  Green  as  a  lad  selling  the  products  of  the  farm — a  slender  awkward  lad  with 
long  dark  hair,  yet  with  strong  chin  and  determined  mouth  and  grey  eyes  bright  with 
energy  and  intelligence.  A  restless,  nervous  lad  who  seemed  to  have  a  dream  and  a 
vision.  After  a  few  months  at  the  Southern  Normal  School  at  Glasgow,  H.  H.  Cherry 
knew  that  it  was  in  the  vast  world  of  education  that  his  boundless  energy  was  to  be 
unloosed.  And  in  a  short  time  he  was  at  Bowling  Green  salvaging  the  wreckage  of 
a  shipwrecked  school;  with  not  the  least  doubt  but  that  success  would  come.  "He  was 
ever  a  fighter — always  one  fight  more.  .  .  .  While  he  did  not  fight  with  a  sword,  his 
office  reverberated  with  the  spiritual  approximations  of  martial  thunder.  .  .  .  Ever  a 
fighter!"  He  opened  his  school  at  Bowling  Green  in  1892  with  twenty-eight  students. 
"The  teachers  taught  and  starved  and  waited,  but  that  slender  student  body  merely 
signaled  the  president  to  go  into  action.  He  did.  He  drove  his  buggy  into  every 
hamlet  in  West  Central  Kentucky.  He  represented  to  young  men  and  women  whom 
he  met  by  the  way  or  called  upon  in  their  homes  the  overwhelming  and  utter  desira- 
bility of  attending  the  Southern  Normal  School.  His  eyes  glowed,  and  his  voice  burned 
with  the  zeal  of  the  crusade.  It  was  a  contagious  zeal,  and  those  twenty-eight  grew 
and  grew.  .  .  .  Every  time  the  tuition  bulged  ahead  a  bit,  he  put  in  another  table  or 
hired  another  teacher,  or  tapped  another  precinct  in  Louisiana.  Anything  to  push  the 
Normal's  radius  out  a  bit.  All  this  time  his  brother,  T.  C,  was  teaching  with  might 
and  main  and  voice  and  gesture  those  whom  H.  H.  brought  in.  .  .  .  J.  R.  Alexander 
.  .  .  came  back  to  his  classroom  at  the  Normal  .  .  .  Lewis  Harman,  the  institution's 
understudy  in  penmanship,  was  performing  feats  of  lyric  sweetness  with  his  pen. 
Seven  o'clock  in  the  morning  found  students  reciting  in  the  classrooms.  Classes  were 
still  in  action  until  ten  that  night."'  All  of  H.  H.  Cherry's  money  was  invested  in 
that  school.  That  school  was  his  work,  his  life,  his  future.  Then  in  November,  1899, 
came  the  fire  destroying  everything.  It  was  a  sad  Henry  Hardin  Cherry  who  viewed 
the  remains  of  years  of  hard  work.    It  was  a  test  of  the  man's  character. 

But  Henry  Hardin  was  not  whipped.  He  determined  to  build  the  greatest  normal 
school  in  the  South.  The  citizens  of  Bowling  Green  "yielded  their  cooperation  under 
the  spell  of  the  magic  of  the  young  president's  desperate  enthusiasm."'  And  came 
a  season  of  prosperity. 

Gradually  the  conception  of  the  state's  obligation  to  train  its  teachers  gained  focus. 
H.  H.  Cherry,  an  individualist,  always  sensed  the  potency  of  organized  action.  He 
perhaps  more  than  any  other  man  helped  to  achieve  that  focus.  He  was  for  forty- 
five  years  an  active  member  of  the  K.  E.  A.  Twice  he  was  its  president,  and  for  two 
decades  he  was  a  director.  The  Association,  meeting  in  Maysville  in  1904,  took  formal 
notice  of  the  state's  educational  situation  in  its  resolutions.  The  next  meeting,  held 
at  Mammoth  Cave,  June,  1905,  projected  the  Kentucky  Education  Improvement  Com- 
mission. Dr.  Cherry  was  one  of  the  five  members  of  the  Commission's  Executive  Com- 
mittee. Then  began  a  campaign,  the  equal  of  which  the  state  had  not  witnessed  to  that 
time,  for  the  establishment  of  state  normal  schools  for  the  better  training  of  Kentucky's 
teachers.  For  a  century  while  other  states  had  forged  ahead  in  education,  Kentucky's 
state  superintendents,  and  friends  of  public  education,  had  pled  to  the  legislature  and 
to  the  people  to  establish  state  normal  schools,  but  they  had  pled  in  vain.  This  time 
the  friends  of  public  education,  realizing  that  Kentucky's  children  had  been  for  a 
century  starved  and  cheated  and  that,  consequently,  the  state  was  suffering  while 
other  states  forged  ahead;  these  friends  made  doubly  courageous  by  a  realization  that 
they  were  fighting  for  the  honor  and  glory  of  Kentucky,  fighting  against  the  selfish 
mechanizations  of  pseudo-patriots  who  had  throttled  the  Commonwealth's  progress  for 


generations — these  friends  entered  the  battle  for  state  supported  institutions  for  teacher 
training.  It  became  a  holy  crusade.  Poor  teachers'  organizations  raised  money.  Many 
laymen  spoke  and  wrote,  and  teachers  worked  unceasingly.  They  told  the  sad  but 
challenging  truth  that  Kentucky  was  one  of  the  two  states  of  the  Union  that  did 
not  maintain  a  system  of  state  normal  schools,  that  there  were  only  three  states  of 
the  Union  that  showed  a  greater  percentage  of  ignorance  among  their  white  population, 
that  less  than  one-half  of  her  pupil  children  were  attending  any  school  whatever,  that 
Kentucky  was  not  keeping  pace  with  other  states  of  the  South  in  the  great  educational 
move  sweeping  the  country,  and  that  public  sentiment  on  educational  matters  was  at 
a  very  low  ebb.'"J  Rice  Eubank  and  Tom  Vinson  devoted  the  columns  of  the  Southern 
School  Journal  to  the  campaign.  Two  distinguished  laymen,  Judge  M.  C.  Saufley, 
of  Stanford,  and  Judge  W.  M.  Beckner,  of  Winchester,  wrote  and  spoke  as  heroically 
as  the  enlightened  patriots  of  any  land.  Judge  Beckner  wrote:  "If  it  be  conceded  that 
properly  prepared  teachers  are  necessary  to  the  proper  organization  of  a  school  system 
in  Kentucky,  the  question  of  normal  schools  is  no  longer  one  of  policy.  The  Legisla- 
ture has  no  discretion  in  the  matter.  Our  new  constitution  declares  that  the  'General 
Assembly  shall  by  appropriate  legislation  provide  for  an  efficient  system  of  common 
schools  throughout  the  state.'  Can  the  system  be  'efficient'  when  its  chief  cornerstone 
has  been  left  out?"  Newspapers  and  magazines  issued  broadside  after  broadside; 
speakers  took  the  stump;  members  of  the  General  Assembly  were  swamped  with 
memorials.  James  H.  Fuqua,  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  seldom  rested. 
H.  H.  Cherry's  "eleven  hundred"  sent  a  petition. 

Hon.  Richard  W.  Miller,  Representative  from  Madison  County,  introduced  the  bill 
to  establish  the  state  normal  schools.  Then  began  righteus  lobbying.  Hon.  Jere  A. 
Sullivan,  Hon.  Rodes  Shackelford,  and  Judge  Anthony  R.  Burnam  came  to  Frankfort 
from  Richmond.  Judge  Louis  McQuown  and  H.  H.  Cherry  came  from  Bowling  Green; 
Judge  John  M.  Lassing  from  Covington.  Governor  J.  C.  W.  Beckham  was  favorable. 
The  bill  passed;  it  provided  for  two  state  normal  schools.  Richmond  and  Bowling 
Green  were  selected  as  the  sites.  The  noble  educator,  Rurick  Neville  Roark,  was 
chosen  president  of  the  Eastern  Kentucky  State  Normal  School  at  Richmond  and 
H.  H.  Cherry  of  Western  Kentucky  State  Normal  School  at  Bowling  Green.  The 
great  battle  had  been  won,  after  a  century  of  desperate  fighting.  All  hail  to  those  who 
refused  to  be  beaten! 

At  Bowling  Green  on  the  Hill  the  years  came  and  passed.  Each  year  something 
new  was  begun  and  something  was  completed  on  the  old  Hill.  Thousands  of  lives  were 
quickened  when  they  came,  and  the  thousands  who  left  went  to  hundreds  of  commu- 
nities throughout  the  Southland  to  impart  the  larger  vision  to  the  thousands  of  others. 
The  day  came  when  the  Hill  was  crowned  with  magnificent  structures  of  steel,  brick 
and  marble. 

On  a  beautiful  June  day  when  the  air  was  sweet  with  the  fragrance  from  trees  and 
blossoms  and  flowers,  hundreds  of  bright,  eager  young  people,  their  faces  radiant  with 
health,  intelligence  and  ambition  waited  in  the  Chapel.  It  was  commencement  day. 
On  the  stage,  dignified,  impressive,  stood  the  well-known  and  beloved  man,  Henry 
Hardin  Cherry.  The  light  shining  through  the  windows  revealed  his  fine,  strong 
patrician  features;  a  bit  grey,  a  bit  sad,  but  the  chin  and  mouth  were  still  strong  and 
noble  and  the  eyes  were  bright.  His  work  was  almost  finished.  He  had  fought  the 
good  fight;  he  had  ever  been  a  fighter,  and  he  had  won.  He  had  found  thousands 
struggling  blindly  at  the  foot  of  the  "Hill"  and  had  helped  them  to  the  top — there  to 
find  life.  He  stood  for  a  moment  looking  into  the  eager  young  faces.  Perhaps  his 
thoughts  went  back  a  half  century  when  the  old  Hill  was  a  wilderness.     Perhaps  he 


thought  of  his  early  struggle  to  get  an  education.  Now  the  Hill  was  full.  No  longer 
would  the  struggle  be  so  hard.  His  countenance  lighted,  and  he  began  talking  the 
same  simple  words  of  wisdom,  but  words  which  those  who  have  heard  will  never  forget. 
He  was  not  merely  talking  to  the  students  of  Western,  but  to  all  the  teachers'  colleges: 

'  rMy  boy,  give  good  measure.'  These  are  the  words  of  a  noble  father  when  he 
spoke  to  his  boy  who  had  gathered  a  load  of  apples  and  was  ready  to  start  to  market 
to  sell  them.  He  took  a  half-bushel  pail  and  filled  it  to  the  rim  and  told  the  boy  that 
was  not  good  measure.  He  put  on  apples  until  they  were  above  the  rim  and  rolled 
off,  at  the  same  time  admonishing  the  boy  to  give  that  kind  of  measure.  'That  other 
thing'  is  the  thing  above  the  rirn.  It  is  the  plus  of  the  soul.  It  is  the  plus  in  demo- 
cratic education  and  in  democracy.  It  is  the  plus  in  the  life  of  every  great  teacher.  It 
is  the  spirit  of  good  measure  and  a  square  deal  that  holds  the  civic,  social,  and  indus- 
trial world  together  and  gives  every  human  being  a  chance  to  live,  a  chance  to  grow, 
and  an  opportunity  to  enjoy  the  blessings  of  life.  It  makes  the  home,  builds  and 
maintains  the  church,  supports  the  schools,  establishes  libraries,  endows  hospitals, 
feeds  the  hungry,  and  promotes  every  effort  that  advances  humanity." 

The  normal  schools  and  teachers'  colleges  have  not  only  improved  teaching  in  Ken- 
tucky, but  they  have  made  possible  college  attendance  of  thousands  who  otherwise  could 
not  have  advanced  above  high  school  graduation.  Although  they  have  brought  the 
vision  of  greater  service,  of  fuller  scholarship,  of  the  more  abundant  life  to  thousands, 
their  work  has  just  begun. 


Following  the  glorious  period  of  Transylvania  during  which  time  Dr.  Holley  was 
president,  higher  education  in  Kentucky  slipped  from  the  control  of  the  state  to 
religious  denominations.  The  last  quarter  of  the  eighteenth  and  first  half  of  the 
nineteenth  centuries  were  years  in  which  the  people  of  the  various  religious  denomina- 
tions took  the  tenets  of  their  sects  as  among  the  most  serious  things  in  life,  and  any 
change  in  an  educational  institution  which  might  smack  slightly  of  a  departure  from 
a  particular  sect's  belief  would  cause  that  body  to  busy  itself  with  plans  for  building 
an  educational  institution  more  to  its  liking.  Thus  the  Presbyterians,  who  had  been 
largely  instrumental  in  establishing  Transylvania  Seminary  and  University,  because 
of  a  slight  departure  from  accepted  Presbyterian  policy,  secured,  in  1819,  a  charter 
for  Centre  College.  Although  a  state  school  at  first,  Centre  College  was  taken  over  by 
the  Presbyterian  Synod  of  Kentucky  in  1830,  and  then  began  that  long  period  of 
distinction  which  has  made  Centre  College  respected  at  home  and  honored  abroad. 
This  small  ivy-covered  college  of  the  Youngs  and  the  Breckinridges  has  had  a  history 
more  unique  in  some  respects  than  any  college  in  the  nation.  But  the  other  denomina- 
tional colleges — Georgetown,  St.  Joseph's,  St.  Mary's,  Transylvania,  and  Wesleyan — 
are  to  be  accorded  high  praise  for  noble  service  and  for  a  rich  production  of  distin- 
guished men.  And  to  this  group  of  colleges,  distinguished  for  meritorious  service, 
may  be  added  the  name  Berea — a  school  founded  upon  the  idea  of  complete  freedom, 
democracy  and  opportunity.  The  day  will  never  come  in  Kentucky  when  Kentuckians 
will  cease  to  honor  and  revere  the  great  names — Young,  Breckinridge,  Green,  Flaget, 
Priestly,  Batson,  Weber,  Malcolm,  Campbell,  Dudley,  Fee,  Rogers,  Frost,  Bowman, 
McGarry  and  the  hundreds  of  distinguished  men  who  caught  their  inspiration  from 

After  many  vicissitudes  during  which  she  was  buffeted  between  State  Legislature  and 
religious  denominations,  Transylvania  passed  in  1865  to  the  control  of  the  Disciples 
of  Christian   Church,  and  seemingly  the  restless,  fitful  idea  of  a  great  state  university 


passed  into  a  quiet  and  long  sleep.  Alas,  Kentucky  legislatures,  that  they  had  been 
so  niggardly,  so  unkind.  Noble  Transylvania!  Conceived  by  our  beloved  mother, 
Virginia,  and  dedicated  by  the  daring  pioneers  who  had  conquered  the  wilderness. 
Transylvania,  where  bloomed  the  genius  of  Dudley  and  matured  the  talents  of  Holley, 
in  whose  classic  halls  had  echoed  the  fire  of  Bascom  and  the  eloquence  of  Clay.  Here 
was  the  most  magnificent  university  of  the  West;  starved  to  an  early  decline  by 
unsympathetic  legislatures  and  sectarian  strife  and  cut  oif  an  orphan  to  be  taken  in 
by  a  kindly  church.  May  Kentuckians  of  future  generations  study  the  story  and  never 
cease  to  revere  noble  Transylvania. 

The  idea  of  a  state  college  revived  somewhat  following  the  passage  of  the  Morrell 
Act  by  the  Federal  Government  in  1862.  By  this  act  Kentucky  was  the  beneficiary  of 
330,000  acres  of  land.  Yet  the  state  authorities  showed  neither  an  appreciation  for 
the  possibilities  of  a  great  state  institution  of  higher  learning  nor  business  acumen, 
because  the  new  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College  made  possible  by  the  nation's 
generous  grant,  was  established  as  one  of  the  colleges  of  Kentucky  University  at 
Lexington,  a  denominational  school  recently  transferred  from  Harrodsburg  and  united 
with  Transylvania,  and  the  huge  grant  of  land  was  disposed  of  for  $165,000.  An 
amount  per  acre  of  almost  fifty  cents  less  than  the  minimum  price  per  acre  fixed  by 
the  Federal  Government  in  1785  and  1787.  This  shameful  disposal  of  land  for  a 
mere  pittance  was  as  deplorable  as  the  wanton  dissipation  of  the  old  seminary  grants. 
The  apostasy  of  numerous  political  servants  to  education  through  the  course  of  Ken- 
tucky's history  looms  large  in  practically  every  chapter. 

From  1865,  the  date  of  the  founding  of  the  A.  and  M.  College,  there  was  factional 
strife  until  in  1878  the  General  Assembly  severed  the  connection  with  Kentucky 
University,  appointing  a  commission  to  re-locate  the  college.  "Kentucky  University 
claiming  and  retaining  the  former  site  of  the  college;  the  sole  property  of  the  latter 
after  the  severance  was  an  income  of  $9,900  derived  from  the  land  grant."' 

The  city  of  Lexington  offered  inducements  for  the  location  of  the  college  and  in 
1880  it  was  permanently  located  in  that  city.  The  same  year  a  Normal  Department 
was  added  to  the  college  and  a  general  tax  of  one-half  cent  on  each  hundred  dollars 
of  assessed  value  of  all  property  in  the  state  liable  to  taxation  and  belonging  to  white 
inhabitants  was  levied  for  the  support  of  this  state  school.  In  1880  also  were  added 
the  Classical  Department  and  the  Academy. 

About  this  time  there  burst  into  flame  embers  which  had  smoldered  and  burned  at 
intervals  for  a  century.  It  was  the  old  controversy  between  the  friends  of  denomina- 
tional-controlled institutions  of  higher  learning  and  the  friends  of  a  state  system  of 
higher  education.  President  James  K.  Patterson  of  the  A.  and  M.  College,  feeling  that 
his  program  for  the  expansion  of  his  school  to  a  state  university  was  being  thwarted 
by  the  partisans  of  the  denominational  colleges,  published  a  letter  in  the  Courier- 
Journal,  December  11,  1881,  stating  very  strongly  the  issue,  presenting  his  program, 
and  indicting  the  influences  which  impeded  progress  to  a  great  state  university.  Dr. 
Patterson's  dream  was  to  build  from  the  modest  beginning  of  the  A.  and  M.  College 
a  university  at  public  expense — a  university  to  prepare  men  for  every  calling  and  pro- 
fession of  life,  including  "Law,  medicine  and  theology."  A  school  for  every  young 
man  of  the  state,  whether  rich  or  poor,  who  desired  an  education.  He  envisaged  an 
institution  of  higher  learning  comparable  to  Harvard.  Yet  he  was  conscious  that  in- 
fluences were  working  at  the  General  Assembly  to  deprive  his  college  even  of  the  small 
appropriation  which  was  necessary  for  bare  existence,  and  conscious,  too,  of  the  fact 
that  reports  were  being  spread  about  indicting  him  as  an  enemy  of  the  clergy  and  of 
the    forces    of    righteousness — and    there    were    thousands    who    were    ready    to    believe. 


Fortunately,  fighting  on  the  side  of  Dr.  Patterson  was  that  picturesque  Kentuckian, 
Henry  Watterson,  and  in  and  out  in  fair  weather  and  foul  were  those  champions  of 
state-supported    education,    Judge    William    M.    Beckner   and   Judge   W.    T.    Lafferty. 

In  spite  of  heart-breaking  obstacles  Dr.  Patterson  was  not  defeated.  Year  after 
year   the   appropriations   increased,   the   national   government   helped;    the   school   grew. 

At  this  point  the  author  feels  that  the  story  of  the  development  and  progress  of 
the  University  of  Kentucky  should  be  carried  forward  by  the  eminent  educator,  Dr. 
M.  E.  Yigon,  of  the  College  of  Education  of  the  University.  Dr.  Ligon  has  written 
an  excellent  sketch  of  that  school's  history.     A  large  part  of  that  sketch  is  here  quoted 

b»  59 


The  reorganization  of  the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College  of  Kentucky  as  the 
State  University  is  significant  in  the  history  of  education  in  Kentucky.  First,  the 
reorganization  was  coincident  with  the  reorganization  of  the  state  public  school  system 
and  the  establishment  of  rural  high  schols  in  every  county.  Second,  it  marked  the 
close  of  the  educational  career  of  President  Patterson.  Third,  the  state  had  established 
two  normal  schools  in  1906.  Fourth,  the  violent  opposition  of  the  private  colleges  to 
the  support  of  the  college  by  the  state  had  almost  disappeared. 

The  transition  of  the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College  to  the  status  of  a  state 
university  was  gradual.  The  University  was  administered  by  a  board  of  trustees  in 
the  same  manner  as  the  college  had  been,  in  fact,  by  the  same  persons.  Changes  in 
the  constituency  of  the  board  were  made  from  time  to  time  in  much  the  same  way  as 
they  had  been  made  during  the  life  of  the  college.  In  1916,  when  the  name  of  State 
University  was  changed  to  the  University  of  Kentucky,  the  commissioner  of  agriculture 
and  seven  members  of  the  State  Board  of  Agriculture  were  made  members  of  the  board 
of  trustees.  In  1918  the  president  of  the  institution  and  the  seven  members  of  the 
State  Board  of  Agriculture  were  dropped  from  the  list  of  members  ex  officio,  leaving 
the  governor,  the  superintendent  of  public  instruction,  and  the  commissioner  of  agri- 
culture as  members  ex  officio.  Six  additional  members  were  added  to  a  board  of  fifteen 
in  1914.  The  board  was  reduced  to  fifteen  members  in  1916  and  further  reduced  to 
twelve  in  1918.  In  1914  the  number  of  alumni  on  the  board  was  increased  from  four 
to  six  members.  In  1916  the  number  of  appointive  members  was  fixed  at  fifteen  of 
which  one-fifth  were  to  be  appointed  from  persons  who  had  attended  the  institution. 
In  1918  the  number  of  appointive  members  was  reduced  to  twelve,  of  which  one-fourth 
must  be  alumni.  The  length  of  term  for  appointive  members  was  six  years.  The  board 
in  1922  was  composed  of  the  governor,  the  superintendent  of  public  instruction,  and 
the  commissioner  of  agriculture  as  members  ex  officio  and  twelve  citizens  of  the  state. 
Four  members  were  to  be  appointed  each  biennium  for  a  term  of  six  years.  One  of  the 
four  must  be  a  member  of  the  State  Board  of  Agriculture,  one  an  alumnus  of  the 
institution  and  two  distinguished  citizens. 

In  1915  the  number  of  board  members  constituting  the  executive  committee  was 
increased  to  seven,  three  of  whom  were  to  be  graduates  of  the  institution.  This 
number  was  reduced  to  five  in  1918.  The  functions  of  the  executive  committee  con- 
tinued to  be  about  the  same  as  they  had  been  in  the  administration  of  the  Agricultural 
and  Mechanical  College. 

On  June  4,  1908,  President  Patterson  delivered  the  commencement  address  of  the 
University.  In  that  address  he  gave  a  very  good  overview  of  the  institution  at  that 
time,  as  follows: 

The  city  and  county  gave  the  grounds  and  the  money  in  1880  for  the  erection  of  buildings. 
Since  then  additional  buildings  have  been  added,  until  now,  instead  of  two,  there  are  fourteen 
buildings  upon  the  college  campus,  with  the  prospect  of  two  more  during  the  present  biennial 
period.      The    equipment    for    mechanical    and    electrical    engineering    is    the    best    south    of    the 


Ohio  River.  The  departments  of  chemistry,  physics,  botany,  biology,  geology,  anatomy,  and 
physiology,  languages  ancient  and  modern,  meta-physics,  ethics  and  physical  culture,  are  second 
to  none  in  the  South.  The  faculty  of  instruction  numbers  nearly  fifty  persons.  The  heads  of 
departments  rank  among  the  ablest  in  the  country,  while  the  majority  of  the  assistants  are 
developing  a  talent  for  instruction,  which  places  them  in  the  line  of  promotion.  In  the  mean- 
time, 250  acres  of  land  have  been  bought  for  experimental  purposes,  representing  an  actual 
outlay  of  about  $100,000,  and  an  actual  present  valuation  of  a£>out  $130,000.  The  college 
campus,  with  buildings  and  equipment,  represents  about  $850,000. 

The  work  of  the  reorganization  of  the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College  took 
place  during  the  spring  and  summer  of  1908.  The  several  departments  were  grouped 
and  each  group  was  designated  as  a  college.  The  liberal  arts  subjects  were  continued 
in  one  college,  which  was  rechristened  the  College  of  Arts  and  Sciences.  John  Henry 
Neville,  Professor  of  Greek  and  Latin,  was  appointed  the  first  Dean.  The  departments 
of  agriculture  were  brought  together  as  the  College  of  Agriculture  under  the  direction 
of  Clarence  W.  Mathews,  Professor  of  horticulture  and  botany,  as  Dean.  The  subjects 
of  civil  engineering  were  grouped  as  the  College  of  Civil  Engineering,  and  Walter  E. 
Rowe  was  appointed  Dean.  F.  Paul  Anderson  was  made  Dean  of  the  College  of 
Mechanical  and  Electrical  Engineering.  A  College  of  Mining  Engineering  was  organ- 
ized and  Charles  J.  Norwood  was  appointed  Dean.  The  General  Assembly  in  the  Act 
of  1908  gave  the  department  of  education  collegiate  rank.  Dr.  L.  F.  Snow  was  made 
Dean  of  this  department,  but  it  does  not  appear  that  a  separate  college  was  organized. 
Judge  W.  T.  Lafferty,  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees  and  a  practicing  lawyer  of 
Cynthiana,  was  appointed  Dean  of  the  new  College  of  Law.  The  State  Experiment 
Station  was  changed  very  little  by  the  reorganization.  These  colleges  and  the  Station 
will  be  discussed  briefly  in  the  following  pages. 

In  his  report  to  the  General  Assembly  for  the  biennium,  1907-09,  President  Patterson 
pointed  out  the  functions  of  the  University,  as  follows: 

Since  the  college  has  become  a  university,  it  may  be  well  to  inquire  what  the  distinction 
between  college  and  university  work  may  be.  Stated  in  general  terms,  the  function  of  the 
college  is  to  teach,  the  function  of  the  university  is  to  discover.  Collegiate  instruction  consists 
mainly  in  communicating  to  students  the  contents  of  knowledge  or  discovery  verified  and  ac- 
cepted. The  function  of  the  university,  on  the  other  hand,  is  to  extend  the  boundaries  of  human 
knowledge,  to  proceed  from  the  known  to  the  unknown,  using  the  former  as  the  basis  for  the 
discovery  of  truth.  Research  then  may  be  described  as  the  characteristic  of  university  work, 
but  under  existing  conditions,  in  all  the  universities  of  America,  except  Johns  Hopkins,  collegiate 
work  is  carried  on  concurrently  with  university  work  proper.  Freshman,  Sophomore,  Junior 
and  Senior  classes  are  maintained,  but  after  undergraduate  courses  have  been  completed,  those 
who  elect  to  remain  enter  upon  university  work  proper. 

The  special  work  then  of  the  University  is  to  uplift  and  to  develop  the  educational  interests 
of  the  Commonwealth.  The  inspiration  must  come  from  above,  not  from  below.  The  aim 
of  the  University  is  and  must  be  to  improve  and  to  perfect  as  far  as  practicable  the  high 
schools  of  the  Commonwealth,  and  through  them  to  improve  the  education  of  the  common 
schools.  An  improved  common  school  will  therefore  be  the  guarantee  of  a  well-developed 
and  well-equipped  high  school,  and  a  high  school  well  organized,  with  a  high  standard  of 
graduation  will  provide  annually  in  increasing  numbers  a  large  supply  of  well-equipped 
matriculates  for  collegiate  and  university  work. 

These  are  fitting  words  with  which  President  Patterson  closed  his  last  report  to  the 
General  Assembly.  He  had  rounded  out  forty  years  as  president  of  the  college  that 
had  been  and  of  the  University  that  was  to  be.  He  was  in  his  seventy-eighth  year  at 
the  time  of  writing  this  report.  In  June,  1909,  some  months  preceding  this  report,  he 
had  given  notice  to  the  board  of  trustees  of  his  intention  to  retire.  There  is  no  note 
of  sadness  or  regret  in  his  report.  It  is  in  the  same  vigorous  and  comprehensive  style 
of  his  former  reports.  He  gave  a  vision  of  what  the  University  was  to  become  with 
a  clarity  that  leads  the  reader  to  feel  that  the  grand  old  President  was  to  have  a  part 
in  its  consummation. 

President  Patterson  retired  from  the  activities  of  the  presidency  on  January  15,  1910. 


James  G„  White,  Professor  of  Mathematics  and  Physics  since  1880,  was  made  acting 
president  and  served  in  this  capacity  from  January,  1910,  to  January,  1911.  In  his 
communication  of  June,  1909,  to  the  board,  announcing  his  intention  to  retire,  Presi- 
dent Patterson  described  the  type  of  man  whom  he  preferred  to  have  succeed  him. 
This  description  follows: 

I  should  like  to  see  selected  a  man  abler  than  myself,  well  educated,  with  a  mind  sym- 
metrically developed,  not  a  specialist  in  any  direction,  but  a  man  of  views  sufficiently  large 
to  promote  the  growth  of  the  institution  along  co-extensive  lines,  giving  due  and  proper 
encouragement  to  every  department  and  every  college  of  the  University,  yet  showing  special 
favor  to  none.  I  should  like  my  successor  to  be  a  man  of  proved  executive  and  administrative 
ability,  of  good  personal  presence,  prolific  in  thought  and  facile  in  expression,  able  to  defend 
th'e  institution  from  whatever  point  assailed  and  able  to  take  aggressive  measures  in  its 
behalf,  without  unnecessarily  ruffling  the  susceptibilities  of  those  whom  he  opposes.  He  should, 
moreover,  be  a  man  of  high  moral  character,  with  a  reverent  attitude  toward  things  sacred  and 
divine,  not  necessarily  a  churchman,  but  in  sympathy  with  the  religious  beliefs  and  aspirations 
of  Christianity. 

The  board  appointed  a  committee  composed  of  Henry  S.  Barker,  Claude  B.  Terrell, 
Tibbis  Carpenter,  Richard  C.  Stoll,  and  President  Patterson  to  recommend  a  successor. 
Later  Dr.  Henry  S.  Pritchett,  President  of  the  Carnegie  Foundation,  was  asked  to 
assist  the  committee  in  finding  a  successor  to  President  Patterson.  On  February  3,  1910, 
the  board  elected  Judge  Henry  S.  Barker,  one  of  their  own  number,  President  of  the 
University.  At  the  time  of  his  election,  Judge  Barker  was  a  member  of  the  Court  of 
Appeals  of  Kentucky.  He  was  fifty-nine  years  old  and  had  practiced  law  since  1874. 
He  had  held  successively  the  offices  of  city  attorney  of  Louisville,  Judge  of  Jefferson 
County  Circuit  Court,  and  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals  of  Kentucky.  He  had 
been  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees  for  eleven  years,  and  had  been  considered  a 
faithful  and  outstanding  friend  of  the  University. 

The  election  of  Judge  Barker  distressed  President  Patterson.  They  had  been  warm 
friends  for  many  years,  but  President  Patterson  could  not  reconcile  himself  to  the  fact 
that  a  university  man  had  not  been  chosen  for  the  presidency.  In  a  letter  to  Governor 
Augustus  Willson,  prior  to  Judge  Barker's  election,  he  gave  his  frank  opinion  of 
Judge  Barker's  qualifications  for  the  office,  as  follows: 

He  is  not  a  graduate  of  any  institution — either  college  or  university — and  this,  in  my  opinion, 
constitutes  an  essential  disqualification  for  the  office.  .  .  .  He  has  had  no  experience  whatever 
in  collegiate  or  university  organization  or  administration.  Nowadays,  men  who  aspire  to  high 
positions  in  educational  institutions  have,  without  exception,  so  far  as  known  to  me,  been  gradu- 
ates of  colleges  or  universities  of  high  standing;  they  have  done  graduate  work  at  some 
institution  such  as  Harvard,  Columbia,  Johns  Hopkins  or  Princeton;  and,  in  addition  thereto, 
they  have  spent  years  abroad  in  order  to  qualify  themselves  for  responsible  positions  in  Uni- 
versity life.  Moreover,  they  have,  almost  without  exception,  risen  through  assistant  professor- 
ships, headships  of  departments  and  deans  of  courses  of  study  to  the  headship  of  a  University. 
These  qualifications,  you  will  readily  see,  are  wholly  lacking  in  Judge  Barker;  and  in  my 
estimation,    no   other   qualities,    however   excellent,    can   compensate   for   the   lack  of   these. 

The  election  of  Judge  Barker  was  the  beginning  of  an  estrangement  between  these 
friends  that  was  never  repaired.  Upon  his  retirement  President  Patterson  was  made 
President  Emeritus  with  the  honor  of  sitting  as  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees 
without  the  right  to  vote.  Furthermore,  he  was  permitted  to  occupy  the  president's 
house  on  the  campus.  These  intimate  contacts  gave  President  Emeritus  Patterson  an 
advantageous  position  for  observing  the  work  of  his  successor.  He  was  in  intimate 
contact  with  members  of  the  faculty,  some  of  whom  imparted  to  him  the  administrative 
policies  of  Judge  Barker.  The  campus  gossip  resulting  from  this  intimate  critical 
evaluation  of  the  new  president  and  his  policies  tended  to  develop  an  unhealthy  internal 
administrative  atmosphere  which  was  stifling. 

Judge  Barker's  experience  had  been  obtained  in  the  field  of  law  as  it  applied  to  the 


problems  of  society.  This  experience  had  developed  in  him  traits  of  magnanimity, 
generosity,  charitableness,  justice,  and  democracy  found  in  few  administrators.  He 
assumed  office  January  1,  1911.  At  once  he  placed  all  administrative  officers  at  ease 
by  delegating  to  them  authority  to  carry  forward  the  work  of  their  offices  unmolested. 
This  policy  was  in  direct  opposition  to  the  policy  of  President  Patterson.  The  officers 
became  intoxicated  by  their  new  freedom.  Jealousies  developed  between  departments, 
between  colleges,  and  among  individuals.  The  president's  generosity  and  his  lack  of 
experience  in  dealing  with  these  university  problems  prevented  his  coordinating  the 
internal  administrative  and  instructional  forces  of  the  University  into  one  great  whole. 

The  administration  of  President  Barker  is  not  marked  by  any  outstanding  accomplish- 
ments. The  income  of  the  University  remained  practically  the  same  throughout  this 
period.  The  total  number  of  students  increased  from  803  in  1911  to  1,445  in  1916. 
During  this  same  period  the  faculty  increased  from  72  to  100  members.  An  addition 
to  the  Experiment  Station  building  was  completed.  The  academy  or  preparatory  school 
was  abolished,  and  college  entrance  was  fixed  at  fifteen  Carnegie  units  earned  in  an 
accredited  secondary  school.  The  name  of  the  institution  was  changed  in  1916  from 
State  University,  Lexington,  Kentucky,  to  University  of  Kentucky.  Agricultural  Ex- 
tension Work  received  great  impetus  by  the  passage  of  the  Smith-Lever  Act  by  the 
Federal  Congress.  .  .  .  The  registrar's  office  and  the  business  office  were  expanded  and 
developed  in  accord  with  modern  practices  in  university  administration. 

President  Barker  was  unable  to  develop  a  smooth-working  organization  of  the  Uni- 
versity. Discontent  among  the  alumni,  the  student  body,  and  the  general  public  de- 
veloped toward  the  administration.  The  discontent  became  so  great  that  the  board  of 
trustees  passed  a  resolution  in  December,  1916,  authorizing  the  chairman  to  appoint  a 
committee  of  non-resident  trustees  to  investigate  the  causes  of  discontent  and  the  ex- 
pediency of  consolidating  the  colleges  of  mechanical  and  civil  engineering.  The  scope 
of  the  investigation  was  to  include  the  Experiment  Station  and  the  University  proper. 
The  committee  employed  Dr.  Kendrick  C.  Babcock,  Dean  of  the  College  of  Liberal 
Arts  and  Sciences  at  the  University  of  Illinois,  Dr.  Thomas  F.  Kane,  President  of 
Olivet  College,  and  Charles  M.  McConn,  Registrar  of  the  University  of  Illinois,  to 
make  the  investigation.  This  commission  completed  its  work  during  the  spring  of  1917, 
and  the  committee  under  whose  direction  the  investigation  had  been  made  reported  the 
findings  and  recommendations  to  the  board  in  June,  1917. 

The  survey  report  was  thorough  and  frank  in  stating  the  conditions  of  the  adminis- 
tration and  organization  of  the  University.  It  covered  such  subjects  as  administrative 
policies,  internal  organization,  academic  standards,  the  faculty,  efficiency  in  adminis- 
tration, and  the  University  in  its  relation  to  the  state.  The  recommendations  were 
concise,  clear,  and  unequivocal.  The  report  covered  the  personnel,  appointments,  legis- 
lation, plans  for  the  campus,  the  Peabody  fund,  administration,  publication  of  the 
board's  minutes,  the  plant,  and  the  executive  committee.  All  of  the  recommendations 
of  this  report  were  adopted  except  the  one  relating  to  the  immediate  removal  from  the 
campus  of  President  Patterson,  President  Emeritus. 

The  first  recommendation  of  this  report  called  for  the  retirement  of  President  Barker. 
This  recommendation  was  based  not  upon  the  mistakes  of  the  president  in  his  admin- 
istration but  upon  the  things  he  had  left  undone. 

And  the  reason  he  has  omitted  to  do  the  things  he  has  left  undone  is  because  he  did  not  see 
what  needed  to  be  done.  Being  outside  his  own  field,  he  could  not  interpret  situations  or 
handle  them.  .  .  . 

We  feel  distinctly  that  Judge  Barker  has  been  grievously  sinned  against  in  this  matter.  So 
far  as  we  can  learn  he  did  not  seek  the  position  in  any  way,  but  on  the  contrary  persistently 
disclaimed    either    desire    of    fitness    for    it,    and    resisted    for   many   months   the    pressure    brought 


upon  him  by  misguided  friends  to  accept  it.  He  has  brought  to  an  impossible  situation — that  of 
being  the  captain  of  a  ship  without  ever  having  studied  navigation — a  largeness  of  soul,  a 
devotion  to  his  duty  so  far  as  he  was  able  to  see  it,  a  loyalty  to  his  friends  and  a  charity  for 
his  enemies  which  are  beyond  praise.  He  has,  moreover,  a  charm  of  personality  that  makes 
scores  of  people  who  now  believe  he  should  retire  regard  him  nevertheless  with  sincere  affection. 
He  has  succeeded  but  meagerly  in  the  impossible  task  which  he  understood  ;  but  if  he  has  failed, 
it  is  with   honor. 

This  report  recommended  further  that  the  chairman  of  the  board  of  trustees  be 
authorized  and  directed  to  appoint  a  committee  consisting  of  four  members  of  the  board 
and  three  of  the  University  faculty  to  nominate  a  new  president.  This  committee  was 
to  consider  such  professional  qualifications  as  had  been  specified  in  the  report. 

In  response  to  this  recommendation  Governor  A.  O.  Stanley,  Chairman  of  the  board 
of  trustees,  appointed  Richard  C.  Stoll  of  Lexington,  Frank  M.  McKee  of  Versailles, 
J.  Irvine  Lyle  of  New  York,  and  Robert  G.  Gordon  of  Louisville,  members  of  the 
board,  to  serve  on  the  committee  to  nominate  a  president.  The  faculties  of  the  College 
of  Arts  and  Sciences,  the  College  of  Agriculture,  and  the  College  of  Engineering  elected 
Paul  P.  Boyd,  George  Roberts,  and  W.  E.  Freeman,  respectively,  to  places  on  this 
committee.  Mr.  Stoll  served  as  chairman.  This  committee  entered  upon  its  duties  at 
once  and  presented  its  report  to  the  board  of  trustees  August  15,  1917.  The  committee 
recommended  unanimously  Dr.  Frank  LeRond  McVey,  President  of  the  University  of 
North  Dakota,  as  a  suitable  person  for  the  presidency  of  the  University  of  Kentucky. 
The  report  of  the  committee  was  adopted  unanimously  by  the  board. 

On  July  18,  1917,  the  executive  committee  of  the  board  of  trustees  elected  Dr.  Paul 
Boyd,  Head  of  the  Department  of  Mathematics,  Dean  of  the  College  of  Arts  and 
Sciences.  He  was  "empowered  to  act  as  Chief  Executive  of  the  University  in  the 
absence  of  President  Barker,  and  that  he  exercise  all  powers  and  perform  all  duties 
imposed  upon  the  President  during  such  absence,  but  the  said  executive  powers  hereby 
conferred  shall  cease  upon  the  installation  of  a  regular  successor  to  President  Henry  S. 
Barker."  He  served  in  the  capacity  outlined  in  this  section  until  September  14,  1917. 
He  carried  on  the  correspondence  of  the  office  of  president,  completed  the  faculty  for 
1917-18,  assisted  the  several  deans  in  the  solution  of  their  problems,  planned  for  the 
opening  of  school  in  September,  supervised  the  registration  of  students,  and  per- 
formed the  duties  of  his  office  as  Dean  of  the  College  of  Arts  and  Sciences. 

Dr.  McVey  accepted  the  presidency  of  the  University  and  assumed  the  duties  of 
that  office  on  September  14,  1917.  He  possessed  in  a  splendid  way  the  qualifications 
outlined  by  the  report  of  the  Survey  Commission.  He  had  attended  the  public  schools 
of  Toledo,  Ohio,  and  Des  Moines,  Iowa.  He  had  earned  his  baccalaureate  degree  at 
Ohio  Wesleyan  University,  and  pursued  his  graduate  work  at  Yale  University  where 
he  had  earned  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy  in  1895.  At  Yale  he  had  specialized 
in  the  field  of  economics.  In  1910  Ohio  Wesleyan  had  conferred  upon  him  the  degree 
of  Doctor  of  Laws.  He  had  served  one  year,  1895-96,  as  instructor  in  history,  Teachers 
College,  Columbia  University.  From  1896  to  1907  he  had  been  instructor,  assistant 
professor,  and  professor  of  economics  in  the  University  of  Minnesota.  In  1907  he  had 
resigned  his  position  in  the  University  to  become  the  first  chairman  of  the  State  Tax 
Commission  in  Minnesota.  In  1909  he  had  been  elected  president  of  the  University 
of  North  Dakota,  in  which  capacity  he  had  served  until  he  came  to  the  presidency  of 
the  State  University  of  Kentucky. 

In  addition  to  his  training  and  experience,  Dr.  McVey  was  a  member  of  the  principal 
learned  societies  and  associations  of  America  in  his  fields  of  work.  In  several  of  these 
he  had  served  as  the  presiding  officer  or  secretary.  He  was  author  of  many  magazine 
articles   and   several   books.     Prior   to   his  coming   to  Kentucky,   his   best  known   works 


were  the  Populist  Movement,  published  in  1896;  History  and  Government  of  Minne- 
sota, 1901;  Modern  Industrialism,  1904;  Transportation,  1910;  The  Making  of  a  Town, 
1913;  Economics  of  Business,  1917.  At  the  time  of  his  coming  to  Kentucky  he  had 
in  course  of  preparation  The  Financial  History  of  Great  Britain,  which  was  completed 
in  1918.  He  brought  to  the  presidency  of  the  University  scholarly  attainment  and  a 
broad,  thorough  knowledge  of  university  problems. 

The  board  of  trustees  was  committed  to  the  policies  embodied  in  the  report  of  the 
Survey  Commission.  Dr.  McVey's  task  was  to  reduce  these  policies  to  administrative 
machinery.  He  began  his  work  by  leading  the  faculty  in  the  construction  and  adoption 
of  a  constitution  for  the  University.  This  constitution  outlined  the  organization  of 
the  University;  defined  the  duties  of  the  president;  designated  the  constituency  of  the 
council,  senate,  and  assembly,  and  denned  the  duties  of  the  deans,  the  faculties  of 
the  several  colleges,  and  of  the  departmental  staffs.  The  duties  of  the  Dean  of  Men, 
the  Dean  of  Women,  the  Director  of  the  Summer  Session,  the  Dean  of  the  Graduate 
School,  the  Registrar,  the  Business  Agent,  the  Librarian,  and  the  Superintendent  of 
Buildings  and  Grounds  were  set  out  in  some  detail.  The  conditions  of  appointments, 
promotions,  removals,  terms  of  employment,  tenure,  and  leave  of  absence  were  defined. 
This  instrument  enabled  each  member  of  the  staff  to  orient  himself  with  reference  to 
every  other  member.  This  constitution  was  followed  by  a  similar  instrument  prepared 
by  the  board  of  trustees  for  the  organization  and  conduct  of  its  business.  These 
documents  have  been  potent  factors  in  the  development  of  cooperation  and  good  will 
among  the  entire  staff  of  the  University. 

The  coming  of  Dr.  McVey  to  the  University  marked  the  beginning  of  a  period  of 
expansion.  This  expansion  has  been  symetrical  along  all  lines.  Funds  for  the  support 
of  the  institution  have  been  increased.  Buildings  have  been  added  and  the  grounds 
have  been  landscaped.  The  number  of  students  has  increased  four-fold.  The  staff 
has  been  nearly  trebled.  The  graduate  school  has  grown  from  a  very  small  enrollment 
to  797  students.  The  number  of  volumes  in  the  library  has  been  more  than  trebled. 
The  College  of  Education  and  the  College  of  Commerce  have  been  organized. 

The  income  of  the  University  is  drawn  from  the  state,  from  the  federal  government, 
from  tuition  fees,  and  from  miscellaneous  sources.  The  state  has  provided  for  the 
support  of  the  University  by  a  property  tax,  a  special  tax,  and  special  appropriations. 
The  University  has  received  a  portion  of  the  taxes  derived  from  property  since  1917. 
The  amount  from  this  source  has  increased  from  year  to  year  as  the  property  of  the 
state  has  increased  in  value.  Since  the  passage  of  the  law  levying  a  tax  upon  property 
transferred  by  inheritance,  the  University  has  received  a  definite  portion  of  this  tax. 
At  present  the  University  receives  one-half  of  the  taxes  collected  from  this  source. 
From  time  to  time  the  General  Assembly  has  made  special  appropriations  to  the  Uni- 
versity for  the  purchase  of  lartd,  the  erection  of  buildings,  and  the  purchase  of  equip- 

The  federal  government  has  assisted  the  state  in  the  support  of  the  University  since 
it  was  established.  The  state  had  paid  the  University  semi-annually  six  per  cent  on 
$165,000,  the  amount  received  from  the  sale  of  the  land  scrip  appropriated  by  the 
federal  government  in  1862.  The  Hatch  Act  passed  by  the  Federal  Congress  in  1887 
appropriated  $15,000  annually  for  the  purpose  of  assisting  the  state  in  the  maintenance 
of  the  State  Agricultural  Experiment  Station.  This  annual  appropriation  was  increased 
in  1906.  Further  appropriations  were  made  in  the  Smith-Lever  Act  of  1916  and  the 
Smith-Hughes  Act  of  1917. 

A  small  tuition  fee  has  been  charged  each  year  upon  enrollment.  The  fee  has  been 
increased  from  time  to  time  as  the  demands  upon  the  resources  of  the  University  have 


increased.  A  small  income  annually  has  been  received  from  miscellaneous  sources.  This 
amount  has  been  derived  from  sales  and  service  fees  of  the  Experiment  Station,  gifts, 
and  other  minor  sources. 

The  buildings  of  the  University  have  been  erected  from  time  to  time  as  the  need 
arose.  They  have  been  constructed  of  brick  and  trimmed  with  stone.  In  the  beginning 
there  was  no  comprehensive  planning  in  the  placement  of  buildings.  The  campus  was 
spacious,  and  the  first  buildings  were  placed  where  they  would  appear  to  best  advantage 
and  where  they  would  be  most  convenient  at  the  time,  without  due  consideration  for 
the  placement  of  future  buildings.  No  uniform  style  of  architecture  was  adopted. 
The  whims  of  the  architect  and  of  others  in  authority  are  displayed  in  each  building. 
The  lack  of  plans  for  the  placement  of  these  buildings  and  of  uniformity  of  design 
has  made  it  difficult  to  landscape  the  campus  in  more  recent  years.  About  the  best 
that  can  be  said  for  these  old  buildings  is  that  they  are  habitable. 

Eighteen  buildings  occupied  the  main  campus  in  1917  at  the  time  the  survey  of  the 
University  was  made.  No  superintendent  of  buildings  and  grounds  had  been  provided. 
The  Survey  Commission  recommended  the  appointment  of  such  an  officer.  In  accord- 
ance with  this  recommendation  the  board  of  trustees  appointed  A.  O.  Whipple  of  the 
University  of  North  Dakota  to  this  position.  Mr.  Whipple  assumed  the  duties  of  his 
office  April  1,  1918.  The  repair  of  buildings,  the  organization  of  the  janitorial  service, 
the  improvement  of  the  grounds,  superintending  the  erection  of  new  buildings,  and  the 
general  oversight  of  the  buildings  and  grounds  were  some  of  the  major  duties  of  this 
new  department  of  the  administration  of  the  business  of  the  University.  Mr.  Whipple 
continued  in  the  service  of  the  University  until  February  1,  1925.  During  his  admin- 
istration five  new  buildings  and  the  stadium  were  completed;  one  building  was  pur- 
chased; and  two  buildings  were  under  construction  at  the  time  of  his  resignation.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Maury  J.  Crutcher.  Mr.  Crutcher  has  served  the  University  to  the 
present  time.  During  his  administration  ten  new  buildings  have  been  completed  and  one 
has  been  purchased;  walks  and  driveways  have  been  built;  trees  and  shrubs  have  been 
planted.  The  Department  of  Buildings  and  Grounds  has  become  an  indispensable 
division  of  the  administration  of  the  University. 

The  act  establishing  the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College  restricted  the  num- 
ber of  students  who  could  enter  the  college  to  three  properly  prepared  pupils  for  each 
representative  in  the  General  Assembly.  In  1878  the  appointments  were  further  re- 
stricted to  one  pupil  each  year  for  each  representative.  These  appointees  received 
tuition,  matriculation  fees,  room  rent,  fuel  and  lights,  and  traveling  expenses.  The 
plan  of  appointment  was  further  modified  in  1908.  Each  county  in  the  state  was 
entitled  to  select  one  or  more  students,  one  for  every  three  thousand  of  the  population 
and  one  for  each  fraction  thereof  over  fifteen  hundred,  based  on  the  official  census. 
This  method  of  making  appointments  always  gave  the  college  two  groups  of  students — 
those  receiving  instruction  free  and  those  paying  tuition.  The  provisions  of  the  law 
of  1908  continued  in  operation  until  1917  when  the  court  declared  the  law  unconstitu- 
tional. Since  that  time  all  students  of  the  state  have  been  admitted  on  the  payment  of 
a  small  incidental  fee.     This  fee  has  become  known  as  a  payment  of  tuition. 

A  need  for  advanced  work  leading  to  the  master's  degree  was  sensed  by  the  faculty 
in  1879,  and  requirements  were  given  for  earning  the  degree.  The  administration  of 
this  advanced  work  was  conducted  by  the  faculty,  guided  by  that  member  of  the  faculty 
under  whom  the  candidate  did  his  major  work.  This  method  of  administering  the  work 
resulted  eventually  in  the  appointment  of  a  graduate  committee.  In  1911  Professor 
Alexander  St.  Clair  Mackenzie,  Head  of  the  Department  of  English,  was  appointed 
Dean  of  the  Graduate  School.     The  requirements  for  the  master's  degree  were  revised 


and  requirements  were  set  up  for  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy.  Professor 
Mackenzie  resigned  from  the  faculty  in  1916.  After  his  resignation  the  work  of  the 
Graduate  School  was  administered  by  a  committee.  In  1924  Dr.  Edward  Wiest  was 
appointed  Acting  Dean  of  the  Graduate  School.  He  served  in  this  capacity  for  one 
year.  In  1925  Dr.  W.  D.  Funkhouser  was  appointed  Dean  of  the  Graduate  School,  in 
which  capacity  he  serves  at  the  present  time.  In  1927  the  University  Senate  recom- 
mended that  graduate  work  leading  to  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy  be  offered 
in  the  fields  of  chemistry,  education,  economics,  mathematics,  physics,  and  psychology. 
Since  that  time  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy  has  been  granted  to  several  can- 
didates. The  enrollment  in  the  graduate  school  has  grown  from  155  in  1924-25  to  625 
in  1930.  The  Graduate  School  is  now  on  a  good,  sound  basis  and  the  work  done  in 
this  school  is  equal  to  that  done  in  other  state  universities. 

The  development  of  the  University  library  has  been  a  slow  process  of  evolution. 
There  was  no  central  library  until  1909.  Prior  to  this  date  the  library  facilities  consisted 
of  collections  of  books  in  the  several  departments  of  the  institution.  Small  amounts 
of  money  were  appropriated  from  time  to  time  for  the  purchase  of  books.  The  books 
were  not  catalogued  and  there  was  no  librarian.  Such  books  as  the  several  departments 
added  were  placed  in  offices  or  classrooms  of  the  departments  and  used  there.  If  books 
were  lent,  they  were  dispensed  by  professors.  United  States  Government  documents 
were  placed  in  the  administrative  offices  in  the  Administration  Building.  This  method 
of  administering  the  library  continued  until  1909. 

In  1906  Mr.  Andrew  Carnegie  gave  the  University  $20,000  with  which  to  erect  a 
library  building  on  the  campus.  In  June,  1907,  Mr.  Carnegie  made  an  additional  gift 
of  $6,500,  making  a  grand  total  of  $26,500.  The  building  was  completed  and  dedi- 
cated on  November  24,  1909.  Dr.  Henry  S.  Pritchett  delivered  the  dedicatory  address. 
The  books  belonging  to  the  several  departments  were  transferred  to  this  building,  and 
during  the  school  year  of  1912-13  the  books  were  catalogued  and  the  library  service 
was  organized.  The  Survey  Committee  of  1917  said:  "Perhaps  there  is  no  part  of 
the  University  where  improvements  are  more  urgently  needed.  In  the  first  place  the 
number  of  volumes  for  a  university  with  the  departments  of  work  developed  that  are 
found  at  the  University  of  Kentucky  is  very  small,  15,000  volumes  in  the  general 
library.  At  that  time  the  annual  appropriations  to  the  library  were  between  three  and 
four  thousand  dollars  annually. 

In  1917,  when  Dr.  McVey  became  president,  the  number  of  volumes  reported  was 
36,201  and  the  amount  expended  that  year  was  about  $2,600.  At  once  he  enlarged  the 
staff  and  increased  the  annual  budget  for  the  library.  Under  his  encouragement  the 
library  outgrew  the  Carnegie  library  building.  Plans  for  a  new  building  were  approved 
September  20,  1928.  This  building  was  completed  during  the  spring  of  1931  and  was 
occupied  in  June  of  that  year.  It  was  formally  dedicated  October  23,  1931.  Dr. 
John  H.  Finley,  associate  editor  of  the  New  York  Times,  delivered  the  dedicatory 

The  new  building  and  equipment  cost  approximately  $450,000.  Stacks  give  space  for 
more  than  half  a  million  books.  Eighty-four  cubicles  for  the  use  of  faculty  members 
and  graduate  students  are  located  in  the  stacks.  Five  spacious  reading  rooms  are  pro- 
vided in  this  building,  one  each  for  the  reference  books,  reserved  books,  periodicals, 
material  for  graduate  students,  and  browsing  room.  The  third  floor  consists  of  a 
mezzanine  on  the  east  side  of  the  building.  In  this  part  of  the  building  are  located 
the  classrooms,  workrooms,  and  equipment  for  the  classes  in  library  science.  On  the 
fourth  floor  are  located  the  graduate  reading  room  and  twelve  seminar  or  conference 
rooms  for  use  of  graduate  classes.     Ample  space  throughout  the  building  is  provided  for 


workrooms  and  offices  for  the  administrative  staff.  This  building  is  planned  in  such 
a  manner  that  an  addition  may  be  made  to  it  when  the  growth  of  the  University 
requires  it.  The  law  library  and  the  library  of  the  Experiment  Station  are  independent 
of  the  general  library. 

A  brief  history  of  the  University  such  as  this  chapter  affords  would  not  be  complete 
without  a  brief  account  of  the  organization  and  administration  of  the  Agricultural 
Experiment  Station.  In  1885  the  executive  committee  of  the  board  of  trustees  author- 
ized the  establishment  of  an  agricultural  experiment  station  as  a  department  of  the 
Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College.  Professor  Melville  Amasa  Scovell,  Superin- 
tendent of  the  United  States  Experiment  Station  at  Ottawa,  Kansas,  was  elected  di- 
rector of  the  Station  and  took  up  his  duties  in  November  of  that  year.  He  held  the 
degrees  of  Bachelor  and  Master  of  Science  from  the  University  of  Illinois.  He  came 
to  Kentucky  with  good  training  and  experience  for  his  work,  having  served  his  alma 
mater  as  instructor,  assistant  professor,  and  professor  from  1875  to  1884. 

He  organized  the  work  of  the  Station  in  the  basement  of  the  Administration  Building, 
then  the  only  classroom  building  on  the  campus.  Analyses  of  fertilizers,  milks,  waters, 
feeds,  and  soils  were  some  of  the  first  services  planned  by  the  Station.  In  April,  1886, 
Governor  J.  Proctor  Knott  approved  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly  for  the  regulation 
of  the  sale  of  fertilizers.  This  act  recognized  the  Experiment  Station  established  by 
the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College  as  the  Kentucky  Agricultural  Experiment 
Station.  Since  that  time  the  Experiment  Station  of  the  college  and  the  Kentucky 
Agricultural  Experiment  Station  have  been  one  and  the  same  station.  In  1889  the 
first  Experiment  Station  building  was  completed  and  occupied.  The  work  was  carried- 
forward  in  this  building  for  a  period  of  sixteen  years.  In  1905  a  new  building  was 
completed  and  occupied.  Seven  years  later  an  addition  to  this  building  was  erected. 
The  work  of  the  Station  at  this  time  is  conducted  in  this  building.  Professor  Scovell 
directed  the  work  of  the  Station  until  his  death  in  1912,  a  period  of  twenty-seven  years. 
He  saw  the  work  grow  from  modest  beginnings  in  the  basement  of  the  administration 
building  to  an  organization  of  nine  departments. 

Dr.  Scovell  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  Joseph  Hoeing  Kastle,  Head  of  the  Department 
of  Chemical  Research  of  the  Station.  He  was  an  alumnus  of  the  Agricultural  and 
Mechanical  College,  and  had  earned  the  Doctor's  degree  at  Johns  Hopkins  University. 
His  administration  was  cut  short  by  his  death  in  1916.  Upon  the  death  of  Dr. 
Kastle,  Professor  Alfred  M.  Peters,  Chief  Chemist  of  the  Department  of  Chemistry, 
was  made  acting  director  of  the  Station,  and  served  in  this  capacity  until  January  1, 
1918.  He  was  succeeded  by  Thomas  Poe  Cooper,  Director  of  the  Agricultural  Experi- 
ment Station  of  North  Dakota.  Mr.  Cooper  has  served  continuously  in  this  capacity 
until  the  present  time.  Under  his  administration  the  Station  has  extended  its  influence 
throughout  the  state  to  all  phases  of  production  on  the  farm. 

In  the  course  of  its  development  the  Station  has  acquired  a  farm  of  562.5  acres 
adjoining  the  main  campus  of  the  University.  This  land  is  used  for  the  production 
of  crops  and  for  experimentation  in  soil  management,  in  crop  production,  in  horticulture, 
in  poultry,  in  the  production  of  livestock,  in  dairying,  and  in  storing  and  marketing. 
For  these  purposes  the  farm  is  equipped  with  modern  farm  machinery,  buildings,  and 
appliances  for  carrying  forward  the  work  of  the  Station.  The  farm  has  buildings, 
valued  at  $450,582,  adapted  to  its  needs.  These  buildings  contain  equipment  and  stored 
materials  valued  at  $92,023.  The  land  was  formerly  in  the  suburban  area  of  Lexington, 
but  is  now  almost  surrounded  by  residential  sections  of  the  city. 

Research,  teaching,  and  extension  are  the  three  major  divisions  of  the  activities  of 
the   Station.     Under   the  Act  of  the  General  Assembly  authorizing  the   reorganization 


of  the  college  as  a  university,  the  College  of  Agriculture  was  organized  in  1908.  The 
administration  of  this  college  was  placed  in  the  hands  of  a  dean  separate  and  distinct 
from  the  director  of  the  Station.  The  primary  function  of  the  college  was  the  organ- 
ization and  teaching  of  curricula  in  agriculture,  and  that  of  the  Station  was  research 
and  extension.  It  became  apparent  that  under  this  plan  of  organization  the  best  results 
could  not  be  obtained.  In  order  that  there  might  be  unity  of  purpose  and  of  cooperation 
in  agricultural  instruction,  the  College  of  Agriculture  was  placed  under  the  administra- 
tion of  the  Director  of  the  Station.  Since  that  time  the  administrative  officer  of  the 
agricultural  division  of  the  University  has  been  known  as  the  Director  of  the  Agri- 
cultural Experiment  Station  and  the  Dean  of  the  College  of  Agriculture.  Under  this 
plan  of  organization  the  Director  of  the  Station  can  administer  the  whole  program  of 
agricultural  education  to  the  advantage  of  all  members  of  the  staff,  the  students,  and 
the  citizens  of  the  state.  Some  members  of  the  staff  teach  in  the  college,  some  conduct 
research  in  the  laboratories  of  the  Station,  and  others  work  in  both  divisions.  This  ar- 
rangement places  the  experimental  farm  and  all  of  its  equipment  at  the  disposal  of  all 
members  of  the  staff. 

Since  the  coming  of  Dr.  McVey  to  the  University,  two  colleges  have  been  organized. 
The  College  of  Education  was  organized  in  1923.  The  history  of  this  college  is  treated 
elsewhere  in  this  narrative.  The  College  of  Commerce  was  organized  in  1925.  Dr. 
Edward  Wiest,  then  Acting  Dean  of  the  Graduate  School  and  Head  of  the  Department 
of  Economics  and  Sociology,  was  made  Dean,  in  which  capacity  he  still  serves.  This 
college  "aims  to  train  young  men  and  women  for  business  careers  and  also  to  provide 
instruction  intended  to  give  an  understanding  of  the  general  aspects  of  economic  relation- 
ships." Several  curricula  leading  to  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Science  in  Commerce 
have  been  organized.  Three  of  these  curricula  are  general  business,  commercial-law 
and  secretarial  training.  The  enrollment  in  this  college  has  increased  from  year  to  year. 
A  strong  faculty  has  been  built  up  and  the  college  is  now  in  position  to  meet  the  de- 
mands made  upon  it  by  the  people  of  the  state. 

The  University  is  a  creature  of  the  state.  It  has  been  subject  to  the  wishes  of  the 
General  Assembly.  At  times  the  friends  of  the  institution  have  had  to  meet  strong 
opposition.  The  General  Assembly  has  succeeded  in  maintaining  the  University  and 
the  University  has  responded  in  service  to  the  state.  The  financial  support  given  by  the 
state  has  not  been  generous.  The  University  is  now  in  the  throes  of  a  financial  de- 
pression and  the  method  of  financing  the  institution  is  not  well  adapted  to  meet  the 
conditions.  The  future  of  the  University  is  assured  but  its  progress  will  be  slowed  down 
for  some  years.     (End  of  Professor  Ligon's  statement.) 

John  Wesley  Carr's  Recollections  of  Murray  State  Teachers  College 

(An  unpublished  history,  1944) 

The  Kentucky  Educational  Commission  submitted  its  report  to  Governor  Edwin 
P.  Morrow  in  November,  1921.  In  his  message  to  the  legislature  which  met  in  January, 
1922,  the  Governor  commended  the  report  of  the  commission  and  recommended  that 
the  legislature  enact  such  educational  measures  as  "experience,  wisdom  and  patriotism 
dictate."    The  Governor's  message  in  part  was  as  follows: 

"Within  the  past  eighteen  months,  a  thorough,  impartial  and  scientific  survey  has 
been  made  of  the  schools  of  our  state.  This  survey  has  been  made  by  educational 
experts.  I  earnestly  hope  and  urge  that  each  of  you  will  study  this  report  and  give 
heed  to  its  recommendations.     It  is  no  time  for  boasting.    The  brag  dies  upon  our  lips 

4— Vol.    II 

602  A     S  E  S  Q   U  I-  CENTENNIAL 

when  we  know  the  facts.  It  is  time  for  grim  determination  and  a  high  resolve  to 
remedy  educational  conditions  in  Kentucky. 

"We  will  not  have  good  schools  until  Kentucky  realizes  the  tragic  cost  of  our  poor 
schools.  Education  is  an  investment;  ignorance  is  a  tax.  I  recommend  that  in  your 
deliberations  concerning  this  most  important  matter,  that  you  hold  fast  to  all  that  is 
good  in  the  legislation  of  the  past.  I  challenge  you  to  take  no  backward  steps.  I 
recommend  that  you  enact  such  new  legislation  as  experience,  wisdom  and  patriotism 

Early  in  the  legislative  session,  measures  were  introduced  for  the  purpose  of  enacting 
into  law  the  various  recommendations  of  the  Educational  Commission.  On  January  10, 
1922,  Hon.  Brig.  H.  Harris,  of  the  34th  senatorial  district,  introduced  one  of  the 
most  important  of  these  measures.  This  was  Senate  Bill  No.  14  which  provided  for 
the  establishment  of  two  additional  state  normal  schools  for  white  elementary  teachers. 
The  bill  was  referred  to  the  committee  on  University  of  Kentucky  and  Normal  Schools, 
Senator  Hiram  Brock,  Chairman. 

On  January  20,  the  committee  made  a  favorable  report  and  on  January  27,  Senate 
Bill  No.  14  was  passed  by  the  Senate.  The  affirmative  vote  was  thirty,  the  negative 
vote,  two. 

As  the  bill  had  been  drawn  in  accordance  with  the  recommendations  of  the  Educa- 
tional Commission  and  with  the  approval  of  State  Superintendent  Colvin,  it  seemed 
likely  that  it  would  encounter  no  serious  opposition  in  the  house. 

Soon  after  the  passage  of  the  normal  school  bill  by  the  Senate,  the  lobbies  were 
filled  with  strange  faces  from  different  parts  of  the  state  .  .  .  especially  from  the 
eastern  and  extreme  western  parts  of  Kentucky.  It  was  evident  that  a  new  group  of 
persons  were  becoming  "interested"  in  Senate  Bill  No.  14.  It  was  soon  whispered 
that  a  scheme  was  being  devised  to  insure  the  location  of  each  school  before  the 
House  passed  the  bill.60 

After  a  delay  of  nearly  a  month,  Senate  Bill  No.  14  was  made  a  special  order  in 
the  House  for  Tuesday,  February  21,  at  11  o'clock  a.m. 

When  the  bill  came  up  for  consideration,  Mr.  Jeter  of  Lincoln  County  offered  an 
amendment  in  the  usual  form  by  striking  out  certain  parts  and  inserting  so  and  so  in- 
stead.   His  amendment  when  properly  inserted  in  the  bill  was  as  follows: 

"That  a  Commission  is  hereby  created  to  be  known  as  the  Normal  School  Com- 
mission, consisting  of  eight  members,  who  are  citizens  of  the  State  of  Kentucky,  and 
over  21  years  of  age,  to  be  appointed  as  follows:  Five  by  the  Speaker  of  the  House 
of  Representatives  and  three  by  the  President  of  the  Senate,  which  is  authorized  and 
empowered  to  establish  two  new  normal  schools  for  the  training  of  white  elementary 
teachers,  one  in  the  western  part  of  the  state  and  one  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  state. 
The  said  commission  is  hereby  authorized  to  receive  gifts  of  land,  buildings,  or  money 
for  the  establishment  of  these  two  normal  schools  for  elementary  teachers." 

The  fight  which  had  been  anticipated  was  now  on.  Mr.  Truesdell  offered  an  amend- 
ment to  the  amendment  proposed  by  Mr.  Jeter  as  follows: 

"Amend  the  amendment  of  the  representative  from  Lincoln  County  by  substituting 
the  number  of  the  commission  to  be  appointed  by  the  Speaker  of  the  House  from  five 
to  three  members." 

The  amendment  to  the  amendment  was  lost. 

Then  the  Jeter  amendment  was  agreed  to  .  .  .  ayes,  60;  nays,  28. 

Mr.  Boyd  offered  an  amendment  to  be  known  as  Section  5: 

"If  any  section  of  this  act  shall  be  held  unconstitutional,  the  remainder  of  the  act 
shall  not  be  affected  thereby." 


This  amendment  was  agreed  to. 

The  fight  continued  and  other  amendments  were  offered  only  to  be  rejected. 

Finally,  Mr.  Jeter  moved  the  previous  question  which  was  carried. 

The  final  vote  for  Senate  Bill  No.  14 — the  Normal  School  Bill — was  .  .  .  ayes,  69; 
nays,  6. 

Two  days  later,  February  23,  the  Senate  approved  the  bill  as  amended  in  the  House, 
and  on  March  8,  1922,  Governor  Edwin  P.  Morrow  signed  the  bill. 

Senate  Bill  No.  14  as  amended  became  the  first  charter  of  the  two  additional  state 
normal  schools  which  were  to  be  established.     The  First  Charter  in  full  is  as  follows: 

"An  Act  to  provide  for  the  establishment  of  two  normal  schools  for  the  training  of 
white  elementary  teachers,  and  appropriating  money  for  the  maintenance  and  operation 

"Whereas,  the  greatest  need  of  common  schools  is  trained  elementary  teachers,  and 

"Whereas,  the  state  normal  schools  already  established  can  neither  reach  nor  train 
all  the  elementary  teachers  needed  for  the  common  schools;  therefore, 

"Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Kentucky: 

"1.  That  a  commission  is  hereby  created,  to  be  known  as  the  State  Normal  School 
Commission,  consisting  of  eight  members  who  are  citizens  of  the  state  of  Kentucky  and 
over  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  to  be  appointed  as  follows:  Five  by  the  Speaker  of 
the  House  of  Representatives  and  three  by  the  President  of  the  Senate,  which  is 
hereby  authorized  and  empowered  to  establish  two  new  normal  schools  for  the  training 
of  white  elementary  teachers,  one  to  be  located  in  the  western  part  of  the  state  and 
one  to  be  located  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  state.  The  said  commission  is  hereby 
authorized  to  receive  gifts  of  land,  buildings  or  money  for  the  establishment  of  these 
two  normal  schools  for  white  elementary  teachers. 

"2.  The  management  and  control  of  these  two  normal  schools,  when  established, 
shall  be  and  is  hereby  vested  in  the  State  Board  of  Education. 

"3.  There  is  hereby  appropriated,  out  of  the  general  funds  of  the  state,  for  main- 
tenance and  operation,  the  sum  of  thirty  thousand  dollars  annually.  The  auditor  of 
the  Commonwealth  is  directed  to  draw  his  warrants  for  said  sums,  above  appropriated, 
upon  requisitions  signed  by  the  chairman  and  secretary  of  the  State  Board  of  Educa- 
tion. Provided,  that  the  above  appropriation  for  maintenance  and  operation  shall  not 
become  available  for  said  normal  schools  until  the  said  commission  has  received  for 
each  of  said  schools  gifts  of  land  suitable  to  the  purposes  of  each  school,  and  also 
gifts  of  buildings  or  money,  or  both,  equivalent  in  value  to  at  least  one  hundred  thou- 
sand dollars.  Provided,  further,  that  if  gifts  and  donations  are  made,  sufficient  to 
establish  one  of  said  schools,  then  the  sum  of  thirty  thousand  dollars  shall  be  available 
for  the  maintenance  and  operation  of  said  school. 

"4.  All  laws  and  parts  of  laws  in  conflict  with  the  provisions  of  this  act  are  hereby 

?5.  If  any  section  of  this  act  shall  be  held  unconstitutional,  the  remainder  of  this  act 
shall  not  be  affected  thereby." 

In  compliance  with  the  act  providing  for  a  Normal  School  Commission,  Speaker 
James  H.  Tompson  appointed  the  following  members  of  the  Normal  School  Commis- 
sion: Edward  C.  O'Rear,  Frankfort;  Earl  W.  Senff,  Mt.  Sterling;  W.  S.  Wallen, 
Prestonburg;  Thomas  A.  Combs,  Lexington;  Sherman  Goodpaster,  Frankfort. 

Lieutenant  Governor,  Thruston  Ballard,  President  of  the  Senate,  appointed  Alex. 
G.  Barret,  Louisville;  J.  L.  Harman,  Bowling  Green;  A.  Peter,  Louisville. 

Messrs.  Barret  and  Harman  had  been  members  of  the  Educational  Commission 
which   made   the   school   survey.      The    other   members   were   all   prominent   citizens   of 


the  state,  and  highly  respected  in  the  community  in  which  each  resided.  Judge  O'Rear 
was  a  prominent  lawyer  and  formerly  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals;  Judge  Senff 
was  County  Judge  of  Montgomery  County;  Mr.  Wallen  was  representative  from  Floyd 
County;  Judge  Peter  was  a  prominent  lawyer  of  Louisville;  Mr.  Combs  was  a  prominent 
business  man  of  Lexington  and  former  senator  from  Fayette  County;  Mr.  Goodpaster 
was  a  prominent  business  man  in  Frankfort. 

Even  before  the  Commission  was  named  it  was  common  rumor  that  Murray  and 
Morehead  would  be  the  new  normal  schools.  After  the  Commission  was  appointed, 
you  could  hear  from  supposed  'insiders"  the  remark,  "there  is  no  doubt  about  it  now, 
Murray  will  get  the  western  and  Morehead  the  eastern  school." 

"How  do  you  know?"  was  the  question  asked  by  many. 

"Just  wait  and  you'll  see  Rainey  Wells  and  Allie  Young  are  too  smart  for  the  other 
boys.    They've  got  the  jump  on  them." 

Such  was  the  common  gossip  about  the  Capitol.  Personally,  I  did  not  know  the  real 
situation.    I  am  confident  that  Superintendent  Colvin  did  not  either. 

The  people  of  Murray  and  Calloway  County  were  among  those  who  believed  that 
if  they  raised  the  specified  amount  of  money,  the  Western  Normal  School  would  be 
located  at  Murray.  Hence,  as  soon  as  Governor  Morrow  signed  the  Normal  School  bill 
on  March  8,  1922,  the  campaign  to  raise  $100,000  began.  It  was  a  rainy  March  and 
the  roads  were  muddy,  but  the  Callowayans  were  undaunted.  The  campaign  committee 
consisted  of  the  following  persons:  James  G.  Glasgow,  Chairman;  Robert  E.  Broach, 
County  Superintendent  of  Schools,  secretary;  O.  T.  Hale;  Nat  Ryan;  Thomas  A. 
Stokes;  and  Ben  Grogan.  A  canvass  was  made,  not  only  in  Murray,  but  throughout 
the  county.  Every  school  district  made  its  contribution.  The  speakers  gave  assurance 
that  if  the  $100,000  was  raised,  the  Normal  School  would  be  located  at  Murray. 

"But  what  if  it  is  not  located  there,"  said  a  few  doubting  Thomas's. 

"But  it  will  be,"  rejoined  the  speakers,  "and  if  it  is  not  located  there,  it  will  not 
cost  you  a  red  cent,  so  sign  on  the  dotted  line." 

Practically  everybody  who  was  abe  to  do  so  made  his  contribution.  The  subscription 
books  contain  the  names  of  more  than  1,100  persons  who  contributed  from  $500  to 
$2,500  each.  Before  the  end  of  March,  the  $100,000  was  guaranteed— $50,000  by  the 
Bank  of  Murray  and  $50,000  by  the  First  National  Bank  of  Murray. 

Soon  after  its  appointment,  the  State  Normal  School  Commission  met  and  organized 
by  electing  Judge  E.  C.  O'Rear,  chairman,  and  Mr.  W.  S.  Wallen,  secretary. 

A  date  was  set  by  the  Commission  to  hear  the  representatives  of  the  different  cities 
wishing  to  secure  the  location  of  either  of  the  two  State  Normal  Schools.  At  the 
appointed  place  at  the  appointed  hour  the  delegations  from  the  various  cities  desiring 
one  of  the  schools  assembled.  The  "glories"  of  each  city  was  set  forth  to  the  members 
of  the  Commission. 

Among  the  cities  bidding  for  the  Western  State  Normal  School  were  Owensboro, 
Henderson,  Hopkinsville,  Morganfield,  Princeton,  Paducah,  Benton,  Mayfield,  Clinton 
and  Murray.  Lots  were  drawn  to  determine  the  order  in  which  the  representatives  would 
appear  before  the  Commission.    Murray  drew  last  place. 

Judge  Rainey  T.  Wells  was  chosen  to  speak  for  Murray.  He  spoke  of  the  new 
$125,000  high  school  building,  sanitary  conditions,  character  of  the  Murray  people,  etc. 
But  the  most  effective  part  of  his  speech  was  the  presentation  of  two  certified  checks 
for  $50,000  each. 

"It  is  not  what  the  people  of  Murray  promise  to  do,  but  what  they  have  already  done 
that  counts,"  he  said  in  concluding. 

During  the  summer  of  1922  the  Commission  made  a  tour  of  inspection  of  each  city 


bidding  for  the  Western  School.  The  purpose  of  the  tour  was  to  enable  each  member 
of  the  Commission  to  see  for  himself  just  what  each  city  really  had  to  offer  in  the  way 
of  material  and  cultural  facilities,  as  well  as  cash. 

The  inspection  tour  was  a  delight  from  start  to  finish.  "Every  place  we  went," 
said  one  member  of  the  Commission,  "the  folks  polished  up  the  handle  of  the  big 
front  door,  dusted  the  sidewalks  with  flannel  rags,  cut  the  weeds,  carried  our  baggage 
and  dined  us." 

By  the  end  of  summer  the  joy  ride  was  over.     The  voting  was  about  to  take  place. 

On  Friday,  September  17,  1922,  at  the  meeting  held  in  Judge  O'Rear's  office  in 
Frankfort,  Murray  was  chosen  as  the  site  of  the  Western  State  Normal  School  by  the 
votes  of  O'Rear,  Wallen,  SenfT,  Combs  and  Goodpaster.  These  were  the  members 
of  the  Commission  appointed  by  Speaker  James  H.  Thompson.  The  three  members 
appointed  by  Lieutenant  Governor  Ballard — Barret,  Harman  and  Peter — voted  for 
Mayfield.  More  than  twenty  ballots  were  taken  before  a  choice  was  made.  Almost 
every  city  in  the  contest  received  one  or  more  votes  on  some  ballot.  Finally  the  con- 
test narrowed  down  to  Mayfield  and  Murray  and  on  several  ballots  the  vote  was  a 
tie — four  votes    for  Mayfied  and  four  votes  for  Murray. 

How  was  the  news  received? 

What  were  some  of  the  comments? 

A  few  quotations  from  the  Paducah  Evening  Sun  or  of  the  State  Journal  of  Frank- 
fort are  given. 

Murray  Citizens  Stage  Jubilee 

"News  of  the  award  of  the  Normal  School  for  the  Western  district  to  Murray 
caused  an  impromptu  celebration  there  yesterday  that  rivaled  the  Armistice  Day 
jubilation  at  the  end  of  the  war.  When  the  word  came,  men  'cut  loose'  and  everyone 
in  downtown  Murray  joined  in  a  good  old  fashioned  joy  fest." 

Mayfield  Leaders  to  Probe  Award  of  Normal — Princeton  Joins  In 

"Directed  by  W.  J.  Webb,  Attorney  and  Chairman  of  the  Mayfield  Normal  Com- 
mittee, Mayfield  attorneys  and  committee  members  will  insist  that  the  State  Board  of 
Education  begin  an  immediate  investigation  of  the  State  Normal  School  Commission  in 
the  selection  of  Murray  as  the  site  of  the  school. 

"A  circular  letter  to  all  competing  towns  is  being  sent  out  by  Homer  W.  Nichols, 
Chairman  of  the  Princeton  Committee  .  .  .  demanding  an  investigation." 

Normal  School  Commission  Defy  Charges 

Proceedings  of  the  Normal  School  Commission  ...  to  select  sites  for  the  two 
normal  schools  have  been  kept  in  detail  and  will  soon  be  made  public,  it  became  known 

Judge  E.  C.  O'Rear,  Chairman  of  the  Commission,  stated  that  he  caused  complete 
minutes  of  all  meetings  to  be  kept,  and  that  the  record  would  be  made  public  as  soon 

as  it  could   be  transcribed He  said  that  he  would  telegraph  Secretary  W.   S. 

Wallen  to  send  the  minutes  to  Frankfort  at  once,  so  that  they  could  be  given  out.  .  .  . 

"I  invite  investigation;  I  challenge  it;  I  defy  it,"  Judge  O'Rear  said,  speaking  of 
reports  that  Mayfield  interests  demanded  an  investigation  of  the  work  of  the  Com- 
mission. He  said  the  Committee  chose  Murray  because  it  made  a  showing  that  placed 
it  ahead  of  other  cities. 

"I  was  for  Henderson  first  for  the  Normal  School,"  said  Judge  O'Rear.  But  other 
members  of  the  Commission  soon  voted  me  out  of  that.     When  Henderson  was  dropped, 


I  voted  for  Mayfield  without  change  until  it  appeared  that  there  would  be  a  hopeless 
deadlock  and  then  I  voted  for  Murray. 

"I  figured  that  Mayfield  was  a  little  better  than  Murray  for  geographical  reasons, 
and  therefore  I  was  for  it.  But  Murray  is  one  of  the  most  attractive  towns  in  Ken- 
tucky and  showed  a  fine  community  spirit.  It  made  the  greatest  evidential  showing 
of  any  town  in  the  state. 

"Mayfield  and  Murray  were  not  first  contenders  by  any  means.  Members  voted  for 
various  towns.  I  even  voted  for  Paducah  once,  and  in  my  opinion  such  a  school  as  this 
should  dominate  the  community  in  which  it  is  located  and  not  the  community  dominate 
the  school  as  would  have  been  the  case  with  either  Paducah  or  Owensboro,  both  of 
which  are  big  shop  and  manufacturing  centers." 

Normal  Location  to  Stand 

"It  is  unfortunate  that  this  feeling  should  be  stirred  up  between  the  western  towns," 
said  George  Colvin,  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  to  the  Louisville  Times 
today.  "Murray  is  a  fine  community  with  splendid  people  and  a  splendid  spirit.  The 
only  objection  the  Department  of  Education  has  to  the  town  is  its  geographical  situation. 
It  is  too  near  the  edge  of  the  state,  being  just  six  miles  from  the  Tennessee  line." 

Mr.  Colvin  said  he  did  not  see  any  way  clear  toward  blocking  the  selection  of 
Murray  and  Morehead. 

State  Superintendents  Term  of  Office 

Joseph  J.  Bullock    1838-1839 

Hubbard  H.  Kavanaugh 1839-184(T 

B.  B.  Smith 1840-1842 

George  W.  Brush 1842-1843 

Thompson  Dillard   1843-1847 

Robert  J.  Breckinridge    1847-1851 

John  Daniel  Mathews   1853-1859 

Robert  Richardson    1859-1863 

Daniel  Stevenson    1863-1867 

Zack  F.  Smith   1867-1871 

H.  A.  M.  Henderson 1871-1879 

J.  D.  Pickett 1879-1887 

Ed  Porter  Thompson .  1887-1895 

W.  J.  Davidson 1895-1899 

Harry  V.  McChesney   1899-1903 

James  M.  Fuqua    1903-1907 

J.   G.   Crabbe    - 

Ellsworth  Regenstein    1907-191 1 

Barksdale   Hamlett    1911-1915 

Virgil  O.  Gilbert   1915-1919 

George  Colvin    1919-1923 

MacHenry  Rhodes     *  1923-1927 

w.  c  Beii ;;;;;;;  1927-1931 

James  H  Richmond    1931-1935 

Harry  W.  Peters   1935-1939 

John  W.  Brooker 1939-1943 

John  Fred  Williams    f 1943-1947 



Zachary  F.  Smith 


J.  G.  Crabbe 


Robert  J.  Breckinridge 


George  Colvin 


James  H.  Richmond 




A  few  of  the  superintendents,  because  of  a  propitious  mixture  of  personality,  knowl- 
edge, favorableness  of  time,  elements  and  people  were  fortunate  enough  to  have  the 
distinction  of  having  been  instrumental  in  bringing  about  unusual  and  epoch-making 
reform,  or  to  initiate  it.  The  author,  because  of  lack  of  space,  is  able  to  select  only 
five  for  consideration. 

Robert  Jefferson  Breckinridge 


(Biographical  sketch  quoted  from  The  Courier- Journal,  December  28,  1871.) 
"Rev.  Robert  J.  Breckinridge  died  at  his  home  in  Danville  yesterday.  Though  his  ill- 
ness has  been  protracted  and  his  condition  for  a  week  past  has  given  little  or  no  room 
for  hope,  the  news  of  his  death  will  not  be  received  without  a  shock  and  regret. 
The  deceased  was  one  of  the  most  distinguished  members  of  the  illustrious  Breckin- 
ridge family,  whose  name  has  adorned  the  history  of  Kentucky  since  the  days  of 
the  administration  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  and  tracing  thence  its  line  back  through 
Virginia  for  a  century. 

"Robert  J.  Breckinridge  was  born  at  Cabell's  Dale,  Kentucky,  on  the  eighth 
of  March,  1800.  He  studied  successively  in  Princeton,  Yale,  and  Union  Colleges 
(New  York),  graduating  at  the  latter  in  1819.  He  then  fitted  himself  for  the 
bar  and  practiced  law  in  this  state  for  eight  years  from  1823,  being  in  that  period 
several  times  a  member  of  the  State  Legislature.  His  family  had  been  Presbyterians 
since  the  time  of  the  Reformation,  and,  upon  profession  of  his  faith  in  1829,  he 
joined  that  church.  He  was  ordained  pastor  of  the  First  Presbyterian  Church  in 
Baltimore  in  1832,  in  which  position  he  remained  13  years,  and  rose  to  eminence 
for  his  eloquence  and  power  in  the  pulpit.  In  1845  he  was  elected  president  of 
Jefferson  College,  Pennsylvania,  where  he  remained  for  two  years,  at  the  same 
time  being  pastor  of  a  church  in  a  neighboring  village;  after  which  he  removed  to 
Kentucky,  assumed  the  pastorate  of  the  First  Presbyterian  Church  in  Lexington,  and 
became  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  for  the  state.  In  1853  he  resigned 
these  charges,  having  been  elected  by  the  General  Assembly  professor  of  Exegetic, 
Didactic  and  Polemic  Theology  in  the  newly  established  seminary  at  Danville,  an 
office  which  he  held  until  within  a  year  of  his  death.  He  has  participated  largely 
in  the  religious,  moral  and  philanthropic  movements  and  discussions  of  the  last 
forty  years. 

"While  in  Baltimore  he  edited  the  'Literary  and  Religious  Magazine'  and  the  'Spirit 
of  the  Nineteenth  Century,'  and  his  discussions  with  the  Roman  Catholics  which  ex- 
tended over  the  whole  field  of  faith  and  practice,  gave  evidence  of  the  extent  of  his 
knowledge  of  church  history  and  systematic  thology.  In  the  General  Assembly  of  the 
Presbyterian  Church,  in  which  he  often  had  a  seat,  he  has  exerted  a  commanding  influ- 
ence. During  the  controversies  which  led  to  the  disruption  of  the  church  into  the 
old  and  new  schools,  he  steadfastly  maintained  the  old  landmarks  in  opposition  to 
every  innovation;  but  was  efficient  in  removing  from  the  discussion  all  personal  aspects, 
and  in  basing  it  upon  fundamental  principles.  He  took  an  active  and  prominent  part 
in  the  religious  discussions,  in  Kentucky  especially,  which  grew  out  of  the  animosities 
engendered  by  the  war.  Espousing  the  cause  of  the  North,  he  was  an  active  partisan, 
and  for  a  time  during  the  war,  was  considered  as  the  mouth-piece  of  the  administration 
in  Kentucky.  He  is  the  principal  author  of  the  common  school  system  of  Kentucky, 
and  the  prosperity  of  the  theological  school  at  Danville  is  almost  wholly  due  to  him. 
His  published  works  consist  of  a  great  number  of  tracts,  esrays,  and  letters;  two  volumes 


of    ^Travels   in    Europe,'   an   important   work   on    theology,   objectively   considered,   and 
other  books  on  various  subjects." 

Superintendent  Robert  Richardson  said  of  him:  "To  Doctor  Breckinridge,  above  all 
others,  the  people  of  Kentucky  owe  the  establishment  of  our  System  of  Common 
Schools.  He  found  that  system  a  ruin;  he  left  it  a  majestic  fabric;  he  found  it  a 
prey  to  the  timidity  of  legislation  and  the  plunders  of  party;  he  left  it  beyond  legisla- 
tion and  beyond  party,  fixed  immovable  among  the  powers  of  Government  in  the 
Organic  law  of  a  great  Commonwealth."' 

Dr.  Breckinridge's  Statement  Concerning  the  Advancement  of  His 


"The  school  fund  itself  is  large  and  productive,  an  honor  to  the  State,  a  monument 
of  public  wisdom  and  virtue,  an  ample  and  noble  provision,  and  if  properly  managed, 
sufficient  for  the  education  of  the  children  of  the  State.  It  consists:  1.  Of  a  tax  of 
two  cents  on  every  hundred  dollars  worth  of  taxable  property  in  the  State.  2.  Of 
State  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $1,326,770.01.  3.  Of  735  shares  in  the  capital  stock  of 
the  Bank  of  Kentucky,  whose  par  is  $100  each,  $73,500.  4.  Of  a  certain  bonus  on 
other  bank  stocks,  whose  value  is  not  capable  of  being  precisely  reckoned.  The  income 
of  this  fund  ought  to  be  at  present  about  $150,000;  and  for  ten  years  to  come,  it 
ought  to  average  about  $160,000;  and  it  ought  to  increase  with  the  continually  increas- 
ing value  of  the  property  of  the  State.  There  are  eight  State  bonds,  of  which  the  first 
six  exists  in  copies  only,  the  originals  having  been  burnt  by  law  some  years  ago.  One 
copy  of  these  bonds  has  been  in  my  custody  during  the  six  years  I  was  Superintendent, 
and  has  been  delivered  by  me,  to  the  present  Superintendent.  The  seventh  bond,  being 
for  $308,268.42,  dated  December  20,  1848,  was  never  in  my  possession,  but  remains 
in  the  office  of  Secretary  of  State.  The  eighth  bond,  being  for  the  sum  of  $101,001.59, 
dated  January  1,  1850,  was  never  issued  at  all,  as  far  as  I  can  ascertain,  otherwise  than 
by  being  inscribed  at  large  upon  the  Executive  Journal  of  Governor  Crittenden.  Cer- 
tificate of  stock  for  the  735  shares  in  the  Bank  of  Kentucky,  was  in  my  custody  and 
was  delivered  with  the  copies  of  State  bonds  above  mentioned,  to  the  present  Superin- 
tendent of  Public  Instruction;  to  whom  I  have  also  delivered  the  books  and  papers 
belonging  to  the  office.  I  may  add  that  no  public  money  ever  passed  through  my  hands, 
except  that  appertaining  to  my  private  account  with  the  State;  and  that  all  my  accounts 
with  the  Auditor  for  the  large  public  drafts  I  drew,  were  always  in  a  condition  for 
immediate  settlement,  and  were  in  fact,  in  a  perpetual  state  of  settlement,  as  they 
progressed  from  quarter  to  quarter;  and  that  upon  my  resignation,  only  the  fractional 
quarter  remained  for  closure,  which  was  done  in  a  few  moments,  by  the  Auditor.  It 
seems  to  me  that  a  system  upon  which  hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  were  applied 
during  many  years,  to  immense  public  interests,  by  means  so  simple  and  complete  that 
loss,  or  even  delay,  was  impossible,  did  not  deserve  special  mutilation  in  the  Revised 

Sound  Building 

"A  vast  work  has  been  done  for  public  education  in  this  State.  But  it  has  been 
done  under  vast  opposition,  and  against  vast  obstacles.  To  my  predecessors  in  the 
office  of  Superintendent,  I  have  never  failed  to  ascribe  a  large  part  of  whatever  has 
been  accomplished,  and  to  claim  for  them  the  respect  and  gratitude  of  the  people;  I 
have  held  the  office  much  longer  than  any  of  them,  and  besides  what  I  may  have  done 
myself,  I  have  reaped  in  some  degree  the  fruits  of  their  labor.  What  we  have  all  done, 
is  capable  of  being  generally,  but  distinctively  summed  up.  An  immense  fund  has 
been   created,   organized   and   secured;   and   when   in   a   moment   of  political   phrenzy   it 


was  destroyed,  it  has  been  by  a  glorious  series  of  legislative  and  popular  acts,  retrieved, 
restored,  augmented  and  made  sacred.  The  whole  State  has  been  organized  into  school 
districts,  and  a  complete  and  general  system  of  popular  education,  in  its  lowest  stages, 
has  been  firmly  and  universally  established.  Many  thousands  of  comfortable  school- 
houses  have  been  erected,  and  many  thousands  of  additional  teachers  have  found  honor- 
able and  remunerating  employment.  Many  tens  of  thousands  of  the  sons  and  daughters 
of  the  State  have  received,  in  these  schools,  the  first  elements  of  education;  great  multi- 
tudes of  whom,  but  for  these  schools,  would  never  have  received  any  education  at  all. 
And,  perhaps  more  than  all,  a  public  sentiment,  and  what  is  better  and  deeper,  a  public 
principle,  fixed,  general  and  earnest,  has  been  begotten  in  the  mind  and  settled  in  the 
heart  of  our  people,  that  the  work  can  be  done,  and  shall  be  done.  Our  superintendents 
have  not  done  all  this,  though  without  them  it  could  not  have  been  done.  The  public 
press,  that  noblest  gift  of  liberty  to  knowledge,  has  done  its  part.  Many  statesmen 
have  done  their  part.  Many  philanthropists  have  done  theirs.  And  many  virtuous 
citizens  in  the  private,  and  not  a  few  in  the  humble  walks  of  life,  have  done  theirs. 
As  for  my  part  I  count  it  one  of  the  most  fortunate  events  of  my  life,  as  it  will  always 
be  one  of  the  most  precious  reminiscences,  that  I  also  have  had  my  share  in  a  work 
so  full  of  good,  and  good  only." 

Work  for  the  Future 

"For  the  further  advancement  and  complete  development  of  the  system  of  public 
education  in  this  State,  an  immense  work  remains  to  be  done.  I  have  never  ceased  to 
urge  upon  the  legislature  and  the  people  of  the  State,  that  although  the  primary  educa- 
tion of  all  the  children  of  the  Commonwealth,  in  every  generation  ought  to  be  con- 
sidered the  first  and  most  important  part  of  the  work  of  public  education,  yet  it  was 
only  a  part,  and  moreover,  a  part  which  could  be  accomplished  far  more  speedily  and 
perfectly  in  its  relations  to  a  grand  and  complete  whole,  than  it  could  be  if  attempted 
as  the  sole  object  of  our  efforts.  Until  the  passage  of  the  calamitous  law  in  the 
Revised  Code,  all  our  laws  on  the  subject  of  education  were  conceived  in  the  spirit 
of  an  equal  interest  in  the  State,  in  every  grade  and  department  of  education,  up  to 
the  highest  and  in  the  idea  of  all  being  parts  of  a  grand  and  comprehensive  movement  of 
society,  for  its  universal  perfectionment  in  knowledge,  under  the  guidance  of  its  own  or- 
ganized force,  that  is,  the  law  itself.  So  that  in  the  large  views  I  have  cherished,  I  have 
only  developed  and  defended  the  spirits  of  those  numerous  enactments,  by  which  Univer- 
sities and  Colleges  have  been  founded,  by  which  Academies  have  been  endowed  out 
of  the  public  domain,  by  which  Institutions  for  the  Blind  and  Deaf  have  been  erected 
at  the  public  expense,  and  by  which  in  so  many  forms,  and  for  so  long  a  period,  the 
public  treasure  has  been  bestowed,  and  the  public  will  be  made  manifest,  in  favor  of 
universal  education;  universal  alike  in  its  subjects,  as  far  as  possible  to  every  citizen, 
and  for  every  useful  part  of  knowledge.  I  believe  that  each  one  of  my  six  reports  to 
the  legislature,  assumes  or  expressly  utters  this  broad,  and  as  it  appears  to  me  only 
worthy  view  of  the  subject;  and  several  of  them  argued  it  at  length.  In  a  calm  retro- 
spect of  the  whole  ground,  from  the  position  I  now  occupy,  of  a  simple  but  deeply 
interested  spectator,  I  see  nothing  to  change  in  what  I  have  so  repeatedly  advanced  on 
this  part  of  the  subject.  On  the  other  hand,  if  the  great  experience  it  has  been  my 
lot  to  have  acquired  during  the  past  thirty  years  on  the  whole  subject  of  education, 
may  be  supposed  to  give  any  weight  to  my  opinion,  I  frankly  declare  that  I  see  nothing 
more  plainly  than  that  the  interests  and  the  glory  of  this  Commonwealth,  are  both  put 
in  peril,  precisely  in  proportion  as  low  and  narrow  views  are  cherished,  touching  the 
sublime    duties   which    the    State   owes    to   her   children,    in    connection    with    this   great 





Importance  of  Knowledge 

"It  may  be  that  men  will  not  always  bear  to  hear  it,  and  it  may  be,  too,  that  it  is 
not  the  part  of  carnal  wisdom  always  to  utter  it.  But  wise  and  thoughtful  men  all 
know  it,  and  they  have  long  toiled  in  the  sacred  cause,  may  not  ever  be  silent  and  forbear 
to  proclaim  it,  even  where  none  will  hear.  There  is  glory,  greater  than  the  glory  of 
wealth,  and  power,  and  arms,  and  conquest — the  glory  of  loving,  getting,  cherishing, 
diffusing,  perpetuating  knowledge,  whereby  men  may  adorn  their  lot  in  this  life,  what- 
ever that  lot  may  be;  and  whereby,  as  far  as  knowledge  can,  they  may  be  led  to  know 
a  better  life  to  come."' 

Dr.  Breckinridge's  Achievement 

The  following  bit  of  statistical  information  gives  a  clear  picture  of  Dr.  Breckin- 
ridge's labors  for  common  education.    Writes  Mr.  Hamlett: 

The  fourth  report  of  Superintendent  Breckinridge  is  a  remarkable  document.  In 
it  he  triumphantly  announced  the  complete  establishment  of  the  system,  and  con- 
gratulates the  Legislature  and  the  country  upon  the  consummation  of  an  event  so 
full  of  blessings.    He  furnishes  us  with  the  following  statistics: 

Number   of    children    reported    in    1847 20,775 

Number   of   children    reported    in    1848 33,311 

Number   of    children    reported    in    1849 - 87,498 

Number   of    children    reported    in    1850 1 78,5 59 

Number  of  counties   reported   organized   in    1847 27 

Number  of  counties   reported   organized   in   1848 44 

Number  of  counties   reported  organized   in    1849 ,  71 

Number  of  counties  reported   organized   in    1850 98 

Two  counties  remaining  both  actively  engaged  in  organizing. 

Number   of   children    reported    in    1847    m   cities 8,702,    in    county 12,330 

Number   of   children    reported    in    1848    in   cities 7>475,    in   county 25,836 

Number   of   children    reported    in    1849    in    cities 9»7!6,    in    county 77,782 

Number   of   children    reported    in    1850   in   cities 8,653,    in   county 169,906 

Number    of    schools    in    State    in    1847 170 

Number    of    schools    in    State    in    1848 406 

Number    of    schools    in    State    in    1849 -— 825 

Number    of    schools    in    State    in    1850 3>704 

Whole  number  of  children  between   5   and   16  in   1847 173,968 

Whole  number  of  children  between   5   and   16  in   1848 183,458 

Whole  number  of  children  between   5   and   16  in   1849 - T92,999 

Whole  number  of  children  between   5   and   16  in   1850 202,840 

Years  Reported |    1841    |   1842 

Whole    number    of 
children    reported 
by   Superintendent 
of   Legislature    


Average    number    re- 
ported   in    district 
schools I      2160 




3384I      8533 














73  no69 

(Quoted  from  The  Courier-Journal,  July  5,  1911) 

"Vertigo  aggravated  by  the  hot  weather  resulted  in  the  death  of  Zachariah  Fred 
Smith,  for  two  terms  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  and  author  of 
"Smith's  History  of  Kentucky,"  in  his  apartments  at  the  Hotel  Watkins,  Chestnut 
Street,  between  Fourth  and  Fifth  Streets,  yesterday  morning  between  three  and  four 
o'clock.  He  was  found  dead  in  bed  by  his  wife.  Besides  his  wife,  who  was  Miss 
Anna  Pitman,  of  Louisville,  he  is  survived  by  a  daughter,  Mrs.  W.  Hume  Logan,  of 
Louisville,  and  two  sons,  Virgil  D.  Smith,  of  this  city,  and  Dr.  Austin  D.  Smith,  of 


Brooklyn,  N.     Y.     The  latter  was  notified  yesterday  of  his  father's  death,  but  will 
not  be  able  to  reach  Louisville  in  time  for  the  funeral. 

"Mr.  Smith  was  a  native  of  Henry  County  and  was  84  years  of  age.  He  spent 
the  greater  part  of  his  life  as  an  educator  and  wrote  a  number  of  historical  articles. 
At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  just  completing  a  history  of  the  Christian  Church 
in  Kentucky.  Professor  Smith  set  forth  in  his  almost  completed  history  of  the  Chris- 
tian Church  that  Barton  W.  Stone  was  preaching  the  Christian  Church  doctrine  in 
Kentucky  in  1803,  several  years  before  Alexander  Campbell  took  up  the  work.  Later, 
according  to  the  history,  Alexander  Campbell  and  Barton  W.  Stone  joined  hands  in 
the  work  of  organizing  the  Christian  Church. 

"Mr.  Smith  was  educated  in  the  old  Bacon  College  at  Georgetown.  Later  the 
college  was  moved  to  Harrodsburg,  and  finally  it  was  merged  with  what  is  now  Tran- 
sylvania University  at  Lexington.  Mr.  Smith  was  one  of  the  first  curators  of  Tran- 
sylvania University,  then  known  as  the  Kentucky  University,  and  was  the  last  of 
the  original  curators  of  the  institution  to  die.  He  was  an  active  member  of  The 
Filson  Club,  of  Louisville,  and  wrote  a  number  of  interesting  articles  for  that  organiza- 
tion, among  them  The  Life  of  Henry  Clay,  The  Battle  of  New  Orleans  and  The 
Reformation  Under  Barton  W .  Stone. 

"Mr.  Smith  at  one  time  was  president  of  the  old  Cumberland  and  Ohio  Railroad 
Company,  which  failed  after  he  resigned  as  president.  The  company  projected  a  road 
from  Eminence,  on  the  Short  Line  Road,  owned  by  the  Louisville  and  Nashville 
Railroad  Company,  to  Nashville,  Tennessee.  Bonds  were  floated  and  the  grading  for 
the  full  length  of  the  road  had  been  completed  when  Mr.  Smith  resigned  his  office. 
That  was  back  in  the  seventies.  The  country  shortly  afterward  experienced  a  panic 
which  resulted  in  the  death  of  the  project. 

"For  the  last  thirty  years  Mr.  Smith  had  been  a  resident  of  Louisville.  He  was 
twice  married.  His  first  wife,  who  died  about  thirty  years  ago,  was  Miss  Sue  Helm, 
of  Henry  County.  Mr.  Smith  retired  from  active  business  several  years  ago,  since 
which  time  he  had  been  living  quietly,  spending  a  great  deal  of  his  time  writing. 
He  was  looked  upon  as  one  of  the  best-informed  men  in  the  matter  of  history  in  the 
country,  and  contributed  a  number  of  historical  articles  to  various  magazines  during 
his  lifetime.  Before  coming  to  Louisville,  Mr.  Smith  conducted  a  private  school  at 
Newcastle  for  a  number  of  years.  He  was  keenly  interested  in  the  welfare  of  struggling 
young  men,  especially  those  who  aspired  to  the  ministry,  and  at  one  time  was  president 
of  an  organization  which  raised  funds  to  help  defray  the  cost  of  educating  those  who 
aspired  to  become  ministers. 

"Although  he  had  been  in  failing  health  for  some  time  Mr.  Smith  was  able  to  get 
about,  and  on  last  Thursday  dined  at  the  home  of  his  son-in-law,  W.  Hume  Logan, 
on  Third  Street.  Last  Monday  he  was  on  the  street  for  a  short  while,  but  in  the 
afternoon  complained  of  feeling  badly.  He  seemed  to  suffer  a  great  deal  from  the 
heat,  but  Mrs.  Smith  said  she  did  not  think  his  condition  warranted  calling  a  physician, 
as  he  was  subject  to  attacks  of  vertigo  and  she  knew  what  to  do  in  such  cases. 

"Shortly  before  three  o'clock  yesterday  morning  Mrs.  Smith  left  her  apartment, 
which  adjoined  that  of  her  husband,  and  stepped  into  his  room  to  see  if  he  wanted 
anything.  He  seemed  to  be  resting  easily  and  she  returned  to  her  room.  At  four 
o'clock  she  made  another  trip  to  her  husband's  apartment,  and  was  startled  by  the 
pallor  of  his  face.  She  immediately  summoned  aid  from  downstairs  and  upon  exami- 
nation it  was  found  that  Mr.  Smith  was  dead. 

"The  body  was  taken  to  the  home  of  W.  Hume  Logan,  2008  South  Third  Street, 
where   the   funeral   service   will   be   conducted   this   afternoon   at   2:30   o'clock   by   Pro- 


fessor  W.  H.  Bartholomew,  of  the  Girl's  High  School.  Following  the  service,  the 
body  will  be  taken  to  Eminence,  Mr.  Smith's  old  home,  for  burial.  Those  who  will 
act  as  honorary  pallbearers  at  the  funeral  are  W.  B.  Carter,  George  L.  Sehon,  Henry 
L.  Stone,  Judge  J.  Wheeler  McGee,  T.  B.  Duncan  and  W.  S.  Caldwell." 

Mr.  Smith  Describes  the  School  System 

"I  assumed  the  duties  of  my  office  in  September  (1867)  last,  under  the  prejudicial 
conviction  of  the  popular  mind,  that  the  Common  School  System  of  Kentucky,  no 
longer  worthy  of  the  grave  consideration  of  our  men  of  public  trust,  had  been  dis- 
carded from  the  policies  of  State  legislation,  and  abandoned  to  whatever  fate  fortune 
might  hold  in  reserve  for  it.  This  popular  conviction  was  the  logical  conclusion  of 
the  treatment  it  had  received  at  the  hands  of  those  who  should  have  felt  an  ever- 
abiding  obligation  to  sustain,  foster,  and  build  up  so  vital  and  important  an  interest 
to  the  people  of  the  State — the  legislators  of  the  sessions  of  the  past  thirty  years. 
Beyond  the  acts  for  local  and  personal  accommodation,  in  which  the  Legislatures  in- 
clined to  be  prodigal,  but  little  attention  had  been  given  to  the  wants  of  the  insti- 
tution. This  treatment  has  been  unfortunate;  and,  if  persisted  in  longer,  must  be 
disastrous.  The  pro  rata  distribution  of  funds  had  fallen  off  thirty-three  per  cent, 
while  the  vitality  and  efficiency  of  the  administration  of  the  local  interests  of  the 
system  were  becoming  continually  more  impaired.  The  fatal  and  steady  processes  of 
decay  were  thus  made  painfully  evident,  from  year  to  year,  where  sagacious  and  con- 
scientious statesmanship  should  have  infused  life,  strength,  and  energy  in  the  only 
measure  of  general  benefit  for  the  people  now  incorporated  in  the  policy  of  our  State. 

"Whilst  our  legislative  bodies  had  been  almost  uniformly  unfriendly,  indifferent, 
and  evasive,  the  people,  whenever  permitted  an  expression,  were  unwaveringly  firm  in 
advocacy  and  indorsement  of  the  measures  which  proposed  the  inestimable  boon  of 
education  to  their  children. 

"Could  this  be  the  popular  sentiment  of  Kentucky,  and  yet  her  Representatives 
elect  from  the  people,  the  exponents  of  their  sentiments,  be  antagonistic  to  the  policy 
it  indicated?  The  inquiry  suggested  doubt  at  once.  Might  not  this  anomalous  dis- 
crepancy between  the  acts  of  legislation  and  the  indices  of  public  sentiment  have  been 
the  result  of  a  want  of  properly  matured,  well  concerted,  and  persistent  efforts  to 
develop  the  strength  of  the  friends  of  the  cause?  Or  might  it  not  have  been  that 
an  unfriendly,  vigilant,  and  obstinate  minority  had  been  able  to  baffle  and  defeat  all 
such  efforts,  and  thus  to  have  postponed  the  issues  of  success? 

"In  adopting  a  free  school  system  under  the  patronage  of  State  aid,  it  is  the  pro- 
fessed intention  to  provide  a  sufficiency  of  means  to  extend  its  benefits  to  every  district 
of  the  State.  In  view  of  this  most  evident  proposition,  the  question  to  be  decided  is, 
not  whether  a  tax  of  ten,  twenty  or  forty  cents  will  be  popular,  but  what  amount  of 
tax  is  necessary  to  accomplish  the  purpose  desired? 

"After  a  full  survey  of  the  premises  and  a  careful  study  of  the  wants  of  Kentucky, 
my  estimate  is  that  an  additional  tax  of  fifteen  cents  on  the  one  hundred  dollars  is 
necessary  as  the  basis  of  an  effective  and  vigorous  system,  that  will  guarantee  a  free 
school  for  five  months  in  each  year,  in  every  district — the  shortest  time  for  which 
tuition  should  be  given,  to  educate  the  masses  for  good  practical  results.  The  present 
tax  of  five  cents  produces  about  $185,000.  Fifteen  cents  additional  tax  would  in- 
crease the  amount  to  $740,000.  Estimating  the  school  revenues  from  all  other  sources 
at  $90,000,  would  give  an  aggregate  of  $830,000,  to  be  annually  distributed  from  the 
State  Treasury  for  free  school  purposes,  or  about  two  dollars  and  thirty-seven  cents 
per  capita,  supposing  there  are  350,000  children  to  be  schooled.     A  proper  re-district- 


ing  of  the  State  will  leave  but  one  hundred  as  the  maximum  number,  of  pupil  ages. 
The  amounts  to  be  distributed,  therefore,  to  the  various  country  districts,  would  range 
from  $95  to  $237.  Supposing  that  the  more  populous  districts  employ  two  teachers 
for  each  school,  this  estimate  will  give  from  nineteen  to  twenty-five  dollars  per  month 
towards  the  wages  of  teachers;  or  from  one-half  to  three-fourth  of  the  full  amounts 
required,  estimating  the  salaries  paid  at  from  twenty-five  to  fifty  dollars  per  month. 
I  would  recommend  that  the  balance  of  the  salaries,  ranging  from  one-fourth  to  one- 
half  the  amounts  thus  estimated,  be  required  from  the  people  of  the  district  by  local 
taxation,  or  substitute  voluntary  subscription,  if  preferred.  The  law  should  provide 
for  the  assessment  of  a  local  school  tax  at  the  option  of  the  people  of  each  district, 
not  exceeding  twenty  cents  on  the  one  hundred  dollars,  to  be  used  in  cooperation  with 
the  State  funds;  thus  guaranteeing  five  month's  free  school  and  securing  the  use  of 
the  distributable  share  of  the  State  funds  for  the  benefit  of  the  district  and  no  district 
should  be  allowed  to  draw  its  quota  from  the  State  Treasury  unless  it  thus  provides 
by  local  liberality  and  enterprise  to  continue  the  school.  This  is  the  law  of  Illinois; 
and  so  admirable  has  been  its  effects,  that  ninety-one  per  cent  of  the  school  districts 
of  that  State  kept  open  free  schools  for  an  average  of  six  and  one-half  months  in  the 
year,  1865  and  1866.  The  importance  of  the  State  funds  to  the  district,  and  the  ap- 
prehended contingency  of  its  total  loss,  operate  as  a  powerful  stimulant  to  urge  vigor- 
ously measures  for  the  organization  of  means,  with  a  well-adjusted  and  ably-ad- 
ministered school  law,  will  kindle  an  enthusiasm  for  education  among  the  people  of 
our  beloved  Commonwealth  such  as  never  inspired  them  before;  and  will  result,  in 
establishing  elementary  schools  of  excellent  character  in  every  neighborhood  of  the 
State  besides  grade  and  high  schools  at  all  central  points. 

"Our  school  system  needs  remodeling  throughout,  on  the  basis  of  modern  reforms 
which  have  been  fully  tested  and  approved  by  practical  experience.  It  is  not  necessary 
or  proper  that  I  should  here  formally  present  a  plan,  but  will  simply  refer  to  some 
of  the  leading  defects  of  the  present  system,  and  suggest  some  outline  features  of  a 
needed  revision.  Such  revision,  could  not  be  properly  matured  and  perfected  for 
adoption  before  the  next  meeting  of  the  Legislature;  for  which  work  I  trust  the  Legis- 
lature, during  the  session  at  hand,  will  make  suitable  provision,  in  conjunction  with 
the  proposed  increase  of  tax.   The  remedies  and  changes  needed  are — 

"1st.  The  character  and  qualification  of  County  Commissioners  should  be  more 
strictly  guarded,  their  duties  and  responsibility  made  more  imperative  and  an  adequate 
compensation  provided  and  paid  for  their  official  services.  Reason  and  experience 
teach  the  impracticability  of  administering  the  local  details  of  so  vast  and  complex  a 
system  with  vigor  and  success,  without  competent  and  reliable  local  agents.  The 
county  official  representative  is  justly  described  by  an  able  State  Superintendent  to 
be  'the  right  arm  of  power  to  the  system.'  The  position  should  be  made  to  command 
first-class  men.  His  legitimate  functions  are,  not  simply  those  of  statistical  reporter 
and  financial  agent,  but  to  superintendent  the  districts,  organize  the  schools,  visit 
and  inspect  the  same,  lecture  upon  the  importance  of  them,  mix  and  counsel  with  the 
parents  in  public  and  at  their  homes,  examine  and  certify  teachers,  conduct  teachers' 
institutes,  adjust  difficulties,  encourage  educational  interest,  provide  teachers,  and  do 
all  in  his  power  for  the  promotion  of  education.  If  competent  and  faithful,  the  county 
superintendent  will  revolutionize  his  county  in  a  year  or  two,  and  bring  it  in  to  complete 
and  active  harmony  with  the  general  system. 

"2nd.  There  should  be  provisions  made  to  rear  up  a  corps  of  professionally  trained 
teachers  from  our  own  population,  for  the  supply  of  the  public  schools.  The  neglect 
of  this  essential  feature  of  a  State  system  is  seriously  felt,  both  in  regard  to  quantity 


and  quality  of  teachers,  by  us.  It  would  open  a  useful  and  honorable  field  of  industry 
to  seven  or  eight  thousand  young  men  and  women  of  our  State,  who,  as  a  resident 
and  professional  class  of  enlightened  educators,  would  become  a  valuable  and  powerful 
agency  towards  the  advancement  of  our  social,  civil,  and  material  interests  and  insti- 
tutions while  the  wages  paid  them,  being  residents,  would  be  nothing  lost  to  the  aggre- 
gate wealth  of  the  body-politic. 

"3rd.  The  promotion  of  an  educational  literature.  While  this  is  held  to  be  an  active 
and  powerful  stimulus  of  educational  interest  and  enterprise,  we  are  utterly  destitute 
of  any  such  agency.  We  need  an  educational  journal — which  should  be  nearly  if  not 
quite,  self-supporting;  the  establishment  of  district  libraries;  the  introduction  of  books 
upon  the  science  of  art  of  teaching,  popular  lectures,  etc.  The  State  could  do  much 
to  accomplish  these  ends  without  cost  to  its  Treasury  by  proper  legislation. 

"4th.  More  effective  legislation  looking  to  the  organization  and  support  of  grade  and 
high  schools  in  our  towns  and  populous  centers.  Our  present  law  simply  permits  this, 
but  enjoins  no  decisive  or  definite  measures  upon  the  local  authorities  to  accomplish  it. 
There  should  be  a  free  grade-school  in  every  village-district  of  one  hundred  and  fifty 
children,  and  an  additional  free  high  school  department  in  every  town  district  of  two 
hundred  children. 

"5th.  We  should  endeavor  to  have  a  uniformity  of  text-books.  The  great  variety 
and  frequent  changes  of  those  now  in  use  have  become  a  costly  and  serious  evil,  under 
our  unprotected  system. 

"6th.  The  reconstruction  of  our  district  organization  upon  the  plan  of  consolidation. 
This  has  been  done  by  most  of  the  States  north  of  us,  under  the  style  of  the  township 
of  six  miles  square  which  embraces  one  district,  all  the  schools  of  which  are  under 
one  board  of  trustees.  It  is  simply  adopting  for  the  country  the  same  kind  of  organiza- 
tion that  controls  the  free  schools  of  cities,  and  is  done  to  simplify  and  energize  the 
local  operations  of  the  system,  by  getting  rid  of  three-fourth  of  its  official  machinery, 
and  securing  a  better  selection  of  managers. 

"Complaints  have  been  lodged  in  this  office  that  the  Commissioners  of  certain  counties 
are  in  the  habit  of  using  the  school  funds,  belonging  to  their  counties  in  their  business 
or  in  speculations,  before  paying  it  out,  for  the  benefits  of  the  teachers,  to  the  trustees, 
thus  delaying  payment  to  those  who  have  earned  it  by  their  hard  labor  for  weeks  and 
months.  I  cannot  too  severely  condemn  such  a  reprehensible  practice.  If  not  positively 
dishonest,  the  selfishness  and  injustice  which  would  prompt  such  a  practice  would  soon  so 
blunt  the  moral  sensibilities  of  the  man  as  to  lead  him  on  to  dishonesty.  The  present 
imperfect  law  forces  the  teacher,  in  every  case,  to  wait  for  his  wages  for  months.  This 
is  a  severe  hardship,  for  which  a  remedy  will  in  due  time  be  proposed. 


Honorable   Richard   H.   Collins'  Estimate   of  Z.   F.   Smith   as  Superintendent 

of  Public  Instruction 

"Of  the  eminent  men  who  have  championed  the  cause  of  public  education  in  the 
state,  no  one  has  more  clearly  apprehended  its  vast  and  vital  importance,  and  the 
comprehensiveness  of  its  universal  relations.  Realizing  that  to  increase  the  facilities 
for  public  education,  the  essential  and  indispensable  need  was  an  enlarged  financial 
basis,  he  applied  to  the  legislature  to  increase  the  school  tax  from  5  cents  to  20  cents 
on  the  $100 — to  be  submitted  for  ratification  to  a  vote  of  the  people.  Such  active 
and  persistent  opposition  was  developed  as  delayed  the  passage  of  the  bill  until  the 
second  session;  but  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Smith  and  the  friends  of  the  cause  succeeded 
at  last.    The  canvass  before  the  people,   into  which  he   threw  his  whole  strength,  was 


marked   by   such  energy   and  practical  wisdom  as  never  fails  of  success — resulting   in 
a  majority  for  the  law  of  24,679  in  a  total  vote  of  133,493. 

"The  full  fruits  of  Mr.  Smith's  reform  policy — as  set  forth  in  his  special  report 
to  the  legislature,  and  embodied  in  a  bill  for  the  organization,  endowment,  and  manage- 
ment of  the  common  schools — were  defeated  for  the  time.  Some  of  its  important 
features  were  adopted;  others  then  rejected,  have  already  been  engrafted  upon  the 
law;  the  leaven  is  working  still.  Revolutions  sometimes  move  slowly;  a  tremendous 
impetus  to  the  cause  of  public  education  was  given  by  the  popular  vote  of  1869 — it 
was  not  to  be  expected  that  the  whole  work  of  improvement  could  be  wrought  at 
once.  He  struck  for:  1.  Higher  qualifications  and  better  compensation  for  county 
commissioners;  2.  A  trained  corps  of  professional  teachers  in  our  home  population; 
3.  Educational  literature,  a  journal,  district  libraries,  popular  lectures,  etc.;  4.  Graded 
and  high  schools  in  the  cities  and  towns;  5.  Uniform  text-books;  6.  Reconstruction  of 
district  organization,  and  enlisting  more  competent  trustees;  7.  Increased  importance 
to  the  Department  of  Education,  as  among  the  other  State  Departments;  8.  The  right 
of  country  districts  to  vote  special  taxation  for  increased  school  terms,  permanent 
buildings,  etc.  Patience  hath  her  perfect  work  in  this,  also.  Mr.  Smith  is  a  practical 
philosopher;  and  while,  in  the  changes  of  the  day,  this  work  was  removed  from  his 
hands,  can  watch  with  proud  satisfaction  how  other  able  men  are  developing  and 
engrafting  upon  the  state  his  noble  policy.  His  friends  point  with  thankful  pride 
to  the  following  results  of  his  four  years'  administration:  1.  The  extension  of  the 
school  sessions  to  five  months,  theretofore  only  three  months;  2.  Monthly  wages  of 
teachers  doubled,  and  as  a  whole  these  wages  were  tripled;  3.  Number  of  school  dis- 
tricts increased;  4.  Of  schools  taught,  of  census  pupil  children,  and  of  attendance  at 
school,  the  increase  was  twenty  per  cent — and  in  the  amount  and  quality  of  education 
given,  and  in  the  active  interest  created  in  behalf  of  the  public  schools,  the  increase 
exceeded  one  hundred  per  cent.  For  the  first  time  in  Kentucky,  institutes  improvised 
for  the  normal  instruction  of  teachers  were  put  in  operation;  the  standard  of  qualifi- 
cations of  teachers  was  advanced,  and  officials  and  the  people  were  awakened  to  new 
life  and  activity  on  the  subject."'2 

John  Grant  Crabbe,  1907-1909 

(Biographical  sketch  in  Hamlett,  History  of  Education  in  Kentucky,  pp.    193,    194.) 
John   Grant   Crabbe,    the   seventeenth   superintendent   of   public   instruction   of   Ken- 
tucky,  was   born   in  Mt.   Sterling,   Madison   County,   Ohio,   November  29,    1865.     He 
is  a  son  of  Thomas  W.  Crabbe  and  Julia  Catherine  Baughman  Crabbe.     He  married 
Miss  Jennie  Florence  Graff,  of  Delaware,  Ohio. 

Dr.  Crabbe  received  his  early  education  in  the  schools  of  Mt.  Sterling,  graduating 
from  the  high  school  of  that  city.  Later  he  graduated  from  the  Ohio  Wesleyan 
University  at  Delaware,  Ohio,  with  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts.  Three  years 
later  he  received  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts,  from  the  same  institution.  In  1897, 
he  received  the  degree  of  Master  of  Pedagogy  from  the  Ohio  University.  In  1909, 
Berea  College,  Kentucky,  conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws;  again, 
in  1909,  he  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Pedagogy  from  Miami  University;  and 
in  1911,  the  State  University  of  Kentucky  conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor 
of  Laws. 

President  Crabbe  has  been  all  his  life  an  exceedingly  busy  man.  At  the  commence- 
ment of  his  career  as  an  educator,  he  served  as  head  of  the  department  of  Greek  and 
Latin  in  the  Flint  (Michigan)  Normal  College.  He  was  elected  superintendent  of 
the  city  schools  of  Ashland,  Kentucky,  in  1890,  and  ably  and  satisfactorily  performed 


the  duties  of  that  office  for  eighteen  years.  In  1895,  he  was  chairman  of  the  Ken- 
tucky Committee  of  Ten,  and  wrote  the  able  report  of  that  committee.  In  1900  he 
took  a  well-earned  season  of  rest  and  recreation,  which  he  passed  in  travel  in  Europe; 
and  in  January,  1908,  he  assumed  the  duties  of  State  Superintendent  of  Public  In- 
struction for  Kentucky,  to  which  position  he  was  elected  in  the  fall  of  1907.  He 
resigned  the  office  of  State  Superintendent,  April  9,  1910;  and  on  the  same  date  became 
president  of  the  Eastern  Kentucky  State  Normal  School  at  Richmond,  Kentucky. 
(He  resigned  his  position  at  Eastern  to  become  president  of  the  Greeley  Teachers 
College,  Greeley,  Colorado.) 

Superintendent  Crabbe  has  held  many  other  positions  of  honor  and  trust.  He  has 
been  President  of  the  Kentucky  Educational  Association,  Chairman  of  the  Kentucky 
Educational  Commission  to  revise  the  school  laws  of  the  State;  President  of  the  De- 
partment of  Normal  Schools  of  the  Southern  Educational  Association;  State  Director 
of  the  National  Education  Association,  a  member  of  the  National  Council  of  Education 
of  the  National  Education  Association,  President  of  the  Department  of  Normal 
Schools  of  the  National  Education  Association,  a  member  of  the  Phi  Beta  Kappa 
Fraternity,  and  Associate  Editor  of  the  Inland  Educator.  In  every  position  and 
walk  in  life,  Dr.  Crabbe  has  made  good. 

He  has  been  prominent  for  years  in  religious,  fraternal  and  musical  circles.  In 
religion,  Dr.  Crabbe  is  a  Methodist.  He  is  especially  prominent  as  a  Sunday  School 
Superintendent.  While  at  Ashland,  he  built  up  one  of  the  greatest  Sunday  Schools 
in  this  country.  He  is  a  prominent  Mason  and  Knights  Templar.  Music  is  one  of 
his  great  hobbies,  if  hobby  it  may  be  termed.  He  is  a  composer  of  music;  and  while 
State  Superintendent  he  composed  and  set  to  music  the  song,  "Kentucky  Schools," 
which  has  thrilled  thousands  of  Kentucky  children. 

Dr.  Crabbe's  work  while  Superintendent  is  part  of  the  current  history  of  the  State. 
Probably  the  most  noted  events  of  his  busy  administration  were  the  Whirlwind  Cam- 
paigns and  the  County  School  Law.  By  the  first,  he  aroused  the  State  from  center 
to  circumference  along  the  lines  of  educational  needs;  the  second  abolished  an  out- 
grown three-trustee  system  and  started  a  growth  in  the  schools  of  the  State  almost 
unparalleled  in  the  history  of  education. 

Kentucky  owes  a  debt  of  gratitude  to  this  worthy  man  who  started  forces  for  good 
to  work  that  will  tell  through  the  centuries  to  come.' 

Dr.  Crabbe,  energetic,  dynamic,  magnetic  with  ideals  and  visions  of  betterment  of 
Kentucky  through  education,  undertook  during  the  short  time  of  his  incumbency  to 
bring  reforms  which  many  other  states  had  enjoyed  for  half  a  century.  His  task 
was  extremely  difficult;  yet  he  set  about  with  an  inspiring  optimism  which  was  not 
easy  to  oppose.  He  had  the  full  support  of  Governor  Augustus  E.  Wilson,  also 
intensely  interested  in  general  reform. 

Dr.  Crabbe  reported  that  Kentuckians  had  been  and  were  more  interested  in  national 
and  international  affairs  than  in  local  affairs.  He  declared:  "The  most  important 
questions  before  the  people  of  Kentucky  today  are  the  enforcement  of  the  laws,  the 
betterment  of  the  schools,  the  improvement  of  the  roads  and  the  change  in  our  system 
of  taxation.  These  questions  are  of  much  more  immediate  concern  to  the  citizens  of 
Kentucky  than  any  question  relating  to  the  tariff,  to  the  national  banking  laws  or 
the  trusts."  Dr.  Crabbe  contended  that  Kentucky's  per  capita  return  for  education 
was  near  the  head  of  the  list  of  states  (nearly  $3,000,000  annually  being  received) . 
Yet  he  declared  that  in  the  52  states  and  territories  Kentucky  ranked  49th  in  literacy. 
Only  46  per  cent  of  the  children  of  school  age  attended  school.  In  fact,  he  said  that 
Kentucky's   education   system   was   more   wretchedly  managed   than   in   most  any  other 

5— Vol.    II 

!LL  LIB. 


state  of  the  Union.  Five  thousand  of  the  school  trustees  of  the  state  were  illiterate! 
In  this  statement,  Dr.  Crabbe  touched  the  acute  spot:  "The  old  school  district  system 
which  has  prevailed  in  Kentucky  until  recently,  was  discarded  in  the  Northern  States 
nearly  75  years  ago,  and  has  been  discarded  in  every  Southern  State  excepting  Arkan- 
sas. Our  whole  school  system  has  been  disjointed  and  disconnected.  It  is  not  a 
connected,  harmonious  whole.  We  had  no  provision  for  county  high  schools;  we  had 
no  common  school  system  which  led  up  to  a  high  school  or  a  high  school  which  led 
up  to  a  State  college  or  university."  ° 

After  surveying  the  situation  and  preparing  recommendations,  Dr.  Crabbe  organized 
a  state-wide  speaking  and  publicity  campaign  for  educational  reform  and  improvement. 
This  was  the  famous  "Whirlwind"  of  1908  (previously  mentioned) .  So  successful 
was  the  enterprise  that  another  was  conducted  during  the  following  year.  Many  of 
the  most  prominent  men  of  the  state  participated  in  this  crusade  for  betterment,  and 
the  results  were  virtually  miraculous.  The  state  was  aroused  for  educational  reform 
as  never  before.  Dr.  Crabbe  declared:  "This  campaign  has  had  a  wonderful  effect 
in  bringing  the  gospel  of  public  education  nearer  to  the  hearts  of  the  people.  The 
people  are  thinking.  Under  the  operation  of  the  new  "County  School  District  Law" 
the  local  taxes  in  the  counties  and  districts  for  the  current  year  have  been  increased 
from  the  sum  of  $180,000  in  1907-08  to  an  amount  estimated  at  $1,000,000  for  the 
current  year.  Much  has  been  accomplished,  but  the  work  is  not  complete.  It  is  merely 
in  its  infancy  and  we  propose  "to  fight  it  out  on  this  line."' 

Perhaps  the  most  important  legislative  achievement  of  his  administration  was  the 
enactment  of  the  County  Board  Bill.  This  law,  House  Bill  141,  relieved  the  state  of 
the  curse  of  the  old  three-man  district  trustee  system.  Under  this  piece  of  medieval 
antiquity  the  state's  school  system  had  been  administered  by  trustees  (5,000  of  whom 
were  illiterate)  in  8,500  districts.  These  trustees  being  all-powerful  levied  taxes,  col- 
lected (spent,  squandered  or  stole) ,  appointed  the  teacher,  erected  and  repaired  build- 
ings— and  generally  ran  things  backward.  This  bill  provided  for  (1)  the  county  board 
system  of  school  government,   (2)   the  creation  of  a  county  high  school  in  every  county. 

Summarizing  his  legislative  gains  to  the  end  of  1908,  Dr.  Crabbe  listed  these  points: 

"The  General  Assembly  in  1908  passed  the  County  School  District  Law,  or  the 
Sullivan  bill,  which  calls  for  a  complete  reorganization  of  the  school  system  and  for 
the  establishment  within  two  years  of  a  High  School  within  every  county  in  Kentucky. 

"It  made  State  College  a  State  University  and  enlarged  the  scope  of  its  usefulness. 

"It  appropriated  two  hundred  thousand  dollars  to  the  State  University,  one  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  to  the  Eastern  Normal,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  to 
the  Western  Normal  for  additional  grounds,  school  buildings,  dormitories,  equipment, 
etc.;  and,  in  addition  to  what  each  school  is  now  getting  annually,  it  appropriated 
thirty  thousand  dollars  annually  to  the  Western  Normal,  twenty  thousand  to  the 
Eastern  Normal,  and  twenty  thousand  to  the  State  University. 

"It  passed  a  bill  establishing  the  Educational  Commission  and  instructed  it  to 
make  a  thorough  investigation  of  the  whole  system  and  report  to  the  next  General 
Assembly  of  Kentucky. 

"It  passed  a  bill  appropriating  forty  thousand  dollars  for  additional  improvements 
at  the  Kentucky  Normal  for  colored  persons. 

"It  passed  an  act  changing  the  name  of  Kentucky  University  to  Transylvania  Uni- 

"It  passed  a  bill  regulating  the  Child  Labor  Law. 

"It  passed  a  compulsory  attendance  and  Truancy  Law  in  cities  of  the  first,  second, 
third,  and  fourth  classes." 


A  state  is  seldom  fortunate  enough  to  have  such  a  man  as  John  Grant  Crabbe  at 
the  head  of  its  public  school  system.  The  two  short  years  of  service  brought  reforms 
that  should  have  been  made  a  half  century  before.  Elements  of  his  forward-looking 
program  of  reform  were  studied  and  copied  by  many  states,  and,  of  course,  after  a 
time,  his  services  were  obtained  by  another  state,  more  interested  in  education  than 
Kentucky.  Our  state's  $5,000  salary  limitation  is  more  important  to  a  majority  of 
the  voters  than  the  services  of  supremely  outstanding  men. 

GEORGE  COLVIN,  1920-1924 

Biographical  Sketch 

(Quoted  from  The  Courier-Journal,  July  23,  1928) 

"George  Colvin,  president  of  the  University  of  Louisville  and  former  State  Superin- 
tendent of  Public  Instruction,  died  at  3:30  o'clock  Sunday  afternoon  at  St.  Anthony's 
Hospital.    He  was  53  years  old  and  resided  at  1315  S.  Sixth  Street. 

"For  the  last  two  years  Mr.  Colvin  had  suffered  mild  attacks  of  appendicitis,  and 
last  Christmas  received  treatment  at  the  hospital.  An  operation  was  suggested  at 
the  time,  but  was  not  performed  because  of  his  physical  condition,  according  to  Dr. 
Walter  Hume.  Last  Monday  Mr.  Colvin  went  to  the  hospital  and  the  operation  was 
performed  at  10  o'clock  Wednesday  morning  by  Dr.  Hume.  A  small  growth  on 
one  of  Mr.  Colvin's  legs  was  removed  at  the  same  time. 

"Satisfactory  progress  was  reported  until  Saturday  morning,  when  complications 
caused  a  set-back.  Consultations  were  then  held  by  Drs.  Hume,  George  A.  Hendon, 
William  Jenkins  and  John  R.  Wathen.  As  a  result,  a  minor  operation  was  performed 
Saturday  night  in  an  effort  to  off-set  the  complications,  but  the  patient's  condition 
grew  worse.  .  .  . 

"Mr.  Colvin  was  born  in  an  obscure  corner  of  Washington  County,  September  7, 
1875,  the  son  of  a  carpenter.  He  was  one  of  eight  children  in  the  family,  and  partly 
to  relieve  his  father  of  responsibility  for  a  large  family,  left  home  at  the  age  of  ten. 

"He  obtained  employment  at  Williamsburg  and  attended  school  irregularly.  He 
was  able  within  six  years  to  prepare  himself,  largely  by  home  study,  for  entrance  to 
Centre  College,  Danville,  Kentucky. 

"His  popularity  was  attested  by  his  election  as  class  president  for  four  consecutive 
years.  The  Barrett  Memorial  Latin  prize  was  awarded  to  Mr.  Colvin  in  his  sophomore 
year.  He  was  elected  president  of  the  Deinologian  Literary  Society  one  year  and  was 
a  member  of  the  debating  team,  in  addition  to  winning  laurels  on  the  football  and 
track  teams.     In  his  senior  year  Mr.  Colvin  was  captain  of  the  football  team. 

"Mr.  Colvin  was  graduated  from  the  college  with  a  bachelor  of  arts  degree  in 
June,  1895,  and  returned  to  study  law  in  the  fall  of  1896.  After  studying  law  one 
year,  Mr.  Colvin  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  but  "postponed"  starting  his  practice  to 
take  charge  of  a  school  for  a  few  days  at  his  adopted  town,  Springfield,  Kentucky. 

"I  expected  to  work  for  the  school  only  a  few  days,  Mr.  Colvin  once  said.  This 
actually  lasted  sixteen  years.  Thus  his  ambition  to  become  a  practicing  lawyer  was 
changed,  but  his  legal  training  found  outlet  in  educational  reforms,  that  caused  him 
to  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  outstanding  educators  of  the  state. 

"After  four  years  in  the  school  at  Springfield,  Mr.  Colvin  came  to  Louisville,  where 
he  took  a  position  in  the  legal  department  of  the  Louisville  Title  Company.  He  then 
entered  partnership  with  John  W.  Lewis,  the  only  Republican  ever  elected  to  Congress 

620  A     S  E  S  Q   U  I  -CENTENNIAL 

from  the  Fourth  District,  and  began  practicing  law  at  Springfield.  Again  he  was 
called  to  take  over  part  of  a  term  of  the  county  school  superintendent,  who  had  failed 
to  keep  his  contract.    He  never  broke  away  from  school  work  again. 

"He  became  a  state  wide  figure  in  1919  when  he  ran  for  the  office  of  Superintendent 
of  Public  Instruction  on  the  Republican  ticket.  Together  with  the  entire  ticket,  he 
was  elected. 

"His  reforms  in  that  office  attracted  National  interest.  One  of  his  first  acts  was 
to  foster  an  educational  survey  of  the  State,  as  a  basis  of  almost  revolutionary  legis- 
lation that  he  later  introduced. 

"Through  the  personality  and  executive  ability  of  Mr.  Colvin,  a  school  legislative 
program  was  put  through  in  1920  which  changed  the  head  of  the  county  school 
systems  from  an  elective  county  superintendent  to  a  county  superintendent  appointed 
by  a  non-political  county  board  of  education.  This  was  opposed  bitterly  by  politicians, 
who  saw  some  of  the  powers  of  the  party  sacrificed  to  ?Colvin's  Idealism.' 

"His  next  step  was  the  standardizing  of  professional  and  educational  qualifications 
for  county  superintendents  and  teachers.  Under  his  reform  system  all  examination 
papers  were  graded  at  Frankfort  under  the  supervision  of  a  staff  of  educators  which 
he  had  added  to  this  office.  The  temptation  of  superintendents  to  exchange  certificates 
for  political  patronage  was  definitely  removed. 

"Certificates  were  no  longer  issued  for  life,  but  held  for  short  periods,  after  which 
the  applicant  must  show  additional  credits  and  experience  in  the  profession.  The 
State  Department  provided  summer  schools  for  teachers  and  sponsored  extension 
courses  that  would  enable  teachers  to  meet  the  requirements. 

"Salary  schedules  based  on  qualifications  and  professional  fitness  were  inaugurated 
also.  Teachers'  institutes  were  abolished  and  summer  schools  given  in  their  place. 
An  arrangement  was  made  for  the  State  to  pay  most  of  the  expenses  of  these  schools 
where  the  counties  were  unable  to  bear  the  expense. 

"Mr.  Colvin's  diligence  in  uncovering  frauds  in  many  counties  in  connection  with 
the  school  funds     and  county  examinations  left  him  many  political  enemies. 

"Teaching  was  made  a  profession  under  his  four  year  administration.  The  teacher 
was  rated  on  her  qualifications  and  professional  attitude  rather  than  on  one  examina- 
tion, sometimes  fraudulently  passed,  which  was  good  for  a  lifetime. 

"The  State's  yearly  expenditure  for  schools  of  $5,000,000  was  placed  under  a  staff 
of  auditors  and  inspectors,  who  kept  check  on  the  use  of  state  funds  for  10,000  school 
districts  of  the  state.  Formerly,  the  work  had  been  done  by  two  inspectors  on  a  salary 
of  $1,000  a  year  each. 

"Mr.  Colvin  placed  every  department  of  the  State  Deparement  of  Education  on  a 
systematic  basis  with  trained  executives  in  charge  of  each.  As  a  result,  the  county 
school  systems  have  been  placed  on  a  sound  basis,  according  to  reports  issued  by  the 
Department,  and  several  other  states  have  passed  laws  with  Kentucky's  system  as 
a  model. 

"Two  honorary  degrees  were  given  Mr.  Colvin  in  recognition  of  his  work  as  an 
educator.  His  alma  mater,  Centre  College,  and  the  University  of  Kentucky  each  be- 
stowed upon  him  the  degree  LL.D. 

"The  first  to  advocate  an  amendment  to  the  State  Constitution  which  would  permit 
the  distribution  of  school  funds  on  the  basis  of  local  needs,  Mr.  Colvin  fought  for 
the  reform  through  and  since  his  administration.  He  also  changed  the  school  funds 
from  interest  bearing  warrant  basis  to  a  cash  basis. 

"Mr.  Colvin  resigned  from  the  office  near  the  end  of  his  term  to  make  the  race 
for    the    Republican    nomination    for    Governor    in    1923    against    Charles    I.    Dawson. 


With  the  support  of  the  leading  educators  of  the  State,  Mr.  Colvin  waged  a  strong 
campaign  but  lost  in  the  convention. 

"Following  his  defeat,  Mr.  Colvin  was  appointed  superintendent  of  the  Louisville 
and  Jefferson  Children's  Home.  He  held  this  position  for  three  years  after  which 
he  was  offered  the  presidency  of  the  University  of  Louisville.  He  took  charge  of 
the  institution  in  1926,  and  continued  until  his  death. 

"He  was  married  to  Miss  Mary  McElroy,  Springfield,  Kentucky,  in  1903.  Three 
children  were  born  to  them,  two  of  whom  are  living.    The  other  died  at  the  age  of  five. 

"Mr.  Colvin  was  a  member  of  the  Christian  Church  and  the  Masonic  and  Elk 

The  eminent  educator,  Dr.  M.  E.  Ligon,  wrote  of  Mr.  Colvin  and  his  work:  "The 
year  1920  was  epoch-making  in  education  in  Kentucky.  In  January  of  that  year 
George  Colvin,  Superintendent  of  Schools  in  Springfield,  became  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Centre  College  and  had  served  Springfield 
as  Superintendent  for  sixteen  years.  He  was  a  man  of  high  ideals  and  he  understood 
the  educational  problems  of  the  state.  He  brought  to  his  task  a  sound  body,  a  vigorous 
personality,  some  new  ideas,  a  conviction  that  his  ideas  were  sound,  and  a  fearless 
determination  to  serve  the  state  to  the  best  of  his  ability.  Under  his  leadership  of 
four  years,  probably  more  significant  legislation  was  enacted  than  under  any  superin- 
tendent since  the  days  of  Superintendent  Robert  J.  Breckinridge.  The  legislature 
of  1920  may  well  be  designated  the  "welfare  legislature."  It  passed  several  laws 
which  were  planned  to  give  the  state  a  better  system  of  public  schools.  The  act  creating 
a  county  board  of  education  with  power  to  select  a  county  superintendent  of  schools 
on  a  basis  of  professional  training  and  experience  was  outstanding.  Another  act 
created  a  commission  for  the  purpose  of  making  a  survey  of  the  public  school  system. 
County  boards  of  education  were  authorized  to  issue  bonds  for  the  purpose  of  pro- 
viding funds  for  purchasing  grounds  and  constructing  buildings.  The  vocational 
education  board  was  authorized  to  appoint  an  inspector  of  the  schools  which  offered 
vocational  courses.  County  boards  of  education  were  empowered  to  employ  attendance 
officers.  Provision  was  made  for  the  certification  of  teachers  on  the  basis  of  training. 
An  increased  appropriation  for  clerical  and  stenographic  help  in  the  State  Department 
of  Education  was  made.  A  minimum  salary  of  seventy-five  dollars  per  month  for 
teachers  was  approved.  Provision  for  teaching  thrift  and  physical  training  was  made. 
A  State  Board  of  Charities  and  Corrections  was  created.  In  1922  two  new  normal 
schools  were  authorized,  county  teachers*  institutes  were  abolished,  summer  teacher 
training  schools  were  authorized,  and  the  normal  schools  at  Bowling  Green  and 
Richmond  were  made  teachers'  colleges."'" 

The  1920  General  Assembly  submitted  a  constitutional  amendment  making  the  office 
of  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  statutory  instead  of  constitutional. 
The  amendment  would  have  led  to  the  removal  of  this  office  from  politics  and  made 
the  superintendent  appointive  instead  of  elective.  However,  the  amendment  was  de- 
feated. Many  politicians  opposed  it,  and  the  people  either  did  not  understand  it  or 
feared  that  it  smacked  of  "Federalism,"  or  both.  The  Kentucky  voters  throughout 
the  life  of  the  state  have  been  reluctant  to  permit  changes  in  their  constitutions,  and 
usually  opposed  to  new  constitutions — much  to  the  detriment  of  the  state  and  the 
stigmatizing  of  the  people.  Mr.  Colvin  spoke  often  and  feelingly  upon  the  subject 
of  the  amendment.  Among  other  things  he  declared:  "Education  in  Kentucky  in  the 
past  has  suffered  more  from  a  lack  of  definite  policy  and  a  continued  program  than 
from  any  other  single  cause.  Every  four  years,  administration  of  our  schools  is 
changed.      Under   the   law   no   state   superintendent  can   succeed  himself.     Our  schools 


are  a  sort  of  legislative  crazy  quilt.  Each  succeeding  superintendent  adds  a  patch  or 
two  that  may  or  may  not  harmonize  with  the  whole.  No  business  can  succeed  if  its 
policies  are  changed  every  three  or  four  years.  The  administration  of  schools  is  the 
State's  biggest  business.  In  no  department  of  government  is  a  permanent  program 
more  necessary  than  in  the  administration  of  schools.  Kentucky  will  not  have  better 
schools  until  she  has  better  administration  of  her  schools  so  long  as  she  has  politically 
elected  superintendents  serving  only  four  years.  .  .  .  Those  who  tell  us  that  Ken- 
tucky has  not  suffered  from  politically  elected  superintendents  are  either  misinformed 
or  are  deliberately  misleading  the  people.  In  education  Kentucky  ranks  forty-fifth 
among  the  states.  Until  recently  the  attendance  in  our  public  schools  was  37  per 
cent.  Our  teachers  are  not  only  the  most  poorly  paid,  but  they  are  also  the  most 
poorly  prepared  of  any  state  in  the  Union  with  the  possible  exception  of  two.  It  is 
not  because  Kentucky  children  cannot  be  taught;  it  is  not  because  Kentucky  teachers 
lack  capacity  to  learn  or  devotion  to  teach;  it  is  simply  because  children  and  teachers 
alike  have  not  been  given  a  chance.  No  man  who  loves  Kentucky,  who  loves  Ken- 
tucky's childhood  can  be  satisfied  with  Kentucky's  condition  educationally.  Nothing 
has  contributed  to  this  condition  more  largely  than  lack  of  competent,  conscientious, 
continued,  educational  leadership."80 

Another  amendment  was  proposed  at  the  same  time,  namely  to  fix  a  minimum 
salary  for  the  poor,  underpaid  teachers.  Speaking  upon  this  second  provision,  Mr. 
Colvin,  who  was  both  courageous  and  eloquent,  with  a  fine,  deep,  musical  voice,  de- 
clared: "The  adoption  of  the  second  amendment  will  make  it  possible  for  every 
teacher  in  Kentucky  to  receive  at  least  the  minimum  salary  of  $75.00. per  month.  It 
will  make  it  possible  for  every  school  in  Kentucky  to  have  at  least  a  six  months  term. 
It  will  also  make  it  possible  to  aid  those  high  schools  that  can  not  now  reach  the  state's 
standard.  No  greater  opportunity  ever  came  to  the  teachers  of  Kentucky  than  the 
opportunity  to  fight  for  the  adoption  of  these  two  amendments. 

"I  know  that  the  professional  politician  has  been  accustomed,  in  the  past,  to  treat 
the  Kentucky  teacher  with  contempt.  They  think  that  $450.00  a  year  is  too  much  to 
pay  for  the  most  sacred  and  the  most  difficult  work  that  is  being  done  in  Kentucky. 
They  do  not  care  whether  this  poor  pittance  is  paid  when  it  is  earned  or  not.  Other 
officials  drawing  their  salary  from  the  state  must  be  paid  promptly  when  the  salary 
comes  due;  but  the  teacher  could  wait,  and  sometimes  they  did  wait  for  as  much  as 
twelve  months  before  receiving  their  pay  check.  The  professional  politician  is  no 
more  interested  in  the  teacher  now  than  he  has  been  in  the  past.  The  teachers  of 
Kentucky  will  never  be  respected,  will  never  be  properly  rewarded  until  they  appreciate 
and  exercise  the  power  that  is  theirs.  Fourteen  thousand  teachers  fighting  in  the 
holiest  cause  that  ever  invoked  the  devotion  and  courage  of  men — the  cause  of  the 
Kentucky  child,  are  invincible  if  they  do  but  stand  together. 

"I  challenge  every  Kentucky  teacher  to  measure  up  to  the  high  obligation  that  is 
his.  We  fight  not  for  ourselves  alone,  but  we  fight  for  the  rights  of  six  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  Kentucky  children.  In  the  name  of  those  children,  I  challenge 
every  Kentucky  teacher  to  use  voice  and  vote  in  support  of  the  whole  school  program. 
Let's  have  faith  in  ourselves.  Let's  have  faith  in  our  profession.  Let's  have  faith  in 
our  cause.    Let's  have  faith  in  Kentucky."81 

This  important  idea  was  projected  by  the  forceful,  energetic  Mr.  Colvin.  It  is 
here  explained  by  Miss  Conroy:  "Colvin  developed  the  idea  of  an  equal  educational 
opportunity  for  every  Kentucky  child.  He  believed  equal  educational  opportunity 
should  depend  upon  taxation — not  taxation  of  a  city  to  support  county  schools,  or 
taxation  of  a  favored  county  to  support  schools  of  a  less  favored  county,  or  taxation 


of  the  Blue  Grass  to  support  schools  in  the  Mountains  of  the  ^Knobs' — but  taxation 
of  city  and  county,  rich  counties  and  poor,  Blue  Grass  and  Mountains,  for  the  equal 
benefit  of  all  the  children  of  the  state.  He  believed  in  gathering  Kentucky's  taxes 
where  her  wealth  lay  and  in  distributing  her  bounties  where  her  children  were.  Colvin 
believed  in  taking  the  fight  for  better  schools  back  to  the  people.  He  believed  that 
a  good  school  system  must  reflect  the  genius  of  a  people  and  must  grow  out  of  public 

Although  he  did  not  achieve  a  great  deal  in  this  fight,  Mr.  Colvin  waged  it  heroically 
nevertheless.  The  interests  were  against  it;  some  self-satisfied  wealthy  communities 
were  opposed  to  it  (but  not  all;  many  of  those  who  stood  to  lose  locally  were  among 
the  strongest  supporters)  and  thousands  of  the  poor  ignorant  who  had  most  to  gain 
by  its  adoption  voted  against  it.  But  it  was  neither  the  first  nor  the  last  time  that 
Kentucky  voters  set  their  faces  determinedly  against  progress. 

Mr.  Colvin  brought  to  the  State  Department  of  Education  something  new.  He 
was  powerful  physically,  striking  and  handsome  in  appearance,  dynamic  and  forceful 
in  personality,  impulsive,  emotional,  fearless,  big-hearted,  sympathetic,  with  an  intense 
love  for  Kentucky,  a  deep  conviction  in  the  rightness  of  democratic  education  and  a 
positive  mania  for  helping  the  downtrodden  and  those  without  opportunity  for  success 
and  happiness.  He  was  an  educator  who  dared  to  stand  up  and  boldly  tell  the  poli- 
ticians that  education  was  the  first  and  most  important  consideration  and  that  reforms 
would  have  to  be  made.  This  was  something  new  in  educational  circles.  Perhaps  not 
since  "Zack"  Smith  had  any  educator  dared  such  a  thing. 

Things  at  the  Department  "hummed"  while  he  was  there.  His  capacity  for  work 
was  apparently  unlimited.  The  office  staff,  soon  growing  to  love  him,  worked  at  top 
speed — and  never  a  dull  moment. 

On  a  summer  evening,  across  the  way  from  the  Capitol,  shaggy-mopped  George 
Colvin  and  his  great  bosom  friend,  Dr.  John  Wesley  Carr,  could  be  found  seated 
on  the  porch,  their  sleeves  rolled  up,  ecstatically  spouting  Shakespeare  with  the  brilliant 
verve  and  fascinating  enthusiasm  of  the  "wonderful  boy"  Samuel  Taylor  Coleridge. 
Across  the  other  way  at  the  Mansion,  there  was  a  "sound  of  revelry  by  night."  The 
beauty  and  chivalry  of  Kentucky  in  a  gay,  galaxy  of  rhythm  gracefully  glided  in 
exhilarating  convolutions  to  the  melodic  strains  of  Strauss'  lilting  waltzes.  At  intervals 
the  silvery  peals  of  Ed  Morrow's  resonant  voice  could  be  heard  from  the  veranda 
telling  his  fascinating  stories  of  Kentucky  life.  In  the  words  of  Wordsworth,  "Great 
was  it  in  that  dawn  to  be  alive."  Morrow,  Colvin,  Ballard,  Vaughan — all  able,  pro- 
gressive men — were  in  Frankfort  with  great  dreams  for  Kentucky,  there  to  serve  the 
state  with  all  their  power.  Reform  was  the  harbinger;  progress  the  watchword.  Then, 
1920,  1921,  the  "Carpetbaggers"  had  not  yet  moved  in;  then  the  stifling  jealousies  and 
petty  ambitions  for  personal  preferment  had  not  crept  up  to  paralyze  the  glorious 
work — keen  desire  for  vicarious  labor  for  the  good  of  the  Commonwealth  seemed  to 
motivate  each  worker. 

Mr.  Colvin  gave  all  he  had  unstintingly  to  the  work  for  educational  progress  in 
Kentucky.  He  knew  the  state's  needs  and  was  courageous  enough  to  fight  for  them; 
he  knew  that  he  could  not  achieve  all,  realized  in  advance  that  some  of  the  measures 
would  be  hopelessly  defeated.  Yet  he  dared  be  a  pioneer,  that  the  road  might  be 
easier  for  those  who  would  follow.  He  dared  make  many  enemies  in  the  interest  of 
reform  and  progress.  Yet,  it  may  be  said,  as  General  Edward  Bragg,  of  Wisconsin, 
said  of  Grover  Cleveland,  "We  love  him  for  the  enemies  he  has  made." 



(Quoted  from  Peters,  History  of  Education  in  Kentucky,  1915-1940,  pp.  85,  86) 

James  H.  Richmond,  the  twenty-fourth  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  of 
Kentucky,  was  born  April  17,  1884,  at  Ewing,  Virginia.  He  was  the  son  of  Nathaniel 
Ewing  and  Mary  Morison  Richmond,  who  were  among  the  leading  families  of  that 
section  of  mountain  country.  His  father  was  a  physician  in  a  reasonably  progressive 

James  grew  up  under  normal  conditions,  performing  the  usual  boyhood  chores.  His 
chief  recreation  consisted  of  hunting,  fishing,  and  playing  baseball.  He  attended  the 
elementary  schools  at  Cumberland  Gap,  Tennessee,  and  completed  his  secondary  school 
work  in  the  Harrow  High  School.  He  attended  college  at  Lincoln  Memorial  University 
and  the  University  of  Tennessee,  where  he  received  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts. 
He  did  graduate  work  at  Lincoln  Memorial,  University  of  Kentucky,  and  the  Uni- 
versity of  Louisville.  He  holds  the  honorary  degree  of  LL.D  conferred  by  the  Uni- 
versity of  Kentucky,   the  University  of  Louisville,   and  Lincoln  Memorial  University. 

On  December  15,  1917,  he  was  married  to  Pearl  J.  Thompson  of  Louisville,  Ken- 
tucky.  They  have  two  daughters,  Ruth  and  Anne  Howell. 

Before  his  election  to  the  office  of  State  Superintendent,  he  served  as  principal  of 
public  and  private  schools  in  Tennessee,  Texas,  and  Kentucky.  He  organized  and 
successfully  conducted  for  several  years  the  "Richmond  Training  School  for  Boys" 
in  Louisville,  and  in  1928  he  accepted  the  position  as  State  High  School  Inspector  with 
office  in  the  State  Department  of  Education  at  Frankfort.  This  position  he  held  until 
his  induction  into  the  office  of  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction.  Mr.  Richmond 
came  into  this  position  with  unusual  energy,  vitality,  enthusiasm  and  aspiration  to  render 
a  real  service  to  the  State  that  had  thus  honored  him. 

Since  the  expiration  of  his  term  as  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  Mr.  Rich- 
mond has  served  as  President  of  Murray  State  Teachers  College,  Murray,  Kentucky. 
He  is  thought  of  in  Kentucky  as  being  capable,  aggressive,  and  energetic.  He  has 
been  called  upon  by  the  National  Education  Association  and  U.  S.  Office  of  Educa- 
tion, Washington,  D.  C,  and  has  served  as  Chairman  of  the  National  Committee  for 
Federal  Aid  for  Education. 

Mr.  Richmond  is  a  member  of  the  Christian  Church,  where  he  has  given  much  time 
to  procuring  opportunities  for  orphans.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Masonic  Fraternity 
(Knights  Templar  and  Shriner)  and  of  the  Rotary  and  Pendennis  Clubs  of  Louis- 
ville.     (End  of  quotation) . 

The  native  ability  for  leadership  is  rare  in  this  age  of  socialization  and  standardiza- 
tion, which  tend  to  make  a  mass  product  of  human  beings  and  to  the  leveling  of 
individuality.  Yet  Dr.  Richmond  is  one  of  those  rare  personages  with  ability  to  lead. 
He  possesses  a  bigness  of  personality,  a  magnanimity  of  soul,  an  affability  of  manner, 
a  benevolence  of  heart,  a  soundness  of  intellect,  an  abundance  of  energy,  a  purpose- 
fulness  of  being,  an  inate  wisdom  of  human  kind,  all  of  which  conspire  to  make  of 
him  one  of  the  foremost  Kentucky  leaders  of  this  century.  And  his  leadership  has 
been  directed  in  the  interest  of  human.  It  may  be  said  of  him  as  of  George  Colvin 
that  he  loves  Kentuckians,  particularly  the  youth,  and  has  devoted  his  life  to  their 
betterment  through  educational  advancement.  Not  content  to  sit  and  mark  time,  he 
has  labored  with  the  consecrated  zeal  of  a  prophet  of  old  to  break  the  shackles  which 
hinder  mankind  and  stifle  progress  and  has  labored  earnestly  for  progress  in  Kentucky. 
He  has  never  shunned  a  conflict  for  the  betterment  of  the  Kentucky  boys  and  girls, 
has  been  a  happy  warrior,  a  hero  in  the  fight.     But  he  has  known  how  to  work  with 


men.     His  achievements  as  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  are  summarized 
in  the  succeeding  paragraphs. 

In  seeking  election  at  the  hands  of  the  people,  James  H.  Richmond  pledged  them,, 
if  he  should  be  elected,  to  make  every  effort  to  do  the  following  things: 

1.  Reorganize  the  school  laws  of  Kentucky; 

2.  Secure  an  increase  in  the  school  per  capita; 

3.  Provide  free  textbooks. 

His  efforts  in  endeavoring  to  revise  the  school  laws,  along  with  those  of  school  and 
civic  leaders  throughout  the  state,  resulted  in  the  creation  of  the  Kentucky  Educa- 
tional Commission,  whose  responsibility  would  be  to  make  necessary  recommendations 
for  an  improved  school  set-up.  The  Governor  appointed  the  following  people  on  this 

Mrs.  James  G.  Sheehan,  President  of  the  Kentucky  Congress  for  Parents  and 
Teachers,  Danville;  Dr.  Frank  L.  McVey,  President  of  the  University  of  Kentucky, 
Lexington;  Mr.  J.  W.  Bradner,  Superintendent  of  City  Schools,  Middlesboro;  Mr.  H. 
W.  Peters,  Superintendent  of  Christian  County  Schools,  Hopkinsville;  Honorable  W. 
J.  Webb,  attorney,  Mayheld;  Mr.  Yancey  Altsheler,  wholesale  grocer,  Louisville;  Hon- 
orable Ben  Williamson,  former  United  States  Senator,  Ashland;  James  H.  Richmond, 
Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  and  Chairman  of  the  Commission,  in  accordance 
with  section  3  of  the  Commission  Act. 

James  W.  Cammack,  Jr.,  Director  of  Research  in  the  State  Department  of  Educa- 
tion, was  made  secretary  of  the  Commission. 

This  Commission,  working  in  close  cooperation  with  the  committees  appointed  by 
it,  succeeded  in  writing  a  complete  set  of  new  school  laws.  It  took  two  years  to  do 
this;  and  after  the  Commission's  report  was  prepared,  it  was  publicized  throughout 
the  state.  Schools,  churches,  luncheon  clubs,  P.  T.  A.  groups  and  many  others  were 
acquainted  with  the  provisions  of  this  proposed  legislation. 

Mr.  Robert  K.  Salyers,  Jr.  headed  the  publicity  for  this  very  important  work.  He 
did  a  magnificent  job.  During  Governor  Laffoon's  second  Legislature,  this  School 
Code  was  passed.  It  repealed  all  existing  school  laws,  and  gave  Kentucky  a  new  set 
of  school  laws,  which  have  been  recognized  as  among  the  best  in  the  United  States. 
Subsequently,  other  states  have  copied  these  laws.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  only 
two  dissenting  votes  in  the  Legislature  were  cast  against  this  measure.  Incidentally,  it 
should  be  observed  that  in  addition  to  the  services  of  the  State  Department,  the  Ken- 
tucky Education  Association  appropriated  $7,500.00  to  the  Commission,  the  General 
Education   Board,   $5,000.00  and   the   Kentucky  Negro   Association,   $500.00. 

The  success  in  connection  with  the  campaign  for  a  new  School  Code  in  Kentucky 
reveals  this  fact:  If  the  proposition  is  sound,  and  the  people  are  acquainted  with  it 
— all  the  people — it  will  be  adopted. 

The  administration  of  James  H.  Richmond  took  place  during  the  great  depression. 
The  per  capita  was  decreasing  steadily.  In  1932-33,  it  was  $7.00;  in  1933-34,  it 
dropped  to  $6.00;  and  if  the  Legislature  had  not  changed  the  method  of  securing  school 
money — giving  a  definite  appropriation  rather  than  depending  upon  the  millage  tax, 
the  school  per  capita  would  have  fallen  below  $5.00  in  the  year  1934-35.  The  Super- 
intendent recommended  a  $12.00  per  capita.  Such  an  appropriation  was  made  by 
the  Legislature.  It  happened,  however,  that  the  school  census  was  greater  than  was 
anticipated,  thereby  making  the  per  capita  $11.60,  which  was  the  largest  per  capita, 
up  to  that  time,  in  the  history  of  the  state.  From  that  time  on,  $12.00  has  been  con- 
sidered the  minimum  for  the  school  per  capita. 

During   the  administration   of  Governor  Sampson,  a   law   was  passed  providing   free 


textbooks  for  the  lower  grades,  but  no  appropriation  was  made  for  this.  Richmond 
succeeded  in  getting  an  appropriation  of  $500,000.00,  annually,  for  this  purpose;  and 
such  appropriations  have  continued  to  this  date. 

It  will  be  noted  that  the  three  main  pledges  of  Superintendent  Richmond  were 
kept.  In  addition  to  the  new  School  Code,  an  increased  school  per  capita,  a  direct 
appropriation  and  not  a  millage  tax  being  realized,  and  an  appropriation  for  free 
textbooks,  he  reorganized  the  State  Department  on  a  functional  basis,  and  established 
a  central  filing  system.  In  passing,  it  will  be  observed  that  the  per  capita  was  almost 
doubled  and  the  appropriation  for  free  textbooks  realized  during  the  depth  of  the 
greatest  depression  in  our  history. 

Attention  should  be  called  to  several  fundamental  changes,  reflected  in  the  new 
School  Code,  brought  about  during  this  administration:  a  State  Board  of  Education 
appointed  by  the  Governor  supplanting  the  Ex  Officio  Board  made  up  of  the  Attorney 
General,  Secretary  of  State  and  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction;  raising  certifi- 
cation requirements,  thereby  guaranteeing  better  trained  teachers;  the  creation  of  a 
Council  on  Public  Higher  Education;  the  improvement  in  school  budgetary  procedures; 
and  provisions  directed  toward  the  elimination  of  weak  independent  school  districts 
and  the  strengthening  of  county  school  districts. 

During  the  administration  of  Superintendent  Richmond,  much  progress  was  made 
not  only  in  improving  the  school  laws  and  securing  additional  finances  for  the  support 
of  the  schools  but  school  morale  was  strengthened,  and  the  lay  public  became  more 
sensitive  to  the  needs  of  the  schools. 

Had  Dr.  Richmond  achieved  nothing  else  during  his  administration  than  securing 
the  codification  of  the  state's  school  laws,  and  the  passage  of  the  code  by  the  General 
Assembly,  he  would  be  remembered  as  one  of  Kentucky's  outstanding  superintendents. 
This  code  is  approximately  one-seventh  as  long  as  a  compilation  of  the  old  hetero- 
geneous, contradictory  and  obsolete  school  laws  scattered  through  the  statute  books  for 
generations.  But  the  work  was  more  than  a  mere  codification;  it  introduced  new  laws 
in  the  nature  of  sweeping  reform,  such  as  the  creation  of  a  new,  more  workable  State 
Board  of  Education,  the  creation  of  county  districts,  the  provision  for  qualifications 
for  county  board  members,  the  efficient  management  of  school  funds,  the  elimination 
of  sub-district  trustees,  compulsory  school  attendance,  revision  of  certification  of  teachers. 
What  Justinian  was  to  Roman  law,  Dr.  Richmond  was  to  Kentucky's  educational  system. 


A  History  by  James  Moreland 

Established  by  Pioneer 

An  educational  institution  rooted  in  the  soil  of  Kentucky  at  the  very  beginning  of 
the  settlement  of  that  State  was  destined  to  develop  through  an  unbroken  line  into  the 
present  Georgetown  College.  In  November,  1775,  John  McClelland  and  a  few 
pioneers  floated  down  the  Ohio  River  from  Pittsburgh  and  settled  on  the  present  site 
of  Georgetown.  Attracted  by  the  water  of  the  "Royal  Spring,"  as  had  been  these 
pioneers,  others  came  to  take  up  their  abode  in  the  beautiful  wilderness,  and  thus  one 
of  the  earliest  permanent  settlements  of  the  State  was  effected. 

Thirteen  years  after  McClelland  and  his  party  first  looked  on  the  site  of  their  future 
home,  Elijah  Craig  established  his  Classical  School  and  opened  the  doors  for  men  de- 
siring to  secure  an  education.  This  school  was  the  forerunner  of  Georgetown  College. 
It  was  maintained  until    1798,  when  it  was  absorbed  by  Rittenhouse  Academy.     This 


latter  institution  was  chartered,  by  the  Legislature  of  Kentucky  on  December  22  of  that 
year,  and  was  endowed  with  6,000  acres  of  the  public  lands  of  the  State. 

Chartered  by  Legislature  in  1829 

A  building  was  erected  by  the  Rittenhouse  trustees,  and  the  institution  continued  in 
its  educational  endeavors  until  well  into  the  next  century.  On  January  15,  1829,  the 
Kentucky  Legislature  chartered  "The  Trustees  of  the  Kentucky  Baptist  Education  So- 
ciety," the  corporate  name  of  Georgetown  College,  and  the  trustees  of  Rittenhouse 
Academy  transferred  all  the  property  of  the  Academy,  real  and  personal,  to  the 
trustees  of  the  new  institution. 

On  September  2,  1829,  the  trustees  of  the  College  elected  William  Staughton,  D.D., 
a  resident  of  Washington,  D.  C,  president  of  the  College.  While  preparing  to  come 
to  Georgetown  to  assume  his  duties  as  head  of  the  institution,  Dr.  Staughton  died 
suddenly  on  December  12,  1829. 

In  the  meantime  the  trustees  had  ordered  that  the  doors  of  the  new  college  be  opened 
for  instruction,  and  on  January  11,  1830,  the  first  session  was  formally  inaugurated 
with  Thornton  F.  Johnson  of  Virginia  as  acting  chairman  of  the  faculty.  Mr.  Johnson 
was  the  first  faculty  member  elected  by  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  College.  The  first 
session  closed  on  June  11,  1830,  and  was  followed,  on  July  26,  with  the  opening  of  the 
second  term.  In  the  meantime  Dr.  Joel  S.  Bacon  of  Newton  Center,  Mass.,  had  been 
elected  president  of  the  College,  and  he  made  his  first  address  at  the  beginning  of  the 
second  session.  This  session  was  opened  at  the  Methodist  Church  in  Georgetown, 
due  to  the  lack  of  room  on  college  property. 

Four  Years  Without  President 

President  Bacon  resigned  as  head  of  the  institution  in  1832,  and  from  this  time 
until  1836  the  institution  was  without  a  president.  In  the  latter  year  Rev.  B.  S. 
Farnsworth  was  elected  as  third  president,  and  assumed  his  duties.  He  resigned  the 
same  year,  however,  due  to  his  inability  to  secure  concord  among  the  trustees,  and 
again  the  educational  guidance  of  the  College  devolved  on  the  chairman  of  the  faculty, 
until  October,  1838,  when  Rev.  Rockwood  Giddings  became  president. 

The  term  of  President  Giddings  was  limited  to  only  one  year,  due  to  premature 
death,  but  during  his  administration  he  demonstrated  that  the  College  had  a  future, 
and  with  the  proper  management  could  be  made  a  great  institution.  During  his 
term  of  office  the  first  permanent  building  of  the  College  was  erected  on  the  campus. 
This  structure,  known  as  Recitation  Hall  for  years,  but  later  renamed,  in  honor  of 
its  builder,  Giddings  Hall,  is  at  present  the  central  building  on  the  campus,  and  the 
architectural  type  to  which  all  other  building  are  to  conform. 

First  Permanent  Building 

The  building,  a  large  two-story  brick,  beautiful  in  the  coloring  of  its  walls,  stands, 
a  stately  pioneer,  in  the  center  of  the  group  of  educational  buildings  of  Georgetown 
College.  Its  prominent  feature  is  the  six  Ionic  columns  of  hand-made  brick,  solid  to 
the  core  and  strong  as  Gibraltar,  that  would  mark  it  as  Kentucky-designed  were  it 
on  the  plains  of  Timbuctoo.  At  present  this  building  is  used  exclusively  for  instruction 
purposes,  but  is  eventually  to  be  converted  into  the  College  library  and  made  the 
center  of  the  new  architectural  plan  of  this  seat  of  learning.  It  is  claimed  by  men 
of  the  building  profession  that  the  columns  of  this  building  are  the  only  ones  of  their 
kind  in  the  world.  The  bricks  for  this  structure  were  burned  on  the  campus,  and  the 
bulk  of  the  work  of  erection  was  carried  out  by  students  and  faculty  members. 


President  Giddings  did  not  assume  any  teaching  duties,  but  gave  his  time  to  the 
raising  of  funds  for  the  needs  of  the  institution,  and  in  securing  harmony  among  the 
trustees.  During  his  short  term  of  office  he  erected  the  main  building  mentioned 
above,  and  secured  pledges  for  $100,000  as  an  endowment  fund  for  the  College.  The 
bulk  of  this  was  never  collected,  however,  due  to  a  financial  crisis  which  swept  the 
country  and  made  impossible  the  payment  of  most  of  the  pledges. 

On  October  29,  1839,  President  Giddings  died.  He  was  succeeded  early  in  1840 
by  Dr.  Howard  Malcolm,  who  served  for  ten  years.  It  was  during  Dr.  Malcolm's 
administration  that  many  of  the  plans  of  Dr.  Giddings  and  his  predecessors  were 
realized.  A  boys'  dormitory  was  built,  and  named  after  Issachar  Pawling,  whose  do- 
nation of  $20,000  to  the  College  represented  the  first  large  gift  to  the  institution. 
This  building  brought  the  total  up  to  three  structures  on  the  campus,  which  were 
destined  to  care  for  the  College  until  late  in  the  century. 

President  Resigns  Because  of  Politics 

In  1849,  President  Malcolm  resigned  from  the  College,  being  impelled  largely  by 
political  conditions  around  him  which  did  not  have  his  sympathy.  It  was  in  the  period 
of  the  anti-slavery  agitation.  He  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  J.  L.  Reynolds  of  South 
Carolina,  who  served  until  1851,  when  he,  too,  resigned  to  give  way  to  Dr.  Duncan 
R.  Campbell,  who  took  up  the  duties  of  his  office  in  1853. 

Changes  Made  in  Charter 

During  the  administration  of  President  Reynolds  there  were  certain  changes  made 
in  the  charter  of  the  College  which  had  far-reaching  effects,  and  which  have  played  a 
large  part  in  the  development  of  the  institution.  By  legislative  act  of  November, 
1851,  it  was  "enacted  that  each  individual  who  since  January  1,  1840,  has  donated  to 
the  Kentucky  Baptist  Education  Society,  $100,  or  shall  do  so  in  the  future,  shall  be 
and  are  hereby  constituted  a  body  politic  and  corporate,  to  be  known  and  designated 
by  the  name  and  style  of  Kentucky  Baptist  Education  Society,  and  by  that  name 
shall  have  perpetual  succession,  and  a  common  seal,  with  power  to  change  and  alter 
said  seal  at  pleasure." 

These  changes  further  provided  that  this  Society  should  hold  annual  meetings  during 
commencement  week,  that  25  members  of  the  society  should  constitute  a  quorum  for 
the  transaction  of  business,  and  that  this  organization  should  have  the  sole  power  to 
appoint  the  trustees  of  the  Kentucky  Baptist  Education  Society,  which  were  the  trustees 
of  Georgetown  College.  This  change  in  the  charter  affected  materially  the  operation 
of  the  institution,  since  before  this  time  there  were  24  trustees  who  were  self-per- 
petuating, and  from  this  time  on,  these  24  members  were  elected  by  the  Society.  It 
further  changed  a  mere  name  into  a  working  body  constantly  growing  in  numbers. 

President  Campbell  Advances  Work 

When  President  Campbell  entered  on  the  duties  of  his  office  in  1853,  the  interests 
of  the  College  were  materially  advanced.  Of  the  "Giddings  Fund"  which  had  been 
raised  in  1839  and  1840,  only  about  $10,000  remained  for  general  endowment  uses, 
since  a  large  portion  of  this  money  had  gone  into  the  completion  of  the  main  college 
building  and  into  the  erection  of  Pawling  Hall,  a  boys'  dormitory.  President  Camp- 
bell prosecuted  a  vigorous  campaign  for  funds,  and  succeeded  in  securing  pledges  for 
$100,000  for  the  institution.  Of  this  amount,  about  one-half  was  collected  and  in- 
vested as  endowment  by  the  trustees.  The  remainder  was  taken  in  the  form  of  personal 
promises  and  notes,  practically  all  of  which  was  lost  due  to  the  Civil  War,  which  made 


it  impossible  for  many  of  the  donors  to  meet  their  obligations.  This  part  of  the 
pledged  amount  was  cancelled  by  the  College. 

Notwithstanding  this  severe  loss  to  the  finances  of  the  College,  the  institution 
weathered  the  Civil  War  much  better  than  many  institutions  which  went  to  the  wall 
through  this  period.  At  the  conclusion  of  hostilities  the  $50,000  invested  had  been 
little  if  any  impaired.  It  was  this  fund  which  in  a  large  measure  made  it  possible  for 
the  College  to  survive  the  severe  period  which  followed  the  war. 

Dr.  Campbell  died  suddenly  in  1865,  and  was  succeeded  in  the  presidency  by  Rev. 
Nathaniel  Macon  Crawford,  who  resigned  in  1871  due  to  ill  health,  and  who  in  turn 
was  followed  in  September  of  the  same  year  by  Dr.  Basil  Manly,  Jr.,  a  native  of 
Alabama  and  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  that  State.  Dr.  Manly  continued  as 
president  until  1879,  when  he  resigned  to  accept  again  his  old  professorship  in  the 
Southern  Baptist  Theological  Seminary,  from  which  he  had  resigned  to  come  to 

During  these  last  two  administration  no  general  attempt  was  made  to  increase  the 
funds  of  the  institution,  aside  from  an  effort  to  endow  a  "Student's  Chair"  and  toward 
which  some  $8,000  was  collected  through  the  zeal  of  Dr.  J.  J.  Rucker,  a  professor  of 
Mathematics  in  the  College.  Another  forward  step  made  during  this  period  was  the 
erection  of  a  wing  to  Pawling  Hall,  which  formed  a  new  front  to  this  building.  The 
cost  of  the  improvement  was  $7,000. 

President  Dudley's  Services 

Dr.  Manly  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  Richard  M.  Dudley  as  president.  Dr.  Dudley  was 
born  in  Madison  County,  Kentucky,  on  September  1,  1838.  He  graduated  from 
Georgetown  College  in  1860,  and  was  the  first  graduate  of  the  institution  to  be  elevated 
to  the  presidency.  He  served  in  this  capacity  until  his  death,  January  5,  1893,  having 
acted  as  president  for  thirteen  years,  or  since  1880. 

The  impress  made  by  Dr.  Dudley  on  the  institution  was  probably  the  greatest  of 
any  president  up  to  his  time.  During  his  administration  he  tripled  the  endowment, 
new  professorships  were  created,  new  courses  were  added,  the  student  body  was  in- 
creased, and  toward  the  close  of  his  term  coeducation  was  adopted  by  the  College. 
As  a  direct  result  of  his  work,  two  large  new  building  were  added  to  the  College,  but 
these  were  not  completed  until  after  his  death. 

Coeducation  Introduced 

One  year  before  the  death  of  President  Dudley,  women  were  admitted  to  the  College 
on  the  same  basis  as  men.  This  radical  change  in  the  policy  of  the  institution  necessi- 
tates a  flash  back  to  the  year  1845,  when  the  college  was  only  sixteen  years  old.  At 
that  time  there  was  founded  in  Georgetown  an  educational  institution  for  women,  known 
as  the  Georgetown  Female  Seminary.  From  1845  until  1868  this  educational  venture 
was  housed  in  buildings  erected  for  purposes  other  than  education.  In  1868  Semi- 
nary Hall  was  erected  on  property  belonging  to  the  Seminary,  and  this  structure 
housed  the  institution  in  all  departments  until  1892,  when  young  women  were  ad- 
mitted to  the  College  and  accepted  in  the  classrooms  with  men.  It  continued  to  serve 
as  their  dormitory  until  1895,  when  the  College  erected  a  large  dormitory  for  girls. 
This  building  was  named  Rucker  Hall,  in  honor  of  Prof.  J.  J.  Rucker,  who  for  years 
was  principal  of  the  Seminary  and  a  pioneer  in  Kentucky  in  advocating  coeducation. 
Up  to  this  period,  Kentucky  had  not  made  provision  for  the  higher  education  of 
young  women  equal  to  that  for  young  men.  The  new  dormitory  was  erected  on  the 
south  side  of  the  campus,  and  was  large  enough  to  accomodate  120  girls. 


When  the  residents  of  Seminary  Hall  left  to  take  up  their  abode  in  the  new  build- 
ing, the  boys  occupied  their  old  home  and  the  "Old  Sem"  became  a  boys'  dormitory 
until  1922,  when  it  was  abandoned  by  the  College  and  the  site  sold  to  the  city  for 
the  erection  of  a  $263,000  high  school  building. 

New  Building  Erected 

Following  the  death  of  Dr.  Dudley,  the  trustees  called  Dr.  Augustus  Cleveland 
Davidson  of  Covington,  Kentucky,  a  graduate  of  the  College  in  the  class  of  1871, 
to  the  office,  and  he  held  this  position  for  six  years  to  August,  1898,  when  he  resigned. 
During  his  administration  (1894)  the  Chapel  Building  was  erected,  containing  a  chapel, 
library,  gymnasium,  literary  society  halls,  and  several  classrooms.  Rucker  Hall  was 
also  built  in  1895,  as  has  been  mentioned.  Following  his  resignation,  Professor  Arthur 
Yager  was  chosen  as  chairman  of  the  faculty,  and  the  institution  was  without  a  presi- 
dent until  1901,  when  the  trustees  called  Dr.  B.  D.  Gray  to  the  presidency.  Dr.  Gray 
served  for  two  years,  and  was  succeeded  in  1903  by  Dr.  Joseph  Judson  Taylor.  In 
1907  Dr.  Taylor  resigned  and  Dr.  Arthur  Yager  became  president,  which  offiice  he 
held  until  1913,  when  he  resigned,  soon  after  which  he  was  appointed  as  Governor- 
General  of  Porto  Rico  by  his  former  classmate,  President  Woodrow  Wilson.  He  filled 
this  position  with  high  distinction  for  eight  years. 

In  September,  1913,  Dr.  Maldon  Browning  Adams  became  the  choice  of  the  trustees 
for  the  presidency,  and  entered  upon  his  duties.  He  is  still  in  this  position  and  under 
his  administration  the  College  had  made  commendable  progress. 

Growth  Under  President  Adams 

On  assuming  the  presidency,  President  Adams  set  himself  to  the  task  of  placing  the 
College  on  the  accredited  lists  of  different  standardizing  agencies.  In  1919  he  realized 
the  first  step  in  his  plans  for  the  greater  Georgetown,  when  the  Association  of  Colleges 
and  Secondary  Schools  of  the  Southern  States  placed  the  institution  on  its  list  of  ap- 
proved colleges.  In  this  same  year  the  Academy,  which  had  been  a  part  of  the  institu- 
tion since  its  inception,  was  abolished  and  only  regular  college  work  allowed.  Special 
courses  were  discouraged,  and  the  great  majority  of  students  entering  were  regularly 
enrolled  for  a  degree.  This  same  situation  has  become  the  settled  policy  of  the  in- 

Following  its  inclusion  in  the  list  of  standard  southern  colleges,  Georgetown  was 
made  a  member  of  the  American  Association  of  Colleges,  and  has  since  become  a 
member  of  the  American  Council  on  Education. 

When  President  Adams  assumed  the  responsibilities  of  the  presidency,  there  were 
only  112  regular  college  students  and  ten  members  of  the  faculty.  During  his  ad- 
ministration the  enrollment  has  steadily  increased  until  more  than  400  are  enrolled 
each  year,  and  the  faculty  has  been  increased  from  ten  to  thirty-one  members. 

There  was  organized  a  permanent  financial  department,  known  as  the  2nd  Century 
Fund,  the  purpose  of  which  is  to  constantly  seek  for  funds  for  the  use  of  the  institu- 
tion in  caring  for  its  expansion  needs  in  current  expenses,  endowment  and  buildings. 

Expansion  Program  Started 

In  1923  the  trustees  of  the  College  purchased  a  tract  of  land  immediately  to  the 
east  of  the  campus  for  use  as  an  athletic  field  at  such  time  as  the  present  athletic  field 
will  be  needed  for  buildings.  They  also  purchased  a  strip  of  land  130  feet  wide 
running  from  College  Street  to  Main  Street  in  order  that  the  College  might  have  a 
direct  outlet  to  the  residence  and  business  center  of  the  city. 


A  movement  was  started  by  the  student  body  in  May,  1924,  for  a  new  gymnasium. 
As  a  result  of  this  movement  and  after  the  students  had  subscribed  about  $25,000 
toward  the  erection  of  the  proposed  building,  the  citizens  of  the  town  put  on  a  cam- 
paign for  funds  to  complete  the  contemplated  cost  of  $100,000,  and  in  September  of 
this  year,  work  was  started,  and  the  building  was  completed  in  1925. 

Anticipating  its  needs  for  the  future,  the  institution  started  in  1925  a  campaign 
for  one  million  dollars  for  endowment  and  buildings.  Due  to  the  fact  that  it  con- 
flicted with  the  unified  budget  of  the  Baptist  denomination  in  Kentucky,  the  campaign 
was  discontinued  after  some  four  hundred  thousand  dollars  had  been  pledged  to  the 
institution.  After  this  effort  the  2nd  Century  Fund,  the  permanent  financial  depart- 
ment of  the  College,  was  introduced  by  President  Adams  and  adopted  by  the  trustees. 

A  Brief  Summary  of  Recent  History 

Dr.  M.  B.  Adams  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  Henry  Eugene  Watters  as  president  in 
1931.  Dr.  Watters  received  his  degrees  from  Union  University.  Before  coming  to 
Georgetown  College  he  served  seven  years  as  Principal  in  Public  Schools.  He  was 
President  of  Hall-Moody  Institute;  President  of  College  of  Marshall,  Texas;  Presi- 
dent of  University.  The  college  during  this  administration  faced  the  same  difficulties 
that  all  similar  institutions  had  during  the  depression  period.  Enrollment  and  finan- 
cial troubles  combined  to  make  Dr.  Watter's  administration  difficult. 

Dr.  Henry  Noble  Sherwood  succeeded  Dr.  Watters  as  President.  Dr.  Sherwood 
received  his  A.B.  and  Ph.D.  from  Indiana  University,  A.M.  degree  from  Harvard 
University  and  LL.D  from  Beaver  College.  He  came  to  Georgetown  College  from 
the  University  of  Louisville,  where  he  was  professor  of  Political  Science.  Dr.  Sher- 
wood's administration  was  marked  by  denominational  differences.  A  period  of  discord 
led  to  the  resignation  of  Dr.  Sherwood  in  June,  1942. 

In  November,  1942,  Dr.  S.  S.  Hill  came  to  Georgetown  College  as  President.  He 
graduated  from  the  University  of  Richmond  and  the  Southern  Baptist  Theological 
Seminary.  The  University  of  Richmond  conferred  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity 
upon  Dr.  Hill,  June,  1943.  He  is  a  native  of  Virginia.  He  was  serving  as  pastor  of 
the  Deer  Park  Baptist  Church  when  elected  to  the  presidency  of  the  college. 

During  the  past  year  much  has  been  done  to  improve  the  physical  appearance  of  the 
college.  Rucker  Hall,  Pawling  Hall,  Giddings  Hall  have  received  attention  that  has 
not  only  made  them  more  beautiful  inside  but  more  useful  as  well.  The  other  buildings 
are  on  the  schedule  for  repairs  when  time  and  materials  permit  such  work.  New  con- 
crete walks  add  to  the  beauty  of  the  campus.     Plans  are  being  made  for  future  building. 

Georgetown  College  is  the  Senior  Baptist  College  of  Kentucky  and,  as  such,  realizes 
and  assumes  the  responsibility  of  forwarding  Christian  Education  of  the  highest  type 
in  our  state  and  throughout  the  country.  The  college  feels  that  the  Baptists  of  Ken- 
tucky want  and  deserve  a  college  that  gives  to  its  students  the  loftiest  ideals  of  Christian 
living  and  the  best  of  Christian  training.  Our  graduates  serve  the  state  and  the  nation, 
even  the  world. 

Georgetown  College  is  a  member  of  and  is  fully  accredited  by  the  Association  of 
Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools  of  the  Southern  States,  and  the  Association  of  Ken- 
tucky Colleges  and  Universities.  It  also  is  a  member  of  the  Association  of  American 
Colleges,  the  American  Council  on  Education,  and  of  the  Southern  Intercollegiate 
Athletic  Association.  Her  work  and  credits  are  received  with  full  value  by  graduate 
schools  and  the  state  departments  of  education  throughout  the  entire  country. 


By  Victor  P.  Henry 

Lindsey  Wilson  College  was  an  answer  to  a  deep  need.  Wise  and  safe  was  the 
choice  made  by  those  most  responsible  for  the  locating  of  the  institution  at  Columbia, 
Kentucky,  to  meet  that  need.  Lindsey  Wilson  College  memorializes  Lindsey  Wilson, 
a  beloved  member  of  the  family  of  Mrs.  Catherine  Wilson,  who  was  a  direct  de- 
scendant of  the  Reverend  Marcus  Lindsey,  an  early  itinerant  minister  in  Kentucky. 
Mrs.  Wilson's  gift  made  the  beginning  of  the  college  possible. 

The  main  buildings  are  beautifully  and  conveniently  grouped  on  the  ten  acre 
hill-top  campus.  The  Administration  Building,  erected  in  1903,  houses  the  adminis- 
trative offices,  classrooms,  and  an  auditorium-chapel  on  the  first  floor.  The  second 
floor  is  practically  given  over  to  library  purposes.  The  library  contains  6,000  well- 
selected  volumes.  Newspapers  and  carefully  chosen  magazines  are  also  provided  for 
student  use.  The  lower  floor,  well-lighted  and  ventilated,  is  utilized  by  the  science 

Philips  Hall  for  girls,  built  in  1903,  was  named  for  Mrs.  James  Philips,  of  Lebanon, 
Kentucky,  whose  initial  gift  encouraged  its  construction.  It  is  an  attractive  two-story 
brick  building.  It  accommodates  seventy  girls.  Faculty  members  occupy  one  wing  of 
this  hall.  A  large  living-room  provides  a  home-like  atmosphere  for  the  enjoyment  of 
the  students. 

The  boys'  dormitory  is  a  three-story  brick  building.  Forty  double  rooms  are  for 
the  living  and  study  room  conveniences  of  the  students.  The  Lounge  is  inviting  for 
leisure  hours,  and  committee  meetings. 

A  modern,  sizeable  gymnasium  serves  the  recreational  needs  on  the  campus.  The 
college  dining  room  and  a  well-equipped  kitchen  are  located  on  the  lower  floor  of 
this  building. 

On  the  campus  is  a  model  training  school  building.  Two  main  class-rooms  with  ad- 
joining demonstration  rooms  are  well  equipped  and  furnish  splendid  facilities  for  ob- 
servation and  practice  teaching  of  the  first  six  grades  of  grammar  school,  under  the 
supervision  of  excellent  critic  teachers. 

On  the  acreage  allotted  for  farm  purposes  a  dairy  barn  has  been  built.  Garden 
products  and  grain  are  grown.  The  products  of  the  farm  and  dairy  are  used  by  the 
college  and  contribute  greatly  toward  reduced  living  costs. 

True,  the  building  of  a  college  is  a  cooperative  task.  Throughout  the  years,  the 
citizens  of  Columbia  and  vicinity,  the  Conferences,  and  many  other  friends  have  been 
loyal  supporters  of  the  institution,  thus  carrying  on  the  service  to  young  men  and 
women,  so  early  envisioned  by  those  who  had  faith  and  daring  sufficient  to  undertake 
the  locating  of  an  educational  institution  in  that  part  of  the  state. 

The  service  which  Lindsey  Wilson  Junior  College  has  already  rendered  should 
challenge  Kentucky  Methodism  and  all  others  interested  in  Christian  education  to  a 
greater  endeavor  in  its  behalf.  For  a  number  of  years,  this  splendid  institution  carried 
on  a  high  type  of  normal  work.  With  the  raising  of  educational  standards,  the  Junior 
College  was  begun  in  1923. 

The  faith  of  the  founders  of  Lindsey  Wilson  has  been  fully  justified  by  the  type 
and  character  of  the  great  number  of  preachers,  teachers,  lawyers,  doctors,  and  persons 
in  numerous  other  professions  which  it  has  trained.  Of  the  approximately  700  graduates 
of  the  old  Training  School,  and  792  graduates  of  the  Junior  College,  more  than  1,300 
have  become  teachers,  and  over  fifty  have  entered  the  ministry. 

Ninety  per  cent  of  the  teachers  of  Adair  County  are  former  students,  and  the  sur- 


rounding  counties  depend  upon  Lindsey  Wilson  for  many  of  their  teachers.  Great  is 
the  responsibility  of  those  who  go  forth  to  teach  the  boys  and  girls  of  our  schools  today! 
Fundamental  to  the  life  of  the  church,  the  nation,  the  world,  is  the  type  of  Christian 
leadership  now  being  trained  in  the  schoolrooms  for  the  tomorrows  of  life. 

Realizing  the  importance  of  this,  the  faculty  of  Lindsey  Wilson  take  their  task 
seriously.  They  are  fully  aware  that  those  who  come  to  its  campus  need  guidance  and 
counsel  in  the  strengthening  of  those  principles  that  are  basic  to  an  intelligent  and  re- 
sponsible type  of  living  for  themselves,  and  as  they  give  expression  to  those  principles 
in  human  relationships,  wherever  they  choose  to  live  and  serve. 

The  educational  requirements  at  Lindsey  Wilson  have  been  well  met.  The  graduates 
are  readily  admitted  to  the  Junior  Class  of  standard  four-year  colleges  and  universities. 
Lindsey  Wilson  is  on  the  "A"  grade  accredited  list  with  the  University  of  Kentucky, 
and  the  Kentucky  State  Board  of  Education.  It  is  a  member  of  the  Kentucky  Asso- 
ciation of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools. 

Lindsey  Wilson  Junior  College  has  a  field  which  is  particularly  its  own.  The  stu- 
dents from  about  a  dozen  counties  in  Southern  Kentucky  look  to  it  for  their  educational 
opportunity.  The  territory  runs  about  one  hundred  miles  along  the  Kentucky-Ten- 
nessee line,  and  is  approximately  fifty  miles  deep.  Numerous  other  students  from 
other  parts  of  Kentucky  and  bordering  states  make  their  way  to  Lindsey  Wilson. 

The  territory  which  it  serves  most  largely  is  a  recruiting  ground  for  teachers  and 
preachers,  hundreds  of  whom  have  gone  from  her  halls  into  these  professions.  Thus 
the  influence  of  Lindsey  Wilson  Junior  College  has  been  felt  in  the  educational  and 
religious  life  of  the  State  and  nation. 

No  better  field  of  service  can  be  found  within  the  State.  Doctor  M.  E.  Ligon,  the 
immediate  past  president  of  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary 
Schools  said  recently,  "The  Methodists  have  a  real  field  for  service  in  Southern  Ken- 
tucky, and  Lindsey  Wilson  should  be  developed."  Christians  dare  not  let  their  in- 
stitutions fail  to  meet  the  needs  of  this   hour. 

During  the  past  decade  only  limited  attention  has  been  given  to  equipment  needs, 
and  almost  nothing  has  been  done  to  build  up  Lindsey  Wilson's  endowment.  These 
items  cannot  longer  be  neglected.  To  meet  the  demand  that  will  soon  be  made  on  this 
institution,  our  physical  plant  must  be  improved  by  building  a  library,  enlarging  our 
administration  building,  creating  a  worshipful  chapel,  improving  the  laboratory  equip- 
ment, and  refurnishing  the  dormitories.  We  are  planning  to  extend  the  curriculum  by 
expanding  some  departments,  and  adding  others. 

(From  College  Bulletin) 

Union  College  was  founded  in  1879  by  a  group  of  progressive  citizens  of  Barbour- 
ville,  who  formed  a  stock  company  and  by  donation  secured  the  main  part  of  the 
present  campus.  In  1880  the  first  building  was  formally  opened  on  the  site  of  the 
present  Administration  Building.  Mr.  A.  H.  Harritt,  who  was  instrumental  in  the 
organization  of  the  school,  was  its  first  Principal.  The  local  group  soon  discovered  that 
the  debt,  for  the  new  building  was  too  great  for  them  to  carry,  and  accordingly,  in 
1886,  the  buildings  and  property  were  ordered  sold  by  the  court.  The  Rev.  Daniel 
Stevenson,  the  President  of  Augusta  Collegiate  Institute  at  Augusta,  Kentucky  took 
interest  in  Union  College,  and  in  1886  purchased  the  property  for  the  Board  of 
Education,  Kentucky  Conference,  Methodist  Episcopal  Church.  He  became  the  first 
President   under   the   new   management,   and   during   his   term   was   instrumental   in   en- 

6— Vol.    II 


listing  the-  friendship  of  Mrs.  Fanny  Speed,  who  later  left  the  College  a  legacy  that 
guaranteed  its  permanence. 

Dr.  Stevenson  ranks  as  one  of  Kentucky's  foremost  educators.  He  was  graduated 
from  Transylvania  University  when  Dr.  Henry  Bascom  was  its  President.  As  a 
member  of  the  Kentucky  Conference,  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  he  was 
one  of  the  leaders  who  helped  in  founding  Kentucky  Wesleyan  College,  now  located 
at  Winchester,  Kentucky.  In  1863  he  was  elected  the  first  full-time  superintendent 
of  public  instruction  in  Kentucky  and  exercised  a  wide  influence  in  popularizing  public 
education  throughout  the  state.  He  brought  this  mature  experience  to  Union  College 
and  placed  its  objectives  in  clear  view. 

Upon  the  death  of  President  Stevenson  in  1897,  the  Rev  James  P.  Faulkner,  a 
member  of  the  first  graduating  class  of  Union  College,  was  elected  to  succeed  him. 
During  the  administration  of  President  Faulkner  the  college  came  into  possession  of 
the  bequest  of  Mrs.  Fanny  Speed,  and  from  that  time  its  expansion  was  marked. 
During  the  same  administration  Fanny  Speed  Hall  and  the  Central  Heating  Plant 
were  planned  and  the  work  on  the  buildings  was  begun.  These  buildings  were  not 
available  for  use,  however,  until  the  beginning  of  the  next  administration,  that  of 
Rev.  James  W.  Easley,  B.D.,  A.M.,  whose  term  of  office  began  in  1905.  During  the 
summer  of  1906  the  Administration  Building  was  struck  by  lightning  and  burned. 
One  year  later  it  was  replaced,  and  Stevenson  Hall,  home  for  men,  was  erected.  The 
coming  of  the  elective  system  and  the  broadening  of  the  curriculum  made  a  college 
program  seem  like  an  impossible  task  to  those  in  charge.  The  college  department  was 
therefore  discontinued  in  1908,  and  for  eight  years  the  institution  was  maintained 
only  as  an  academy  and  an  elementary  school. 

Upon  the  resignation  of  President  Easley  in  1910,  the  Hon.  James  D.  Black,  LL.D., 
of  Barbourville,  later  Governor  of  Kentucky,  became  the  fourth  President  of  Union 
College.  The  two  years  of  President  Black's  connection  with  the  school  are  remembered 
as  years  of  substantial  growth. 

For  the  next  three  years  the  school  was  under  the  leadership  of  President  Percy  L. 
Ports,  who  for  several  years  had  been  Professor  of  Natural  Science.  He  was  followed 
in  1914  by  the  Rev.  E.  R.  Overley,  who  served  as  Acting  President.  This  was  the 
critical  period  in  which  the  nature  of  the  work  that  Union  College  should  do  in  the 
future  was  being  determined. 

In  1914  the  Board  of  Education  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  through  its 
corresponding  secretary,  Dr.  Thomas  Nicholson,  became  interested  in  Union  College 
and  assisted  the  Board  of  Education  of  the  Kentucky  Conference  in  planning  for  its 
future.  The  Rev.  Ezra  T.  Franklin,  elected  President  in  the  same  year,  worked  in 
close  cooperation  with  the  Board  of  Education  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  and 
soon  formulated  a  far-reaching  and  practical  program.  In  1919  the  Memorial  Gym- 
nasium was  built;  in  1925  a  home  for  the  President  was  completed.  A  development 
program,  inaugurated  in  1921,  helped  to  provide  these  improvements  and  materially 
aided  in  increasing  the  invested  funds  of  the  college. 

In  1927  a  bequest  of  $50,000  was  received  from  the  estate  of  Mrs.  Obed  H.  Wilson 
for  the  establishing  of  a  professorship  known  as  the  "Francis  Landrum  Professor  of 
Ethics  and  Moral  Conduct." 

President  Franklin  severed  his  relationship  with  Union  College  November  15,  1928, 
to  become  President  of  Southwestern  College,  Winfield,  Kansas.  He  was  succeeded 
on  February  1,  1929,  by  the  Rev.  John  Owen  Gross. 

President  Gross,  from  the  beginning  of  his  administration,  emphasized  the  improve- 
ment of  instruction  and  the   building  of  a  strong   faculty.     His  ambition  was   to  see 


Union  College  accredited  by  all  the  regional  agencies.  That  his  ambitions  were  reached 
is  well  shown  by  the  accreditation  the  college  has  now.  President  Gross  succeeded 
in  improving  the  quality  of  work  of  Union  College  and  in  broadening  the  service  to 
the  area  which  the  institution  renders.  During  his  administration,  land  adjacent  to 
the  campus  was  purchased,  thus  making  possible  further  expansion  of  the  college.  A 
modern  maintenance  building  housing  the  central  heating  plant,  workshops,  and  several 
classrooms  was  erected  during  his  administration. 

President  Gross  resigned  on  August  20,  1938,  to  accept  the  position  of  President 
of  Simpson  College,  Indianola,  Iowa.  He  was  succeeded  on  November  4,  1938,  by 
Dr.  Conway  Boatman. 


The  college  department  was  closed  in  1908  and  no  other  work  at  this  level  was  given 
until  1916.  The  need  for  a  standard  college  in  southeastern  Kentucky  became  evident. 
Therefore,  a  program  was  adopted  to  discontinue  the  elementary  and  secondary  de- 
partments and  develop  a  college  of  liberal  arts.  In  1927  Union  College  was  accredited 
by  the  University  of  Kentucky  as  a  four-year  college  of  "A"  grade;  in  1928  it  was 
admitted  to  membership  in  the  Association  of  Colleges  and  Universities  of  Kentucky; 
in  1931  it  was  accredited  by  the  University  Senate  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church; 
and  in  1932  it  was  elected  to  membership  in  the  Association  of  American  Colleges. 
On  December  1,  1932,  its  program  for  full  accreditation  was  realized  when  it  was  made 
a  member  of  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools.  The  Board 
of  Regents  of  the  University  of  the  State  of  New  York  placed  Union  College  on  its 
accredited  list  in  1937. 


Union  College  is  located  in  Barbourville,  the  county  seat  of  Knox  County,  Kentucky, 
near  the  southeastern  corner  of  the  state.  It  is  within  thirty-five  miles  of  the  corner- 
stone of  three  states — Kentucky,  Virginia,  Tennessee.  Barbourville  is  a  town  of  about 
3,000  population,  located  in  a  broad  valley  at  the  confluence  of  Richland  Creek  and  the 
Cumberland  River.  It  is  surrounded  by  low  hills  of  the  Cumberland  Mountain  range. 
The  town  has  such  modern  conveniences  as  natural  gas,  water  works,  electric  lights, 
and  paved  streets.  There  are  Baptist,  Disciple,  and  Methodist  Churches,  and  two  ac- 
credited high  schools,  county  and  city.  Barbourville  is  located  on  U.  S.  Highway  25E. 
Buses  that  make  connections  with  points  north  and  south  pass  through  the  town 
regularly.  It  is  also  on  the  Cumberland  Valley  Division  of  the  Louisville  and  Nashville 

Aim  and  Purpose 

The  constitution  of  Union  College  provides  that  it  shall  "devote  its  effort  to  the 
interest  of  Christian  education  and  to  qualifying  and  equipping  men  and  women  to 
engage  creditably  in  the  various  employments,  callings,  and  avocations  of  peaceful  and 
progressive  society  and  to  discharge  honorably  and  usefully  the  various  duties  of  life." 
It  is  not  a  sectarian  school,  but  is  endeavoring  to  render  impartial  service  to  all  who 
may  come,  especially  to  the  young  people  of  the  mountain  territory  in  which  it  is 
located.  Union  College  endeavors  to  maintain  a  Christian  atmosphere  by  securing  for 
its  faculty  those  persons  who  can  accept,  heartily  and  without  reserve,  the  ideals  for 
which  the  school  stands.  In  its  chapel  exercises  and  special  religious  meetings  it  em- 
phasizes the  importance  of  accepting  Christ  as  a  Personal  Redeemer,  Constant  Guide, 
and  inspiring  Ideal. 



Administration  Building — This  building  was  erected  in  1907  on  the  site  of  the 
one  that  was  burned  in  1906.  It  is  a  three-story  structure  of  brick  trimmed  with 
Tennessee  marble;  it  contains  the  various  classrooms  and  laboratories,  the  chapel,  and 
administrative  offices.    The  ground  floor  also  houses  the  kitchen  and  dining  room. 

Speed  Arts  Building — This  building,  which  was  formerly  the  Speed  Hall  Dormitory 
for  women,  houses  the  Fine  Arts  and  the  Practical  Arts  divisions.  Music  and  Art  have 
their  studios  and  the  Home  Economics  Division  has  its  laboratories  and  class  rooms  in 
this  building. 

Stevenson  Hall — The  dormitory  for  men  is  a  two-story  brick  building  of  colonial 
design.  The  rooms  accommodate  two  students  each.  Some  of  the  rooms  have  running 

Memorial  Gymnasium — This  building  was  erected  in  1919  as  a  Memorial  to  the 
Soldiers  and  Sailors  of  the  World  War.  It  contains  a  regulation  basketball  court, 
showers,  lockers,  and  dressing  rooms. 

Library  Building — Union's  new  library,  which  houses  approximately  16,000  books, 
and  receives  regularly  290  periodicals,  was  opened  for  use  January  13,  1941.  A  large 
reading  room  with  space  for  150  readers  houses  the  reference  books,  current  magazines, 
and  bound  periodicals.  Books  reserved  for  special  class  use  are  shelved  in  a  smaller 
reading  room  on  the  second  floor.  In  this  room  are  also  the  books  of  fiction  and  the 
books  given  the  International  Relations  Club  by  the  Carnegie  Corporation  for  Inter- 
national Peace.  Well  equipped  workrooms  and  tastefully  furnished  lounge  rooms  add 
to  the  efficiency  and  beauty  of  the  building.  The  library  was  adequately  furnished 
throughout  by  Mrs.  Abbie  E.  Stewart,  of  Des  Moines,  Iowa,  in  memory  of  her  hus- 
band, George  Stewart. 

Baldwin  Place — This  part  of  the  campus  was  made  possible  by  the  gifts  of  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  F.  E.  Baldwin,  Elmira,  New  York.  The  President's  home  is  located  on 
this  site. 

Maintenance  Building — This  building  was  erected  in  1937.  It  is  a  two-story 
brick  building  that  contains  the  central  heating  plant  and  college  shops.  The  wood- 
working shop  was  equipped  by  a  gift  made  from  the  estate  of  the  late  Robert  Norton, 
of  New  Albany,    Indiana. 

Campus  Cottage — This,  the  oldest  building  on  the  campus,  a  frame  cottage  of  six 
rooms,  was  erected  and  occupied  by  Dr.  Stevenson  during  his  Presidency. 


(From  Bulletin  of  Kentucky  Wesleyan  College,  1943-1944) 

Act  of  Incorporation 

By  the  approval  of  the  Legislature  of  Kentucky  on  January  12,  1860,  the  Board  of 
Education  of  the  Kentucky  Conference  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South, 
became  a  corporate  body.    A  part  of  this  act  is  given  below: 

Section  1.  That  the  Rev.  W.  C.  Sanby,  Rev.  Daniel  Stevenson,  Rev.  John  H.  Linn, 
Rev.  John  W.  Cunningham,  Rev.  John  C.  Harrison,  Rev.  Robert  Nimer,  David 
Thornton,  Moreau  Brown,  Hiram  Shaw,  B.  P.  Tevis,  William  Nunn  and  A.  G.  Stitt 
and  their  successors  in  office  to  be,  and  they  are  hereby,  constituted  a  body  politic  and 
corporate,  by  the  name  and  style  of  the  Board  of  Education  of  the  Kentucky  Con- 
ference of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  with  the  right  and  power  of  ex- 
ercising all  and  singular  privileges,  incidents  and  capacities  of  corporation  aggregate, 
to  sue  and  be  sued,  implead  and  be  impleaded,  grant  or  receive  contract  or  be  con- 


tracted  with,  and  do  and  perform  all  other  proper  and  necessary  acts  and  things  as 
natural  persons;  to  purchase  and  hold  land  or  other  real  estate  and  personal  property 
as  the  Educational  Fund  of  said  Conference;  to  have  and  to  use  a  common  seal,  and 
change  the  same  at  pleasure;  to  appoint  as  Executive  Committee  of  its  own  body,  or 
other  persons  members  of  said  Church;  to  take  charge  of  the  college  building  and 
grounds,  with  such  other  powers  as  may  be  granted  by  the  Board  of  Education,  and 
within  the  provisions  of  this  Act  of  Incorporation;  to  make  by-laws  and  ordinances  for 
the  proper  conduct  and  government  of  said  College;  provided  said  by-laws  and  ordi- 
nances shall  not  be  inconsistent  with  the  Constitution  and  Statutes  of  the  State;  to 
elect  or  appoint  a  President  and  such  Professors,  who  shall  compose  the  Faculty  of 
said  College,  as  they  may  think  proper,  and  any  teachers  or  assistants  that  they  may 
think  fit;  to  establish,  change  or  abolish  professorships,  as  the  exigencies  or  interests  of 
the  College  may  require;  to  fix  the  salaries  of  professors  and  teachers  and  to  do  and 
perform  all  other  acts  necessary  or  expedient  in  sustaining  said  fund,  and  for  the 
proper  conduct  of  said  College  so  as  to  render  them  successful  in  accomplishing  the 
great  object  of  their  establishment,  subject  to  the  confirmation  of  the  Conference. 

Section  2.  That  the  members  of  this  Board,  to  be  hereafter  appointed,  shall  be 
elected  by  the  Kentucky  Conference  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  at  its 
annual  sessions.  The  said  Conference  may,  at  their  pleasure,  change  the  number  of 
the  Board  but  there  shall  never  be  less  than  twelve  or  more  than  eighteen.  A  majority 
of  the  Board  shall  constitute  a  quorum  for  the  transaction  of  business;  provided,  such 
official  notice  of  time  and  place  has  been  given  as  the  Board  may  direct. 

Section  7.  That  the  Faculty  of  said  College  shall  have  authority  to  confer  degrees 
as  they  think  just  and  proper,  and  to  make  all  such  needful  rules  and  regulations  in 
regard  to  the  conduct  of  the  pupils,  and  to  the  course  of  exercise  and  instruction  that 
they  deem  best;  subject,  however,  at  all  times  to  the  control  of  the  Board  of  Education, 
who  may  reject,  revoke,  modify  or  change  the  same  as  they  may  think  proper. 

Section  8.  That  the  property  and  estate,  real  and  personal  held  and  owned  by  the 
Board  of  Education  under  this  Act,  shall  be  free  and  exempt  from  taxation,  whether 
the  same  be  for  State,  county  or  corporation  purposes. 

Section  12.  That  this  Act  shall  take  effect  from  its  passage,  but  the  Legislature 
reserves  the  right  to  amend  or  repeal  the  same. 

Under  the  above  Charter,  the  Board  of  Education  established  Kentucky  Wesleyan 

The  following  extracts  are  from  the  Article  of  Agreement  for  consideration  of  the 
Board  of  Education  of  the  Kentucky  Annual  Conference  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church,  South,  and  the  Board  of  Education  of  the  Louisville  Annual  Conference  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  under  the  name  of  Joint  Board  of  Education 
of  the  Kentucky  and  Louisville  Conferences  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South. 
This  agreement  was  made  and  entered  into  on  the  25th  day  of  February,  1926: 

The  Board  of  Education  of  the  Kentucky  Annual  Conference  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  South,  and  the  Board  of  Education  of  the  Louisville  Annual  Con- 
ference of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  shall  be,  and  are  hereby,  consoli- 
dated into  a  single  corporation,  to  be  known  as  the  "Joint  Board  of  Education  of  the 
Kentucky  and  Louisville  Conferences  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,"  and 
the  said  corporation,  under  the  name  and  style  aforesaid,  shall  have  its  principal  office 
and  place  of  business  at  Winchester,  Clark  County,  Kentucky. 

The  object  and  purpose  of  said  consolidated  Corporation,  shall  be  the  maintenance 
of  Kentucky  Wesleyan  College,  at  Winchester,  Kentucky,  as  a  co-educational  college, 
the    maintenance    of    the    Logan    College    at   Russellville,    Kentucky,    as    a    preparatory 


school  and  as  a  Junior  College  for  Women;  the  maintenance  of  Lindsey  Wilson  Junior 
College  at  Columbia,  Kentucky,  as  a  preparatory  school  and  Junior  College;  the 
maintenance  of  such  other  educational  institutions  as  it  deems  necessary  or  proper, 
and  the  general  promotion  of  education  along  literary,  scientific,  moral  and  religious 
lines,  within  the  territory  embraced  by  the  two  aforesaid  Conferences  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  South. 

It  may  acquire  by  gift,  devise,  bequest,  purchase  or  otherwise,  and  hold  its  general 
purposes  or  for  specific  purposes  real  and  personal  property;  and  (subject  to  specific 
limitations)  may  sell,  convey,  lease,  pledge,  or  mortgage  its  real  and  personal  estate; 
and,  in  general,  it  may  exercise  all  the  powers  conferred  by  the  general  law  upon  cor- 
porate bodies. 

All  funds  and  properties  which  have  been  donated,  contributed  or  conveyed,  to  either 
of  said  constituent  corporations  for  the  support  or  maintenance  of  special  chairs  or 
schools  or  for  any  specific  purpose,  shall  be  held  by  said  consolidated  corporation  and 
dedicated  to  and  used  for  such  specific  purpose  or  purposes,  strictly  in  accordance  with 
and  pursuant  to  the  terms  and  conditions  of  such  donation,  gift  or  conveyance  under 
which  same  has  been  received. 

The  management  and  control  of  said  corporation  shall  be  vested  in  a  board  com- 
posed of  sixteen  members,  eight  of  whom  shall  be  elected  by  the  Louisville  Annual 
Conference  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  and  eight  of  whom  shall  be 
elected  by  the  Kentucky  Annual  Conference  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South, 
said  members  to  be  nominated  to  their  respective  conferences  by  such  method  as  each 
conferences  may  determine.  One-half  of  each  of  said  groups  of  eight  shall  be  com- 
posed of  clergy  and  one-half  of  laymen. 

Changes  in  Charter  Authorized 

The  Kentucky  and  Louisville  Conferences  in  their  1939  annual  sessions  authorized 
revision  of  the  charter  of  the  Joint  Board  as  follows: 

Resolved:  That  the  Joint  Board  of  Education  of  the  Kentucky  and  Louisville  Con- 
ferences of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  be  and  that  it  is  hereby  authorized 
and  empowered  to  amend  the  articles  of  Incorporation  of  the  said  Joint  Board  of 
Education  so  as  to  make  it  read  "The  Methodist  Church"  where  ever  now  occurs 
'The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,"  and  also  to  change  the  time  of  the  Annual 
Meeting  of  the  said  "Joint  Board  of  Education"  from  Tuesday  after  the  third  Sunday 
in  August  to  a  time  upon  which  they  shall  agree,  and  also  to  so  amend  the  said 
Articles  of  Incorporation  as  to  increase  the  membership  of  the  said  Joint  Board  of 
Education  from  sixteen  members  to  twenty- four  members;  the  sixteen  members  to  be 
elected  as  at  present  and  the  eight  additional  members,  to  be  known  as  members  at 
large,  to  be  nominated  by  the  Joint  Board  of  Education  and  one-half  of  them  to  be  con- 
firmed by  the  Kentucky  Conference  and  the  other  half  by  the  Louisville  Conference  of 
the  Methodist  Church.  The  terms  of  the  office  of  said  members  at  large  to  be  for 
four  years  each. 

The  said  Joint  Board  of  Education  is  authorized  so  to  amend  the  Articles  of  In- 
corporation as  to  enable  them  to  fix  the  quorum  necessary  for  the  transaction  of 

Historical  Statement 

The  first  Methodist  Institution  of  Learning  west  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains  was 
located  in  Jessamine  County  overlooking  the  Kentucky  River  and  was  called  Bethel 
Academy.     Later  Bethel  Academy  was  reorganized  into  Augusta  College  in  the  northern 


section  of  the  state.  Then  for  a  period  of  years  prior  to  the  Civil  War  the  Methodists 
in  Kentucky  had  the  supervision  of  Transylvania  University.  On  January  12,  1860, 
the  Board  of  Education  of  the  Kentucky  Annual  Conference  of  the  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church,  South,  was  chartered.  During  the  period  of  the  Civil  War  progress 
was  retarded  and  it  was  not  until  1866  that  Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  began  to 
function  as  an  educational  institution.  Since  that  time  it  has  had  a  leading  part  in  the 
educational  work  of  the  state. 

First  at  Millersburg  and  then  at  Winchester  it  has  developed  steadily.  Perhaps  no 
other  institution  of  like  size  has  made  a  greater  contribution  in  the  way  of  leadership. 
Its  graduates  are  in  all  walks  of  life.  "Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  has  been  the 
mother  of  Schools,  Colleges  and  College  Presidents."  Four  or  five  schools  or  colleges 
have  been  founded  by  her  Alumni  and  nine  of  her  graduates  have  become  College 
Presidents.  Many  of  the  college  trained  ministers  in  Kentucky  Methodism  have  been 
Kentucky  Wesleyan  men.  A  large  number  have  gone  to  other  Conferences.  It  is 
represented  on  many  Mission  Fields  where  our  Church  operates.  Leading  bankers, 
lawyers,  merchants,  and  men  in  industrial  enterprises  look  to  Wesleyan  as  their  Alma 

By  the  agreement  entered  into  on  the  25  th  day  of  February,  1926,  Kentucky  Wes- 
leyan College  became  the  joint  property  of  the  Kentucky  and  Louisville  Conferences. 
It  is  now  a  co-educational  institution.  As  such  it  is  helping  to  build  a  ministry  and  a 
laity  for  all  of  Kentucky  Methodism. 


Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  is  a  full  member  of  the  Association  of  American  Col- 
leges. It  is  approved  for  the  training  of  ministers  by  the  University  Senate  of  the 
Methodist  Church. 

Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  is  a  member  of  the  Kentucky  Association  of  Colleges 
and  Secondary  Schools.  Standard  requirements  for  Admission,  for  Graduation,  etc., 
are  fixed  by  the  University  of  Kentucky  and  are  strictly  complied  with  by  this  institu- 
tion. In  this  way  our  work  is  standardized  on  the  basis  of  four  years  of  college  work 
and  is  accredited  by  the  University  of  Kentucky. 

The  college  is  practicaly  free  from  debt  and  is  now  in  the  midst  of  a  campaign  to 
raise  $500,000  for  permanent  endowment  and  equipment. 

Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  is  on  the  non-member  list  of  the  Southern  Association 
of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools.  In  this  relationship  it  pays  full  dues  and  is  ex- 
amined annually.  It  expects  to  apply  for  full  membership  as  soon  as  its  endowment 
limitations  have  been  removed. 

The  scholastic  credits  of  Kentucky  Wesleyan  students  are  easily  transferred  at  full 
value  to  other  institutions,  both  in  Kentucky  and  in  other  states. 

Our  graduates  have  no  difficulty  in  meeting  entrance  requirements  to  the  great 
universities  for  graduate  study  and  professional  training.  Year  after  year,  Wesleyan 
takes  pride  in  the  records  made  by  our  ambitious  scholars  who  continue  to  achieve 
distinction  in  the  fields  of  post-graduate  study. 

Action  Taken  by  Kentucky  Conferences 

In  the  Fall  of  1940,  the  Kentucky  and  Louisville  Conference  of  the  Methodist 
Church  appointed  a  Joint  Commission  of  Education  Survey.  This  Commission  re- 
ported to  the  two  conferences  at  their  Fall  sessions  in  1941  as  follows: 

"That  Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  is  so  located  as  to  be  in  a  position  to  serve  the 
needs    of  the  entire  state;  and  that,  while  it  is  true  that  it  is  located  in  the  vicinity  of 


other  colleges,  this  feature  may  have  its  advantages  as  well  as  its  disadvantages. 

t?That  the  best  thing  that  Kentucky  Methodism  can  do,  therefore,  is  to  concentrate 
its  efforts  in  the  development  and  maintenance  of  a  full  accredited  college  at  Win- 

Aim  and  Purpose 

The  Christian  College 

The  goal  of  the  Christian  College  is  Christian  character,  but  the  attainment  of  this 
goal  will  include  many  of  the  aims  which  are  common  to  all  colleges.  Among  these 
are  scholarship,  moral  culture,  physical  training,  cultivation  of  respect  for  law,  training 
for  citizenship,  equipment  for  service,  aesthetic  development  and  preparation  for 
wholesome  social  enjoyment. 

But  the  Christian  College  while  having  in  common  with  private  and  state  institutions 
these  aims  and  ideals,  must  have  consciously  a  goal  which  is  definitely  and  consistently 
Christian.  It  must  give  Christian  interpretation  to  the  facts  of  knowledge,  provide  a 
Christian  incentive  to  good  citizenship,  arouse  a  Christian  motive  for  service,  and  nur- 
ture a  Christian  spirit  and  ideal  in  the  social  relationships  of  every  day  life.  Finally, 
it  must,  through  the  attitude  and  example  and  instruction  of  its  teachers,  through  all 
courses  of  study  as  well  as  in  Bible  and  religious  education,  and  through  its  religious 
activities  and  the  atmosphere  of  its  campus,  bring  its  students  into  intimate  fellowship 
with  Jesus  Christ  as  Savior  and  Friend,  as  inspiration  and  guide,  in  all  endeavors  to 
attain  the  goal  of  Christian  character. 

In  the  pursuit  of  these  aims  the  Christian  College  must  set  up  such  standards  of 
thoroughness  and  efficiency  as  will  command  the  recognition  of  the  educational  world, 
to  the  end  that  its  certificates  and  diplomas  will  be  accepted  at  face  value  wherever 
presented.  It  must  offer  an  adequate  course  of  study,  must  provide  first  class  facilities 
and  equipment  for  instruction,  and  must  employ  a  faculty  equal  to  the  best  in  ability 
and  teaching  power.  It  must  have  financial  support  commensurate  with  these  aims; 
and  being  without  legislative  backing,  must  rely  upon  endowment  and  the  contributions 
of  the  Church. 

Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  consciously  accepts  these  aims.  It  writes  the  Christian 
purpose  at  the  center  of  its  program,  strives  definitely  to  attain  it,  and  desires  to  include 
in  its  faculty  those,  and  those  only,  whc  will  join  heartily  in  the  effort  to  attain  them. 


Kentucky  Wesleyan  College  is  fortunate  in  its  location.  Winchester  is  a  thriving 
city  of  varied  industries,  the  county  seat  of  Clark  County,  and  beautifully  situated  in 
the  rich  blue  grass  region  of  Kentucky.  Winchester's  railroad  connections  are  ideal, 
the  town  being  located  at  a  point  of  intersection  of  two  important  railroads — The 
Louisville  and  Nashville  and  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio.  Convenient  bus  schedules  are 
in  operation.  Federal  highways  60  and  227  intersect  at  Winchester  and  state  highways 
15  and  89  offer  important  outlets  to  the  rapidly  developing  mountain  sections. 


(From  College  Bulletin) 

Fifty-four  years  ago  Ebenezer  Presbytery  in  the  Synod  of  Kentucky,  Presbyterian 
Church,  U.  S.  A.,  appointed  a  committee  consisting  of  Rev.  W.  C.  Condit,  D.D., 
Ashland,  Kentucky,  and  Rev.  Samuel  B.  Alderson,  D.D.,  Maysville,  Kentucky,  to  make 
a  trip  up  the  Big  Sandy  River  to  select  a  location  for  a  school  for  the  higher  education 


of  the  youth  of  this  section.  After  visiting  each  county  seat  in  the  valley,  their  judg- 
ment was  that  Pikesville  should  be  selected  as  the  location  for  such  an  institution  and, 
as  the  result  of  their  report  to  Presbytery,  the  Pikeville  Collegiate  Institute  was  estab- 
lished. The  subsequent  development  of  Pikeville  and  Pike  County  has  demonstrated 
the  wisdom  of  these  men  in  making  their  choice  for  the  location  of  the  Presbyterial 

The  success  with  which  the  institution  has  been  crowned  has  been  due  in  no  small 
measure  to  the  untiring  efforts  of  Dr.  Condit  and  his  church.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees  from  the  date  of  its  organization  to  the  time  of  his  death,  and 
was  ever  alive  to  the  interests  of  the  school. 

In  the  summer  of  1889  the  first  building  was  erected  and  Rev.  David  Blyth,  who 
had  just  graduated  from  Lane  Seminary,  was  placed  in  charge  as  principal  and  also 
as  pastor  of  the  church.  Mr.  Blyth  was  a  man  of  great  energy,  and  during  the  three 
years  of  his  incumbency  the  school  made  rapid  progress  and  took  first  rank  among 
the  best  schools  of  its  grade  in  Eastern  Kentucky.  Hendricks  Hall  was  erected  during 
his  incumbency.  A  severe  attack  of  typhoid  fever  left  Mr.  Blyth  unable  to  continue 
the  work.  His  three  years  of  effort  were  not  in  vain;  the  people  speak  in  the  highest 
terms  of  the  work  he  did  while  here.     His  death  occurred  on  December  5,  1940. 

Until  1896  the  institution  was  affected  by  general  unfavorable  conditions  through- 
out the  nation.  During  the  principalship  of  Reverend  Harvey  Hammett,  and  two 
years  later  during  the  term  of  the  Reverend  T.  M.  Cornelison,  progress  was  made. 
However,  the  future  of  the  institution  began  to  be  entirely  assured  as  the  devotion  and 
personality  of  Reverend  James  F.  Record  began  to  express  themselves.  Assuming  the 
headship  of  the  institution  in  1899  he  continued  without  interruption  for  twelve  years 
and  attendance  practically  quadrupled.  Reverend  J.  P.  Whitehead  was  president  of 
the  college  from  1911  to  1915,  at  which  time  Dr.  Record  returned. 

Of  the  first  trustees  of  the  institution,  none  are  now  living.  The  members  of  the 
first  Board  of  Trustees  were  Rev.  W.  G  Condit,  D.D.;  Rev.  W.  S.  Fulton,  D.D,; 
Mr.  W.  M.  Connolly,  Mr.  John  Simpson,  Mr.  James  H.  Hatcher,  Mr.  Charles  M. 
Parsons  and  Mr.  F.  B.  Trusell.  The  records  of  the  college  reveal  constantly  the  de- 
votion and  wisdom  of  this  unusual  body  of  trustees.  The  possibilities  of  Pikeville 
College  touched  their  imaginations,  and  most  of  them  gave  generously  of  their  time 
and  means  to  its  support. 

When  Dr.  Record  resumed  the  presidency  of  the  institution,  which  was  now  invariably 
spoken  of  as  "the  college,"  he  was  beginning  a  term  of  uninterupted  service  lasting 
seventeen  years.  Made  president  emeritus  by  the  action  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  in 
September,  1932,  his  counsel  was  not  withdrawn  from  the  college  until  his  death  on 
May  25,  1935.  The  expansion  of  the  institution  during  Dr.  Record's  term  was  out- 
standing. In  1918  one  student  pursued  college  courses;  fourteen  years  later  the  college 
enrollment  was  366.  Not  only  was  the  preparatory  department  admitted  to  member- 
ship in  the  Southern  Association  of  College  and  Secondary  Schools  in  1925,  but  the 
college  work  of  the  institution  was  recognized  and  the  junior  college  became  a  member 
in  1931. 

Wickham  Chapel,  in  the  administration  building,  and  Wickham  Hall  were  the 
magnificent  gifts  of  Mrs.  Delos  O.  Wickham  of  New  York.  It  is  difficult  to  over- 
estimate the  influence  of  the  gifts  of  this  devoted  friend  of  the  college  throughout 
Dr.  Record's  administration.  In  addition  to  these  buildings  erected,  the  institution 
was  bequeathed  a  considerable  portion  of  her  estate  in  1933.  Wickham  Chapel  stands 
perpetually  as  a  living  memorial  to  Delos  O.  Wickham,  her  husband. 

Another    magnificent    gift    to    Pikeville    College    came    from    John    A.    Simpson,    of 


Covington,  in  memory  of  his  sister,  Lucinda  Derriana  Simpson,  in  the  form  of  a  com- 
modious dormitory  for  women.  Mr.  Simpson  had  in  mind  a  Christian  home  for 
women  and  provided  that  the  dormitory  be  called  "The  Derriana." 

The  late  Mrs.  William  Thaw,  of  Pittsburgh,  was  another  constant  friend  of  the  in- 
stitution during  Dr.  Record's  presidency,  being  a  very  generous  donor  to  the  administra- 
tion building. 

Hendricks  Hall,  the  first  building  erected  on  the  old  campus  beside  the  Big  Sandy 
River,  commemorates  the  name  and  important  work  of  the  Reverend  Dr.  James  P. 
Hendricks,  Synodical  Superintendent  of  Home  Missions.  The  second  building  to  be 
erected  on  the  "old  campus"  was  the  brick  building  now  occupied  by  the  academy  and 
the  training  school. 

Dr.  D.  McDonald,  successor  to  Dr.  Hendricks  as  Synodical  superintendent,  was 
another  loyal  supporter  and  constant  adviser  of  the  institution.  The  Woman's  Mis- 
sionary Societies  of  Ebenezer  Presbytery  made  much  of  Pikeville  College  in  their 
programs  of  prayer  and  work;  their  contributions  and  interest  provided  a  constant 
source  of  encouragement  to  trustees  and  faculty. 

Dean  Frank  D.  McClelland  was  made  acting  President  of  the  college  in  September, 
1932,  and  became  president  in  October,  1933. 

During  the  year  following  Dr.  McClelland's  resignation  in  October,  1937,  the 
institution  functioned  without  a  president.  Mr.  Norman  A.  Chrisman,  treasurer  of 
the  college,  devoted  much  of  his  time  to  the  institution's  activities,  serving  in  many 
capacities  as  acting  president  without  the  actual  title.  During  this  year  Mrs.  N.  A. 
Chrisman,  Mrs.  W.  H.  Kirk,  and  Mr.  H.  C.  Bowles  effected  notable  expansion  of  the 
library  facilities,  providing  new  furniture  and  new  quarters  for  the  library  in  memory 
of  their  mother,  Mrs.  Nona  Connolly  Bowles,  a  member  of  the  first  graduating  class  of 
the  Academy.  A  grant  of  $3,000  from  the  Carnegie  corporation  for  library  books, 
coupled  with  the  new  equipment,  combined  to  make  the  library  one  of  the  notable 
features  of  the  college. 

In  September,  1938,  President  H.  M.  Crooks,  LL.D.,  assumed  the  presidency  of  the 
institution  and  served  until  his  resignation  in  October,  1940. 

Dean  A.  A.  Page  assumed  ex  officio  the  duties  of  the  President  of  the  College  in 
October,  1940,  following  Dr.  Crooks'  resignation.  In  October,  1941,  Dean  Page 
was  elected  President  of  the  college. 


(Nov.,  1941) 
By  James  H.  Hewlett 

Dean,  Centre  College,  Danville,  Kentucky 

For  amost  forty  years  before  Centre  College  was  chartered  the  Presbyterians  of 
Kentucky  had  been  interested  in  education,  and  it  is  therefore  necessary  to  review 
briefly  their  earlier  attempts  to  establish  an  institution  of  higher  learning. 

Transylvania  Seminary  was  granted  a  charter  by  the  Virginia  Legislature  in  1780 
and  with  it  several  thousand  acres  of  land.  This  institution  was  to  be  established  in 
what  was  then  the  province  of  Kentucky.  Apparently,  however,  nothing  further  was 
done  until  May  5,  1783,  when  the  Virginia  Assembly  made  another  large  grant  of 
land,  set  up  a  self-perpetuating  board  of  trustees,  and  gave  the  Seminary  authority  to 
confer  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts.  The  school  did  not  actually  open,  though, 
until  1785.  Its  location,  says  Calvin  Morgan  Fackler  in  his  recent  book,  Early  Days 
in  Danville    (1941),  "is  still  a  controversial  matter,"  but  it  was  in  or  very  near  Dan- 




Courtesy,    Danville   Chamber   of   Commerce 


The  original  building  of  Centre  College,  located  in  Danville,  and  founded  in 



ville,  and,  according  to  Fackler,  was  unquestionably  first  in  the  home  of  Dr.  David 
Rice,  one  of  the  founders  of  Hampden-Sidney  College,  who  had  come  to  Kentucky 
in  1783  and  was  chairman  of  the  Transylvania  Seminary  Board.  In  fact,  the  majority 
of  those  responsible  for  the  establishment  of  this  institution  were  Presbyterians,  though 
it  had  been  endowed  by  the  Virginia  Assembly  and  was  looked  on  as  a  State  institu- 
tion. The  Reverend  James  Mitchell  became  the  teacher  at  a  salary  of  thirty  pounds 
a  year.    The  tuition  was  "four  pistoles"  a  year. 

After  a  few  years  of  struggling  existence  this  school,  in  1788,  was  moved  to  Lexington. 
Soon,  however,  a  division  took  place,  which  Dr.  William  C.  Young  in  his  inaugural 
address  as  president  of  Centre  College  explained  as  follows: 

In  furtherance  of  the  wild  and  universal  propaganda  inaugurated  by  the  French  revolutionists, 
its  emissaries  of  the  blood-born  atheistic  young  republic  had  penetrated  even  to  this  distant 
wilderness  land.  Sympathy  with  their  political  views  had  prepared  a  large  number  of  the 
prominent  citizens  of  Lexington  to  accept  their  religious,  or  rather  irreligious,  sentiments  and 
theories.  A  determined  attempt  was  made  by  them  to  secure  control  of  public  instruction. 
Their  efforts,  despite  the  most  earnest  resistance  on  the  part  of  the  Presbyterians  were  crowned 
with  success,  and  in  1794  the  teacher  of  Transylvania  Seminary,  Rev.  James  Moore,  a  Presby- 
terian minister,  was  ejected  by  the  Board  of  Trustees.  The  Presbytery  of  Transylvania  at  once 
inaugurated  measures  to  found  an  independent  college  under  their  own  control,  in  which  their 
sons  might  enjoy  the  advantages  of  an  education  without  the  contamination  of  their  religious 
principles,  and  which'  might  furnish  the  churches  with  an  able  and  faithful  ministry. 

At  their  spring  meeting  in  1794  it  was  resolved  to  establish  at  Pisgah,  the  seat  of  a  strong 
Presbyterian    Church,    about    nine    miles    from   Lexington,    a    grammar    school    and    a    seminary. 

Thus  was  set  up  what  is  known  as  the  Kentucky  Academy.  It  seems  to  have  opened 
in  October,  1795.  Among  the  donors  to  the  new  school  were  John  Adams  and  George 
Washington,  each  contributing  a  hundred  dollars.  But  both  sides  to  the  controversy 
seem  to  have  desired  a  reunion  of  the  Kentucky  Academy  and  Transylvania  Seminary, 
and  so  in  December,  1798,  their  union  was  consummated  under  conditions  highly  favor- 
able to  the  Presbyterians.    Dr.  Young  (loc.  cit.)  said: 

Everything  which  the  Presbyterians  could  reasonably  demand,  including  a  majority  of  the 
Board  of  Trustees,  and  thus  substantial  control  of  the  new  college,  being  offered,  the  overtures 
were  accepted,  the  right  of  ecclesiastical  oversight  was  surrendered,  and  the  two  institutions, 
under  the  imposing  title  of  Transylvania  University,  were  in  1798  merged  into  one. 

The  Presbyterians  must  have  had  a  dominant  influence  over  the  new  University  and 
conditions  apparently  continued  to  be  reasonably  satisfactory  for  about  twenty  years. 
Then,  just  why  it  is  not  clear,  the  Legislature  of  the  State  removed  the  old  Board  and 
appointed  a  new  Board,  which  was  unsatisfactory  to  the  Presbyterians.  Dr.  Honore 
Holley,  of  New  England,  whom  Dr.  Young  described  as  a  "gifted,  brilliant  man,  but 
whose  religious  opinions  were  most  repugnant  to  Presbyterians,"  was  elected  president. 
Especially  alarmed,  they  withdrew  their  patronage  from  the  Lexington  university, 
applied  to  the  Legislature  for  a  charter,  and  founded  a  college  of  their  own.1 

This  new  college  was  chartered  by  the  Kentucky  Legislature  January  21,  1819,  and 
was  called  Centre  College,  since  it  was  located  in  Danville,  in  the  central  part  of  the 
State.  It  was  not  under  the  control  of  the  church,  though  Presbyterian  influence  pre- 
dominated, and  the  board,  of  which  Governor  Isaac  Shelby  was  chairman,  was  self- 
perpetuating.  Section  4  of  the  charter  provided  that  "No  religious  doctrines  peculiar 
to  any  one  sect  of  Christians  shall  be  inculcated  by  any  professor  in  said  college."  An 
amendment  to  the  charter,  "approved  December  27,  1824,  recited  that  the  Divines  and 
Elders  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  of  Kentucky  had  offered  to  give  to  the  trustees  of 
Centre  College  of  Kentucky  $20,000,  provided  that  an  agreement  reducing  the  number 
of  trustees  (from  nineteen)  to  eleven  and  calling  for  their  election  by  the  Synod  of 
the   Presbyterian   Church   in   the   United   States   of  America  would   be   ratified   by   the 


Legislature.  The  agreement  was  in  terms  approved  by  this  amendment,  and  the  college 
thus  passed  under  the  control  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  U.  S.  A.  By  act  approved 
February  1,  1830,  the  number  of  trustees  was  increased  to  nineteen,  the  original  num- 

A  crisis  faced  the  college  because  of  the  slavery  question.  According  to  the  courts, 
its  control  was  vested  in  the  Presbyterian  Church  U.  S.  A.  (the  Northern  Presbyterians) , 
and  so  the  Southern  Presbyterians  withdrew  and  by  a  charter  approved  March  3,  1873, 
established  Central  University  at  Richmond,  Kentucky.  In  a  brief  historical  sketch  it 
is  impossible  to  give  a  detailed  account  of  Central  University.  During  its  existence  of 
approximately  forty  years  it  did  a  distinguished  piece  of  educational  work  and  sent  out 
a  remarkable  number  of  graduates.  The  two  institutions  remained  separated  until  1901 
when  an  agreement  was  drawn  up  and  accepted  for  their  consolidation.  By  its  terms 
the  consolidated  institution  was  to  be  known  as  Central  University  of  Kentucky  and 
composed  of  several  schools  or  colleges,  including  a  medical  college,  located  at  Louis- 
ville. The  college  at  Danville  was  to  give  instruction  in  the  arts  and  sciences  and  was 
to  be  known  as  the  Centre  College  of  Kentucky.  The  board  of  trustees  was  to  consist 
of  twenty-four  members,  half  to  be  elected  by  the  Synod  of  Kentucky  of  the  Presby- 
terian Church  U.  S.  A.  and  half  by  the  Synod  of  Kentucky  of  the  Presbyterian  Church 
U.  S.  Thus  were  happily  and  permanently  united  these  two  sister  institutions  of 
Presbyterianism  in  Kentucky. 

After  1907  Centre  College  was  for  a  time  an  independent  institution  with  a  self- 
perpetuating  board  of  twenty-four  members.  In  1918,  the  name  of  the  corporation 
was  changed  from  Central  University  to  its  original  name,  Centre  College  of  Kentucky, 
which  the  college  of  liberal  arts  had  always  held.  By  that  time  the  other  schools  that 
composed  the  "University"  had  been  discontinued  or  given  independent  control.  In 
1921,  however,  again  Centre  passed  under  the  control  of  the  two  branches  of  the 
Presbyterian  Church  in  Kentucky,  but  the  control  was  somewhat  limited  in  that  the 
board  nominated  its  members  and  the  synods  confirmed  them.  Also,  the  article  for- 
bidding denominationalism  was  adopted  in  the  following  amended  form:  "No  de- 
nominational or  sectarian  test  shall  be  applied  to  the  admission  of  students  and  no 
religious  doctrine  peculiar  to  any  sect  of  Christians  shall  be  inculcated  by  any  professor 
in  the  said  college."' 

Until  1926  Centre  College  had  always  been  a  college  for  men.  But  in  that  year  it 
united  with  Kentucky  College  for  Women,  which  had  been  established  in  Danville  in 
1854  under  the  name  of  Henderson  Institute  and  was  widely  known  for  many  years 
as  Caldwell  College.    The  result  of  the  merger,  says  the  catalogue  of  1941, 

is  that  Centre  College  now  operates  two  divisions,  a  college  for  men  and  a  college  for  women, 
under  the  plan  of  coordinate  education  which  has  been  tested  and  proved  in  the  experience 
of  such  coordinate  institutions  as  Harvard  and  Radcliffe,  Columbia  and  Barnard,  Brown  and 
Pembroke  Hall,  Tulane  and  Sophie  Newcomb,  and  Duke  University.  Both  divisions  of  Centre 
give  the  standard  four  year  course  in  the  arts  and  sciences.  The  subjects  are  substantially 
the  same  in  both  colleges,  although'  a  few  courses  are  open  only  to  men  and  a  few  are  open 
only  to  women.  Such  courses  are  clearly  indicated  in  this  catalogue.  Neither  division  is  co- 
educational, but  each  profits  from  its  relationship  with  the  other.  Coordinate  education  avoids 
the  distractions  of  co-education  and  also  the  restrictions  of  unrelated  institutions  for  men  and 
women.  Centre  College  is  the  only  college  in  Kentucky  that  maintains  separate  divisions  for 
men   and   women.4 

In  the  consolidation  agreement  of  Centre  College  and  Kentucky  College  for  Women 
an  important  change  was  made  in  the  election  of  trustees,  which  is  still  in  force.  Out 
of  each  annual  class  of  six,  three  trustees  are  confirmed  by  the  Synod  of  Kentucky  of 
the  Presbyterian  Church  U.  S.  A.  and  two  by  the  Synod  of  the  Presbyterian  Church 
U.   S.   and   the   sixth   is  presented   by   the   Alumni  Association   of  Centre   College.     It 


should  be  noted  too  that  the  Board  of  Trustees  elects  and  that  the  synods  merely  con- 
firm or  ratify.  A  clause  practically  the  same  as  that  in  the  charter  of  1819  was  also 
included  which  prohibits  the  application  of  denominational  or  sectarian  tests  in  the 
admission  of  students  or  the  teaching  of  religious  doctrines  peculiar  to  any  one  sect 
of  Christians. 

The  Presbyterians  who  established  Centre  College  realized  from  the  beginning  that 
to  be  strong  academically  the  college  must  be  strong  financially.  Some  of  its  most 
outstanding  presidents  have  sought  especially,  therefore,  to  make  its  financial  founda- 
tions sure.  Dr.  John  C.  Young,  who  was  president  from  1830  to  1857,  was  an  example 
of  such  a  spirit.  "He  found  the  College,"  says  his  son,  W.  C.  Young,  "without  repu- 
tation, without  endowment,  without  students,  but  he  was  young,  hopeful,  and  earnest. 
.  .  .  An  organized  and  successful  effort  was  made  to  endow  it.  Before  his  death,  Dr. 
Young  saw  a  permanent  fund  of  more  than  $100,000  provided  for  the  support  of  the 
school."5  When  Dr.  W.  C.  Young  himself  became  president  (1888),  he  felt  that 
"The  immediate  pressing  need  of  the  College  was  a  large  increase  of  its  endowment, 
and  to  this  work,  by  direction  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  and  with  the  hearty  endorse- 
ment of  the  Synod,  I  addressed  myself."'  In  his  first  year  he  added  $75,000  to  the 
permanent  endowment.  At  the  beginning  of  his  second  year  he  declared  that  an 
additional  $75,000  was  a  "pressing,  immediate  necessity.  That  during  the  present 
collegiate  year  it  will  be  secured  I  am  most  hopeful." 

Dr.  W.  A.  Ganfield  (president  from  1915  to  1921),  with  the  full  cooperation  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees,  set  up  a  plan  by  which  the  General  Education  Board  offered 
to  give  Centre  College  $200,000  for  endowment  provided  the  College  would  raise  an 
additional  sum  amounting  to  at  least  $400,000.  This  campaign  for  $600,000  addi- 
tional endowment  was  completed  in  1922  during  the  administration  of  Dr.  R.  Ames 
Montgomery.  Since  that  time  other  gifts  have  come  to  the  college,  including  that  of 
the  late  Guy  E.  Wiseman,  a  devoted  alumnus  and  faithful  trustee,  exceeding  $400,000, 
so  that  at  present  the  endowment  is  more  than  a  million  and  a  half,  and  it  is  hoped 
that  it  will  go  beyond  two  million  by  1944,  when  Centre  celebrates  its  one  hundred 
and  twenty-fifth  anniversary. 

Centre  College  has  supported  or  led  in  every  movement  in  Kentucky  to  advance  the 
standards  for  admission  to  college  and  to  improve  higher  education  both  in  this  State 
and  the  South.  The  late  Frank  L.  Rainey,  a  former  dean  of  Centre,  was  for  many 
years  secretary  of  the  Kentucky  College  Association  and  served  on  each  of  the  four 
committees  of  that  association  which  revised  upwards  the  standards  for  admission  to 
college.  When  Dr.  F.  W.  Hinitt  was  made  president  of  Centre  in  1904,  the  same  year 
in  which  the  institution  became  the  first  Kentucky  member  of  the  Southern  Association, 
he  began  at  once  to  raise  its  standards.  The  College  had  made  it  a  rule  to  admit 
students  only  on  examination,  excusing  those,  however,  that  came  from  academies  or 
high  schools  that  Centre  had  placed  on  its  accredited  list.  In  1905  thirty- two  schools 
were  on  this  list,  fifteen  of  them  being  private.  In  the  catalogue  for  1907-08  appears 
the  first  statement  regarding  high  school  units.  On  Dr.  Hinitt's  recommendation  to 
the  Board,  January  5,  1907,  fourteen  were  required  for  entrance,  thirteen  of  which 
were  prescribed  as  follows:  Latin,  4  units;  English,  3;  Mathematics  and  Greek,  2 
each;  history  and  science,  1  each.  That  the  schools  in  Kentucky  were  not  meeting 
such  high  standards  is  proved  by  the  following  statement  in  the  Catalogue  of  that 
year   (p.  40) : 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  many  High  Schools  and  Academies,  naturally  tributary  to  the  College, 
do  not  fully  prepare  their  graduates  to  meet  the  requirements  for  admission  to  a  College  with 
so  high  a  grade,  special  arrangements  are  made  by  which  this  preparation  may  be  supplemented. 


Students  are  admitted  to  College  provided   they  have  at  least  eleven  units  credit,   and  by  taking 
extra  studies  these  deficiencies  can  be  made  up  in  the  first  two  years. 

The  Catalogue  of  1909-10  states  (p.  40)  that  a  committee  of  the  Association  oi 
Kentucky  Colleges  was  then  examining  the  academies  and  high  schools  of  Kentucky 
and  would  submit  an  accredited  list  to  each  college.  In  that  year  Centre  had  only 
93  students,  excluding  specials,  but  this  was  a  good  number,  since  at  that  time  in  the 
whole  State  there  were  only  54  public  high  schools  and  29  private  academies,  and  in 
1939-40  there  were  529  and  73  respectively.  During  Dr.  Hinitt's  administration,  Centre 
advanced  its  standards  of  admission  to  the  present  level,  in  spite  of  the  few  preparatory 
schools  then  able  to  meet  them. 

If  an  institution  of  learning  is  to  be  judged  by  its  product,  Centre  College  may  well 
be  proud  of  its  record.  In  its  life  of  almost  a  century  and  a  quarter,  it  has  sent  out 
a  remarkable  number  of  graduates  who  have  attained  distinction  in  public  service,  in 
the  ministry,  in  education,  in  business,  and  in  many  other  fields.  Space  is  not  available 
to  name  even  some  of  the  most  notable  of  them. 

For  forty  years  the  Presbyterians  in  Kentucky  were  trying  to  establish  a  permanent 
church  college  in  that  State.  Through  persistent  effort,  sacrifice,  and  prayer,  Centre 
College,  at  Danville,  came  into  being,  though  for  a  time  they  also  supported  Central 
University  at  Richmond.  The  same  spirit  that  has  fostered  the  institution  so  many 
years  is  even  now  perfecting  and  implementing  plans  to  make  yet  stronger  the  financial, 
academic,  and  Christian  foundations  of  Old  Centre,  and  hoping  for  the  consummation 
of  many  of  these  plans  in  1944,  the  one  hundred  and  twenty-fifth  year  of  its  founding. 

In  giving  this  background  for  the  founding  of  Centre  College,  I  have  not  mentioned 
the  Danville  Academy,  since  Mr.  Calvin  Fackler  in  his  book,  cited  above,  has,  it 
seems  to  me,  raised  serious  doubt  that  there  ever  was  such  an  institution  in  actual 
existence  in  Danville.    See  pages  50,  100-101  of  Early  Days  in  Danville. 

C.  J.  Turck,  "The  Legal  History  of  Centre  College,"  an  unpublished  article  on 
file  at  Centre. 

Minutes  of  the  Board,  October  5,  1921. 

'Bulletin,  p.  24. 

"'"Inaugural  Address,"  Catalogue  (1890) ,  p.  16. 

Ibid.,  p.  19. 


Two  Decades  of  Its  History 

The  Beginning 

To  George  Colvin,  formerly  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  should  be 
given  the  credit  for  starting  the  movement  which  led  to  the  establishment  of  Murray 
State  Teachers  College.  On  his  recommendation  a  law  was  enacted  authorizing  a 
comprehensive  survey  of  the  schools  of  Kentucky.  One  of  the  recommendations  of  the 
survey  commission  which  was  enacted  into  law  provided  for  the  establishment  of  two 
additional  state  normal  schools — one  to  be  located  in  Western  Kentucky,  the  other 
in  Eastern  Kentucky.  The  State  Board  of  Education  was  to  be  the  governing  body 
of  each  school  when  it  was  established. 

On  September  7,  1922,  Murray  was  chosen  as  the  site  of  the  western  school  which 
at  a  later  date  was  named  the  Murray  State  Normal  School. 

On  July  28,  1923,  the  State  Board  of  Education  chose  Dr.  John  W.  Carr  President 
of  the  Murray  State  Normal  School.    He  asumed  his  official  duties  at  once. 

On   September   24,    1923,   the   school   began   operation   in   the   Murray   High   School 


building  with  a  faculty  of  five  members.  Before  the  close  of  the  first  year  there  were 
sixteen  members  of  the  faculty.  The  new  institution  was  of  junior  college  rank. 
During  the  first  semester  there  were  87  college  students  and  120  high  school  students. 
The  training  school  was  not  organized  until  the  summer  of  1924. 

Student  activities  began  soon  after  the  school  was  opened — literary  societies,  college 
clubs,  musical  organizations.    The  first  football  team  was  in  the  fall  of  1923. 

The  first  building  was  erected  but  not  occupied  during  the  first  year — cost  of  build- 
ing and  campus,  approximately  $116,000.00.  Funds  for  building  and  campus  were 
donated  by  the  citizens  of  Murray  and  Calloway  County. 

During  the  first  year  787  different  students  were  enrolled — 365  college  students, 
311  high  school  students,  and  111  elementary  students  in  the  training  school.  The 
first  graduating  class  from  the  Junior  College  (1924)  consisted  of  fifteen  members. 
The  first  catalogue  was  published  in  the  summer  of  1924. 

Such  was  the  beginning  of  the  Murray  State  Normal  School. 


The  school  when  first  established  was  governed  by  the  State  Board  of  Education. 
In  1924  an  Act  was  passed,  providing  for  a  Board  of  Regents  as  the  governing  body. 
The  Board  consists  of  five  members — four  appointed  by  the  Governor,  and  the  State 
Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  ex  officio  member  and  chairman  of  the  Board. 
The  members  serve  for  a  period  of  four  years  and  receive  no  compensation  for  their 
services.    The  first  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Regents  was  held  April  14,  1924. 

Since  its  establishment,  twenty-one  different  persons  have  served  on  the  Board — two 
women  and  nineteen  men.  During  all  these  years  there  has  never  been  a  faction  in 
the  Board — seldom  a  dissenting  vote.  At  all  times  the  members  have  worked  for  the 
best  interest  of  the  institution.  They  have  cooperated  in  the  selection  and  retention 
of  the  best  persons  available  as  members  of  the  faculty.  They  have  given  special 
attention  to  the  business  affairs,  including  the  planning  and  construction  of  the 
different   buildings.      There   have   been   no   favorites.     Everybody  has  had  a  fair  deal. 

The  splendid  progress  of  the  institution  during  the  two  decades  of  its  history  has 
been  due  largely  to  the  interest,  efficiency  and  devotion  of  the  members  of  the  Board 
of  Regents. 

The  names  of  the  honorable  members  of  the  Board  of  Regents  and  the  term  or  terms 
which  each  served  are  as  follows: 

Dr.  McHenry  Rhoads,  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  Frankfort,  1924- 

Mrs.  Laurine  Wells  Lovett,  Benton,  1924-1928. 

Mr.  James  F.  Wilson,  Mayfield,  1924-1930. 

Mr.  G.  Prentice  Thomas,  Cadiz,  1924-1930. 

Mr.  Thomas  H.  Stokes,  Murray,  1924-1928  also  1932-1936. 

Mr.  W.  C.  Bell,   State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  Frankfort,   1928-1932. 

Mrs.  William  H.  Mason,  Murray,  1928-1934. 

Mr.  G.  P.  Ordway,  Kuttawa,  1928-1932. 

Mr.  S.  J.  Snook,  Paducah,  1930-1934. 

Mr.  Claude  T.  Winslow,  Mayfield,  1930-1932  also  1940- 

Dr.  James  H.  Richmond,  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  Frankfort, 

Mr.  Bunk  Gardner,  Mayfield,  1932-1936. 

Mr.  Warren  S.  Swann,  Murray,  1934-1935. 

Mr.  B.  L.  Trevathan,  Benton,  1934-1936. 


Mr.  Harry  W.  Peters,  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  Frankfort,  1936- 

Dr.  C.  E.  Crume,  Clinton,  1936- 

Mr.  T.  O.  Turner,  Murray,  1936-1940. 

Mr.  Joe  Rogers,  Barlow,  1936-1940. 

Mr.  Charles  Ferguson,  Smithland,  1936- 

Mr.  John  W.  Brooker,  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  Frankfort,  1940- 

Mr.  George  Hart,  Murray,  1940- 


Three  different  persons  have  had  the  honor  of  serving  as  president  of  the  Murray 
State  Teachers  College:  Dr.  John  W.  Carr  from  July  28,  1923,  to  May  1,  1926; 
also  from  January  1,  1933,  to  January  6,  1936;  Dr.  Rainey  T.  Wells  from  May  1, 
1926,  to  December  31,  1932;  Dr.  James  H.  Richmond  since  January  6,  1936. 


During  President  Carr's  first  administration,  the  college  was  opened;  the  training 
school  begun;  the  course  of  study  for  the  junior  college  was  organized;  the  transition 
was  made  from  the  junior  college  to  the  senior  college;  laws  were  enacted  providing 
a  millage  tax  for  maintenance,  also  providing  for  a  Board  of  Regents  for  the  control 
of  the  college.  A  specific  appropriation  of  $400,000.00  was  made  for  buildings,  equip- 
ment and  grounds.  The  law  was  also  enacted  authorizing  the  Board  of  Regents  to 
confer  degrees.  Three  buildings  were  erected — Administration  Building,  Liberal  Arts 
Building,  Rainey  T.  Wells  Hall.  The  faculty  was  increased  from  eight  members  irt 
the  fall  semester,  1923,  to  thirty-two  during  the  spring  semester,  1926.  The  enrollment 
of  college  students  increased  also  from  87  college  students  in  the  fall  of  1923  to  568 
in  the  spring  of  1926. 

In  April,  1926,  President  Carr  resigned  and  Dr.  Rainey  T.  Wells  was  elected  his 
successor.  At  the  time  Dr.  Wells  became  president,  Dr.  Carr  became  dean  of  faculty 
and   continued   to   serve   in   that   capacity   throughout  President  Wells'   term   of  office. 


During  President  Wells'  administration  (May  1,  1926,  to  December  31,  1932) 
occurred  the  great  development  of  the  college.  The  attendance  grew  rapidly  from 
568  in  the  spring  of  1926  to  1,189  in  the  spring  of  1932.  The  faculty  increased  from 
thirty- two  in  the  spring  of  1926  to  eighty-nine  in  the  summer  of  1931.  Every  depart- 
ment was  more  thoroughly  organized,  the  laboratories  were  better  equipped  and  the 
training  school  was  more  thoroughly  developed.  The  number  of  books  in  the  library 
was  more  than  quadrupled.  When  Dr.  Wells  became  president,  not  a  student  had 
received  a  degree;  by  the  summer  of  1932,  467  had  graduated.  In  February,  1928,  the 
college  was  admitted  to  the  American  Association  of  Teachers  Colleges;  in  December 
of  the  same  year,  it  was  admitted  to  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary 
Schools.    Each  association  ranked  Murray  as  a  "Class  A"  college. 

During  President  Wells'  administration,  the  material  interests  of  the  college  made 
rapid  development.  Five  buildings  were  erected — Training  School,  Auditorium,  Cen- 
tral Heating  Plant,  Men's  Dormitory  and  the  Library  Building.  There  were  special 
appropriations  amounting  to  $750,000.00  for  new  buildings.  The  receipts  from  millage 
and  inheritance  taxes  increased  from  $150,866.12  in  1925-26  to  $251,350.79  in  1930-31. 

The  great  depression  came  during  the  last  years  of  his  administration.  The  receipts 
from  millage  and  inheritance  taxes  dropped  from  $251,350.79  in  1930-31  to  $166,059.99 

7— Vol.    II 


in  1932-33,  a  decrease  of  $85,290.80  or  nearly  thirty-four  per  cent  in  two  years. 
Drastic  retrenchments  were  necessary.  Building  operations  ceased;  the  number  of 
members  of  faculty  decreased  from  eighty-six  in  the  fall  of  1931-32  to  sixty-one  in 
the  fall  of  1932-33;  the  number  of  other  employees  was  also  reduced;  salaries  were 
cut  on  an  average  of  approximately  thirty-three  per  cent;  practically  every  other  item  of 
the  budget  was  greatly  reduced.  In  spite  of  these  retrenchments,  a  deficit  of  $130,000.00 
was  reported  to  the  General  Assembly  of  1932,  and  a  special  appropriation  for  that 
amount  was  made. 

The  proceeds  from  this  special  appropriation  together  with  current  income  of  the 
college  made  it  possible  to  close  the  fiscal  year  1932-33  with  all  debts  paid  or  provided 
for,  and  the  college  virtually  on  a  cash  basis. 

In  December,  1932,  President  Wells  resigned  to  become  the  General  Attorney  for 
the  Woodmen  of  the  World.  Dr.  James  H.  Richmond,  Superintendent  of  Public 
Instruction,  of  Frankfort,  Kentucky,  was  elected  to  succeed  him.  On  account  of  the 
school  survey  which  was  not  completed  at  the  time  of  his  election,  Dr.  Richmond  did 
not  deem  it  advisable  to  accept  the  presidency  until  after  the  completion  of  the  educa- 
tional survey  and  after  other  important  educational  matters  then  pending  had  been 
disposed  of. 

On  December  31,  1932,  Dean  John  W.  Carr  was  elected  president  of  the  Murray 
State  Teachers  College  for  the  second  time.  He  assumed  the  duties  of  the  office 
January  1,  1933.  It  was  understood  that  his  term  of  office  as  president  was  at  the 
"pleasure  of  the  Board  of  Regents"  and  that  he  would  serve  only  until  Dr.  Richmond 
was  able  to  assume  the  duties  of  president.  He  continued  to  perform  the  duties -of 
dean  of  the  faculty  also.  At  his  request,  he  was  given  no  additional  remuneration  while 
serving  as  president. 


The  chief  work  of  Dr.  Carr  during  his  second  administration  was  to  maintain  the 
morale  of  the  faculty  and  students  and  to  see  that  the  standards  of  the  college  were  not 
lowered.  He  was  especially  concerned  that  there  should  be  no  deficit  when  Dr.  Rich- 
mond assumed  his  duties  as  president. 

For  professional  reasons  Dr.  Richmond  did  not  assume  his  duties  as  president  until 
after  his  term  as  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  had  expired — January  6,   1936. 

In  the  meantime,  the  junior  high  school  of  the  training  school  had  again  become 
a  senior  high  school;  the  Department  of  Commerce  had  been  established  and  was  in 
successful  operation;  twenty  acres  had  been  added  to  the  campus;  a  concrete  road  had 
been  constructed  about  the  north  half  of  the  campus;  the  main  section  of  the  stadium 
had  been  built;  plans  and  provisions  had  been  made  for  the  construction  of  the  Health 
and  Home  Economics  buildings;  fifteen  members  had  been  added  to  the  faculty,  and 
the  salaries  of  all  members  of  the  faculty  had  been  slightly  increased. 


Dr.  James  H.  Richmond  assumed  his  official  duties  as  President  of  Murray  State 
Teachers  College,  January  6,  1936.  At  that  time  the  world  was  in  the  midst  of  the 
great  Economic  Depression.  He  continues  as  President  at  the  close  of  the  second 
decade  that  the  college  has  been  in  operation — Mid-Summer  of  1943.  At  this  time 
the  world  is  in  the  midst  of  World  War  II.  Both  the  economic  depression  and  World 
War  II  greatly  affected  this  institution.  Yet  in  spite  of  all  difficulties  his  administra- 
tion continues  to  be  eminently  successful.  In  fact,  difficulties  in  practically  every 
instance  have  been  changed  into  assets. 


During  the  seven  and  a  half  years  that  he  has  been  in  office  the  state  has  provided 
only  $125,000.00  for  permanent  improvements.  Yet  during  that  time  the  following 
improvements  have  been  made: 

The  Health  and  Home  Economics  buildings  have  been  constructed  and  equipped; 
the  President's  Home  has  been  purchased  and  remodeled;  the  college  farm  of  225 
acres  has  been  purchased  and  improved;  the  Warren  Swann  Men's  Dormitory  has  been 
constructed  and  equipped;  the  college  campus  has  been  enlarged;  the  Central  Heating 
Plant  has  been  overhauled  and  enlarged;  the  Fine  Arts  Building  has  almost  been  com- 
pleted; the  Carlisle  Cutchin  Stadium  has  been  improved. 

More  than  half  a  million  dollars  worth  of  property  has  been  acquired  at  a  cost  to 
the  state  of  only  $125,000.00.  This  feat  has  been  accomplished  in  accordance  with 
law  by  the  college  authorities  cooperating  with  the  P.W.A.,  the  N.Y.A.,  the  W.P.A., 
the  College  Holding  Company  and  by  the  gifts  of  a  few  friends  of  the  college.  In 
due  course  of  time  (from  eight  to  twenty  years) ,  the  income  from  the  farm  and  from 
the  new  buildings  will  pay  for  all  of  these  improvements  without  the  state  appropriating 
another  dollar. 

In  the  meantime  the  students  will  have  been  greatly  benefitted  by  having  had  the 
use  of  these  properties.  Not  only  have  these  improvements  been  made,  but  hundreds  of 
students  have  had  part  time  employment  which  has  enabled  them  to  acquire  a  college 
education,  who  otherwise  would  have  been  deprived  of  that  privilege. 

Not  only  has  the  physical  plant  been  greatly  improved  during  Dr.  Richmond's  ad- 
ministration  but   numerous   other   developments   of  great  importance   have   been   made. 

Every  department  of  the  college  has  continued  to  grow,  but  five  have  had  exceptional 
growth — Agriculture,    Commerce,    Music,    Physical    Education,    and    Home    Economics. 

The  faculty  has  not  only  increased  in  number  but  continues  to  grow  in  efficiency 
not  only  in  teaching  subject  matter  but  in  guiding  and  inspiring  youth. 

In  1940  an  outstanding  study  of  the  curriculum  was  made  by  the  faculty  in  con- 
junction with  representatives  of  students,  parents,  school  board  members,  representatives 
of  state  and  federal  agencies,  and  teachers  and  administrators  of  local  and  adjacent 
school  systems. 

In  1940  the  Library  Science  Department  was  accredited  as  a  library  school  by  the 
Southern  Association  of  Colleges. 

Beginning  with  the  fall  semester  of  1940,  a  curriculum  leading  to  the  degree  of 
Bachelor  of  Science  in  Agriculture  was  offered. 

Through  the  cooperation  of  the  college  with  the  Tennessee  Valley  Authority  and 
the  Kentucky  Library  Extension  Division,  a  Regional  Library  Project  has  been  initiated 
with  the  College  Library  as  the  regional  center.  This  is  a  unique  service  which  for  some 
years  has  been  in  successful  operation. 

In  the  summer  of  1941  the  graduate  school  was  opened  and  has  since  been  in  suc- 
cessful operation.  The  degree  of  Master  of  Arts  was  conferred  for  the  first  time  in 

At  the  request  of  the  Civil  Aeronautic  Administration,  the  college  in  1940  began  a 
Civilian  Pilot  Training  Program  which  was  continued  for  two  years.  During  this  period 
132  college  students  received  ground  school  and  flight  training. 

For  the  last  three  years  the  National  Youth  Administration  has  maintained  on  the 
college  campus  an  out-of-school  shop-training  program  and  many  young  men  and 
women  were  trained  there  who  are  now  doing  work  in  various  industries. 

On  December  16,  1942,  the  Board  of  Regents  being  in  session,  an  important  message 
was  received  from  the  United  States  Navy,  to  wit:  rrA  Naval  Flight  Preparatory 
School   would   be  established  at  Murray  State   Teachers  College."     Only  twenty  such 


schools  were  to  be  established  in  the  United  States.     Murray  was  again  fortunate. 

On  January  6,  1943,  two  hundred  fifty  naval  cadets  arrived.  Two  months  later 
600  cadets  were  on  the  campus  and  the  school  in  full  operation. 

The  establishment  of  the  Naval  Preparatory  School  at  Murray  at  that  time  was  an 
event  of  importance  to  the  College.  Not  only  was  the  College  able  to  do  its  bit  to 
win  the  war  but,  notwithstanding  the  decrease  in  attendance,  the  funds  received  from 
the  government  helped  materially  in  paying  operating  expenses  for  the  year. 


During  the  first  semester  the  college  was  in  operation  there  were  eight  members  of 
the  faculty — five  men  and  three  women.  One  held  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy, 
seven  the  Bachelors  degree.  At  the  close  of  the  second  decade  there  were  eighty-four 
members  of  the  faculty — forty-seven  men  and  thirty-seven  women.  Of  the  eighty-four 
members  of  faculty,  sixteen  have  the  Doctors  degree,  sixty-five  the  Masters  degree  and 
four  the  Bachelors  degree.  The  faculty  has  not  only  increased  in  number  but  also  in 
scholarship,   teaching  ability,  and  especially  in   the  ability  to  guide  and  inspire  youth. 

From  the  beginning  the  members  of  the  faculty  have  been  chosen  and  retained  on 
merit — scholarship,  experience,  training,  and  character.  They  have  come  not  only 
from  Kentucky  but  from  various  other  states.  They  have  been  trained  in  more  than 
twenty  different  colleges  and  universities.  They  are  men  and  women  of  splendid 
personal  character  who  have  not  only  taught  by  precept  but  by  example.  The  splendid 
achievements  of  this  college  would  not  have  been  possible  without  the  loyal  and  hearty 
cooperation  of  the  faculty. 


C.  O.  Peratt 

Department  of  History  and  Political  Science 
(September,   1943) 

The  Morehead  State  Teachers  College  is  one  of  the  results  of  a  shortage  of  public 
school  teachers  in  Kentucky  after  the  close  of  World  War  I.  The  first  step  to  remedy 
the  shortage  was  taken  by  the  Legislative  Committee  of  the  Kentucky  Education  Asso- 
ciation. This  Committee  recommended  that  a  law  be  enacted  providing  for  an  educa- 
tional survey  of  the  State  by  a  commission  of  five  members,  to  be  appointed  by  the 
Governor.  The  Commission,  which  was  to  report  its  findings  to  the  Governor,  was 
composed  of  Dr.  W.  A.  Ganfield,  President  of  Centre  College,  Danville,  Chairman; 
Alex  G.  Barret,  lawyer  and  member  of  the  Louisville  Board  of  Education,  Louisville; 
J.  L.  Harman,  President  of  the  Bowling  Green  Business  University,  Bowling  Green; 
C.  J.  Hayden,  President  of  the  Springfield  Board  of  Education,  Springfield;  and  Miss 
Katie  McDaniel,  formerly  Superintendent  of  Christian  County  Schools,  Hopkinsville. 
The  Commission  secured  from  the  General  Education  Board  of  New  York  City,  the 
services  of  a  staff  of  experts  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Frank  P.  Bachman,  and  after 
a  survey  extending  over  a  period  of  fifteen  months,  made  its  reports  to  the  Governor 
in  1921.  Among  its  recommendations  was  one  for  the  establishment  of  two  normal 
schools  for  the  training  of  white  elementary  teachers,  one  to  be  located  in  Eastern 
Kentucky,  and  one  in  Western  Kentucky. 

Acting  under  this  recommendation,  the  General  Assembly,  1922,  passed  an  act  pro- 
viding for  the  establishment  of  two  Normal  Schools  for  the  training  of  white  elementary 
teachers  and  appropriating  money  for  the  operation  and  maintenance  thereof.  This 
act  further  provided  that  a  commission  of  eight  persons  should  select  locations  for  the 


schools.  Five  of  these  were  to  be  appointed  by  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives, who  was  Honorable  J.  H.  Thompson,  of  Bourbon  County,  and  three  by  the 
Lieutenant  Governor,  who  was  Honorable  S.  Thruston  Ballard,  of  Louisville. 

The  Lieutenant  Governor  designated  as  members  of  the  Commission,  Professor  J.  L. 
Harman,  President  of  the  Bowling  Green  Business  University;  Honorable  Alex  G. 
Barret,  lawyer  and  distinguished  citizen  of  Louisville;  and  Judge  Arthur  Peter,  lawyer 
and  former  judge  of  Jefferson  County.  The  Speaker  of  the  House  designated  as 
members  of  the  Commission  Judge  Ed  C.  O'Rear,  former  Chief  Justice  of  the  Court 
of  Appeals;  Honorable  Thomas  A.  Combs,  former  State  Senator  and  prominent  business 
man,  of  Lexington;  Honorable  W.  S.  Wallen,  lawyer  and  legislator,  Prestonsburg;  and 
Honorable  Earl  W.  Senff,  lawyer  and  County  Judge  of  Montgomery  County.  Judge 
O'Rear  was  elected  chairman,  and  Judge  Senff  secretary,  of  the  Commission. 

The  plan  of  this  Commission  was  to  select  for  the  locations  of  the  two  schools  the 
two  towns  offering  the  greatest  advantage  in  accessibility  to  students  of  the  territory 
they  were  to  serve  and  in  equipment  already  in  existence  or  the  equivalent  in  money 
The  citizens  of  Morehead  offered  to  buy  and  turn  over  to  the  State  a  mission  school 
plant  known  as  the  Morehead  Normal  School,  which  had  been  in  operation  in  that 
town  since  1887.  This  plant,  containing  sixty-five  acres  of  land  with  three  frame  and 
one  brick  building,  was  valued  at  $140,000.00.  After  considering  all  offers  of  locations 
and  after  many  futile  efforts  to  reach  a  decision,  the  Commission  met  in  Lexington 
on  November  25,  1922,  and  named  Morehead  as  the  home  of  the  new  school  for  the 
Eastern  section  of  the  State  and  Murray  for  the  Western  section. 

In  the  meantime,  suit  was  instituted  in  the  Franklin  Circuit  Court  in  order  to 
determine  the  constitutionality  of  the  act  and  the  extent  of  the  Commission's  duties. 
Final  decision  in  this  case  was  not  reached  until  May  15,  1923,  when  the  Court  of 
Appeals  affirmed  the  constitutionality  of  the  act  and  defined  the  duties  of  the  Com- 
mission. Early  in  August,  1923,  the  Commission  completed  its  work  in  connection 
with  the  establishment  of  the  schools.  The  management  of  the  schools  was  then  placed 
in  the  hands  of  the  State  Board  of  Education,  composed  of  the  State  Superintendent 
of  Public  Instruction,  George  Colvin,  the  Attorney  General,  Thomas  B.  McGregor, 
and  the  Secretary  of  State,  Frederick  Vaughan. 

The  State  Board  of  Education  elected  as  President  of  the  Morehead  school  Pro- 
fessor Frank  C.  Button,  who  had  served  for  twenty-four  years  as  head  of  the  More- 
head  Normal  School,  and  who  at  the  time  of  his  election  had  for  twelve  years  served 
the  State  of  Kentucky  as  rural  school  supervisor  in  the  employ  of  the  General  Educa- 
tion Board  of  New  York. 

The  General  Assembly  of  1924  enacted  a  law  transferring  the  control  of  the  two 
new  normal  schools  from  the  State  Board  of  Education  to  two  Boards  of  Regents — 
one  Board  for  Murray  and  one  for  Morehead.  The  members  of  these  Boards  were 
to  be  appointed  by  the  Governor,  except  the  Chairman,  who  was  to  be  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Public  Instruction. 

The  members  of  the  first  Board  of  Regents  for  Morehead  were  the  Honorable 
McHenry  Rhoads,  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  Frankfort,  Chairman;  Hon- 
orable Allie  W.  Young,  Morehead,  Secretary;  Honorable  Edward  W.  Pendleton, 
Prestonsburg,  Member;  and  Honorable  J.  B.  Clark,  Inez,  Member.  Various  men  and 
women  of  prominence  in  Eastern  Kentucky  have  served  on  the  Board  at  different 
times.  At  the  present  time  it  is  composed  of  Honorable  John  W.  Brooker,  Superin- 
tendent of  Public  Instruction,  Frankfort;  Mrs.  Allie  W.  Young,  Morehead;  Honorable 
Donald  H.  Putnam,  Ashland;  Honorable  Ernest  E.  Shannon,  Frankfort;  and  Honorable 
Harry  LaViers,  Paintsville. 


On  September  24,  1923,  the  school  opened  with  a  faculty  of  nine  and  a  student  body 
of  less  than  one  hundred.  Before  the  close  of  the  year  the  faculty  had  increased  to 
thirteen  and  the  student  body  to  two  hundred  fifty.  The  second  year  opened  with  a 
faculty  of  twenty-four  teachers,  five  administrative  officers,  and  approximately  two 
hundred  fifty  students.  Before  the  close  of  the  second  year  the  student  body  numbered 
nearly  five  hundred.  The  peak  of  attendance  was  reached  in  1935  when  the  student 
body  numbered  one  thousand  and  two  hundred.  During  the  third  year  there  were 
eleven  administrative  officers,  and  a  faculty  of  twenty-six  members.  By  1943,  the 
regular  faculty  had  grown  to  fifty-seven,  and  the  administrative  force  to  twenty-one. 
At  the  close  of  the  summer  quarter  in  August,  1943,  the  College  had  conferred  degrees 
on  893  graduates. 

When  the  school  opened  in  1923,  there  were  on  the  grounds  four  buildings,  a 
dormitory  for  women,  one  for  men,  a  building  for  classrooms  and  a  building  used  for 
chapel,  library  and  administrative  offices,  all  formerly  the  property  of  the  old  Morehead 
Normal  School.  All  of  these  original  buildings  have  been  supplanted  by  more  sub- 
stantial and  modern  ones. 

Following  is  a  list  of  the  buildings  with  the  dates  of  completion: 

Administration  Building   February,  1926 

Allie  Young  Hall,  Dormitory  for  Girls June,  1926 

First  Power  Plant late  in  fall,  1925 

Fields  Hall,  Dormitory  for  Girls  late  in  fall,  1927 

Thompson  Hall,  Dormitory  for  Men late  in  fall,  1927 

Auditorium-Gymnasium    May,    1929 

President's  Residence   June,  1929 

Johnson  Camden  Library   1930 

Jayne  Memorial  Stadium   1930 

Senff  Natatorium    1930 

Breckinridge  Training  School .   Spring,  1931 

Second  Power  Plant   (supplanting  the  first)    1937 

Men's  Hall,  Dormitory  for  Men   1937 

Science  Hall   1937 

The  buildings  erected  between  1926  and  1931  were  largely  due  to  the  untiring  efforts 
of  Honorable  Allie  W.  Young,  who,  during  his  service  in  the  State  Senate  secured  for 
the  school  appropriations  of  $400,000.00  in  1924,  $320,000.00  in  1926,  $250,000.00  in 
1928,  and  $250,000.00  in  1930. 

All  of  these  buildings  are  constructed  of  brick,  stone,  concrete  and  steel,  with  wood 
furnishings.  The  style  of  architecture  is  Tudor  Gothic.  All  buildings  are  equipped 
with  modern  furniture  and  apparatus  for  conducting  a  college.  The  Library  is  especially 
beautiful   in   its   architectural   design   and   in   the   material   of   which   it   is   constructed. 

To  date  the  College  has  had  four  presidents.  President  Button,  after  a  service  of 
six  years,  retired  as  the  head  of  the  college  in  August,  1929,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Dr.  John  Howard  Payne,  who  served  as  president  until  September,  1935.  Mr.  Harvey 
A.  Babb  was  president  from  1935  to  1940.  Since  July,  1940,  Dr.  William  H.  Vaughan 
has  been  president. 

In  the  twenty  years  of  its  existence  the  Morehead  State  Teachers  College  has  under- 
gone considerable  change  in  its  organization  and  in  name.  It  was  first  established  to 
train  elementary  school  teachers  and  offered  courses  of  the  high  school  level  leading  to 
certificates  for  teaching  in  the  elementary  branches.  At  the  same  time  it  offered  two 
years    of    college    work,    which    led    to    a    higher    class    elementary    certificate.      It    was 


originally  named  the  Morehead  State  Normal  School.  In  1926  this  name  was  changed 
by  the  General  Assembly  to  the  Morehead  State  Normal  School  and  Teachers  College. 
Provision  was  at  the  same  time  made  to  grant  certificates  for  teaching  in  high  schools. 
In  1930  the  name  was  again  changed  by  the  General  Assembly  to  the  Morehead  State 
Teachers  College. 

In  January,  1928,  the  College  became  a  member  of  the  Kentucky  Association  of 
Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools.  In  1930  it  was  admitted  to  membership  in  the  Asso- 
ciation of  Colleges  and  Universities  of  the  Southern  States.  In  February,  1931,  it 
became  a  member  of  the  American  Association  of  Teachers  Colleges. 

Early  in  1942  the  college,  along  with  many  other  colleges  in  the  country,  offered  a 
part  of  its  facilities  to  the  Navy  for  the  training  of  Naval  personnel  for  the  war  effort. 
The  administration  of  the  college  believed  that  training  of  civilians  and  the  training  of 
military  men  could  be  carried  on  simultaneously  and  without  conflict.  In  June,  1942, 
the  first  contingent  of  Navy  men  arrived  on  the  campus.  These  men  are  being  taught 
to  be  electricians  on  board  fighting  ships.  Several  members  of  the  college  faculty  were 
shifted  from  their  regular  teaching  duties  to  be  instructors  of  Mathematics  and  Elec- 
tricity for  the  Navy  men.  More  than  twenty  additional  instructors  were  employed 
to  carry  en  the  Navy  program.  The  sailors  enter  and  withdraw  in  relays  of  approxi- 
mately 150  a  month,  each  group  remaining  for  sixteen  weeks. 

During  the  first  year  the  Navy  was  on  the  campus,  1,800  Bluejackets  spent  four 
months  in  Morehead.  In  this  way  the  college  is  serving  the  nation  in  war  as  well 
as  in  peace.  During  all  this  time  the  regular  academic  program  of  the  college  is 
being  carried  on  with  full  vigor  and  enthusiasm. 

Since  the  United  States  of  America  declared  war  on  the  Axis  nations,  many  of 
the  graduates,  students  and  younger  members  of  the  faculty  have  joined  the  colors  to 
defend  democracy  and  decency.  They  are  to  be  found  in  all  branches  of  the  service 
and  in  many  parts  of  the  globe.  Already  a  few  have  paid  the  supreme  sacrifice;  all 
have  done  honor  to  their  college  and  their  country. 


Back  of  the  actual  beginning  of  a  school  is  the  inspiration  in  some  person's  mind 
and  heart,  and  it  is  often  hard  to  determine  just  where  the  idea  started.  Authentic 
records  are  not  always  available,  and  those  that  are  obtainable  are  often  all  too  brief 
to  give  a  realistic  picture  of  the  total  history. 

The  first  item  we  find  about  Sue  Bennett  College  seems  to  date  back  to  the  latter 
part  of  the  nineteenth  century.  At  that  time  we  have  found  that  a  minister  of  the 
gospel,  Reverend  J.  J.  Dickey,  was  devoting  his  time  and  talents  to  maintaining  a 
school  in  the  mountains  of  Kentucky  fifty  miles  from  any  railroad.  In  spite  of  all 
his  effort  the  school  needed  other  support  or  it  would  have  to  close. 

This  happened  to  be  in  the  days  of  the  Woman's  Parsonage  and  Home  Mission 
Society  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  consequently  Mr.  Dickey  appealed 
to  the  Kentucky  Conference  Society  for  support  of  his  enterprise.  The  secretary  of 
this  society  was  Miss  Sue  Bennett  of  Richmond,  Kentucky,  and  this  lady  became  ex- 
ceedingly interested  in  the  mountain  people  whom  Mr.  Dickey  described  to  her.  She 
was  able  to  see  very  clearly  their  crying  need,  and  she  determined  to  come  to  the 
aid  of  the  school. 

Before  her  activities  were  hardly  begun,  her  untimely  death  brought  an  end  to  the 
project  for  the  time  being,  and  Mr.  Dickey's  school  was  sold  to  the  Presbyterians. 

It  is  quite  true,  however,  that  a  person  so  filled  with  inspiration  is  bound  to  touch 


other  lives;  and  Miss  Sue  Bennett's  sister,  Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett,  determined  to  carry 
on  the  work  and  establish  another  school  in  the  mountain  section  of  Kentucky.  To 
help  her  in  this  movement  she  secured  the  services  of  Reverend  J.  J.  Dickey,  Dr.  Walter 
Lambuth,  Mrs.  Jennie  Morgan,  Mrs.  Sawyer,  and  Mrs.  W.  T.  Poynter,  President  of 
the  Kentucky  Conference  Society. 

This  committee  was  untiring  in  its  efforts  to  raise  money  to  start  the  school.  They 
wrote  letters  soliciting  gifts  and  went  from  place  to  place  seeking  to  arouse  people's 

Manchester  offered  a  site  for  the  school,  but  at  that  time  the  people  were  unable  to 
raise  their  part  of  the  money  so  the  offer  was  withdrawn. 

In  the  meantime,  Mr.  Dickey  became  interested  in  Laurel  County  as  a  prospective 
site  and  he  persuaded  Miss  Bennett  to  visit  London  to  investigate  the  situation. 
London  was  very  accessible  for  a  number  of  counties,  the  environment  was  good,  so 
that  was  the  place  where  the  location  of  the  school  was  definitely  fixed  in  1894.  The 
citizens  of  London  were  so  interested  that  they  contributed  $20,000  towards  the  cost. 

The  first  name  of  the  institution  was  Sue  Bennett  Memorial  School  and  the  work 
actually  started  in  a  rented  building  in  town,  January  2,  1897.  There  were  only  three 
teachers  and  seventy-five  students.  By  the  opening  of  the  fall  term  in  1897  the  first 
building  on  the  campus  was  ready  for  occupancy.  It  provided  facilities  for  three 
hundred  students,  and  there  were  approximately  two  hundred  and  ten  who  enrolled 
that  term. 

Eight  cottages  were  built  each  of  which  provided  accommodations  for  eight,  ten  or 
twelve  persons  who  brought  furnishings  and  provisions  from  home.  Sometimes  a  mother 
or  older  sister  acted  as  housekeeper.    It  was  not  until  later  that  dormitories  were  erected. 

The  first  president  was  Professor  J.  C.  Lewis,  a  graduate  of  Bristol  University,  Eng- 
land.   He  served  in  this  capacity  for  twenty  years. 

In  the  beginning  work  was  offered  in  elementary  grades,  high  school  and  normal 
school.  One  of  Miss  Bennett's  greatest  interests  centered  around  the  preparation  of 
teachers  for  the  small  rural  schools,  and  teacher  training  has  been  stressed  at  Sue 
Bennett  from  the  very  first.  Special  work  was  offered  in  music,  elocution,  art,  Bible, 
industries,  and  physical  culture.    The  commercial  department  was  added  in  1901. 

In  1917  President  Lewis  was  succeeded  by  Professor  A.  J.  Mohn  of  Ohio  Wesleyan 
College.    He  remained  until  1922. 

In  1922  Mr.  Kenneth  C.  East,  from  the  University  of  Texas,  became  president  of 
the  college  and  held  this  position  until  1942.  Also  in  1922  the  junior  college  depart- 
was  recognized  as  a  Grade  B  junior  college,  which  enabled  the  students  to  receive  state 
teachers'  certificates  without  having  to  take  state  examinations.  Then  in  1927  the  Ken- 
tucky Department  of  Education  recognized  the  college  as  Grade  A. 

Three  years  later  in  1930  the  name  of  the  school  was  changed  from  Sue  Bennett 
Memorial  School  to  Sue  Bennett  College.  In  1932  it  was  admitted  to  membership  in 
the  Kentucky  Association  of  Colleges  and  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and 
Secondary  Schools.  In  1933  the  high  school  work  was  dropped;  and  at  present  Sue 
Bennett  offers  two  years  of  college  work,  including  all  courses  required  for  the  elemen- 
tary teacher's  certificate,  and  courses  in  business  administration  and  music.  Students 
may  specialize  in  business  administration  or  teacher  training,  or  may  take  the  general 
courses  offered  as  a  basis  for  further  college  work. 

After  the  resignation  of  Mr.  East  in  1942,  Miss  Jeannetta  P.  Harrison,  of  Winter 
Haven,  Florida,  became  the  acting  president.  Under  her  leadership  Sue  Bennett 
College  is  taking  further  steps  toward  its  primary  goal — to  develop  those  fundamental 


ideals  of  life  which  make  true  Christian  character  and  which  will  direct  the  students 
into  lives  of  greater  service. 

The  growth  since  1896  has  been  continuous,  and  along  with  the  developing  curricula 
have  come  other  changes.  The  campus  has  lost  the  unsightliness  of  its  early  days  for 
now  many  varieties  of  trees  grow  all  over  the  place,  shrubbery  outlines  all  the  build- 
ings, and  there  is  a  beautiful  flower  garden.  The  physical  plant  is  now  worth  approx- 
imately $356,000  and  includes  two  dormitories,  two  buildings  for  class  use,  a  swim- 
ming pool,  and  a  gymnasium.  The  teacher  training  department  is  also  well  equipped 
with  two  small  demonstration  schools,  practical  laboratories  for  those  who  are  pre- 
paring themselves  for  teaching  in  elementary  schools.  The  college  owns  fifty-two  acres 
of  land,  including  the  campus,  and  a  large  part  of  the  acreage  has  been  developed 
into  a  farm  which  supplies  much  of  the  food  for  the  college. 

Although  Sue  Bennett  College  is  under  the  supervision  of  the  Woman's  Society  of 
Christian  Service  of  the  Methodist  Church  it  is  non-denominational  in  purpose  and 
practice  and  includes  many  persons  from  other  churches. 

Miss  Bennett  believed  that  the  true  function  of  any  school  is  to  develop  personality 
so  that  the  individual  may  become  a  useful  member  of  society;  and  certainly  her 
ideals  and  plans  have  been  perpetuated  by  the  labors  and  the  sacrifices  of  those  leaders 
who  have  followed  in  her  footsteps. 


Western  Kentucky  State  Teachers  College  which  is  located  in  Bowling  Green, 
Warren  County,  Kentucky  was  created  by  a  legislative  act  signed  on  March  21,  1906, 
by  Governor  J.  C.  W.  Beckham.  Bowling  Green,  which  had  offered  to  donate  property 
valued  at  over  $100,000  as  a  site  for  the  school,  was  selected  by  the  Locating  Com- 
mittee, and  H.  H.  Cherry,  then  head  of  the  Southern  Normal  School  in  Bowling  Green, 
was  chosen  as  Western's  first  president. 

The  buildings,  faculty,  and  student  body  of  the  old  Southern  Normal  were  ab- 
sorbed by  the  new  state  institution  which  was  operated  at  the  Southern  Normal  site 
until  February  4,  1911. 

It  soon  became  apparent  to  the  president  and  the  Board  of  Regents  that  the  old 
Southern  Normal  grounds  were  entirely  too  small  to  take  care  of  the  future  develop- 
ment of  the  school.  Consequently  several  tracts  of  land  on  the  outskirts  of  Bowling 
Green  were  considered  as  future  sites  of  Western.  Early  in  1909  negotiations  were 
completed  for  the  purchase  of  a  tract  of  land  beginning  at  the  crest  of  a  hill  on  the 
southern  edge  of  Bowling  Green  and  extending  southward  between  the  Nashville  and 
Russellville  roads.  Included  in  the  purchase  were  the  buildings  of  Potter  College,  which 
had  recently  suspended  operations  because  of  financial  difficulties,  and  the  home  of 
B.  F.  Cabell,  the  president  of  Potter  College.  The  hill  which  was  to  be  the  future 
home  of  Western  rises  232  feet  above  the  level  of  Barren  River,  which  flows  along  the 
north  side  of  Bowling  Green.  The  summit  of  the  hill  commands  an  excellent  view  of 
the  surrounding  country.  In  1909  the  hill  was  almost  entirely  covered  by  a  dense  cedar 
thicket,  except  for  a  small  space  cleared  around  the  Potter  College  buildings,  and 
numerous  outcroppings  of  limestone  gave  to  it  a  very  rugged  appearance. 

Although  in  1909  the  hill  which  was  to  be  the  home  of  Western  was  wild  and  rough, 
it  offered  a  splendid  site  for  the  development  of  a  large  school  plant.  Realizing  this 
fact  and  also  the  necessity  of  having  the  whole  plant  carefully  planned  from  the  first, 
the  Board  of  Regents  early  in  1909  employed  a  landscape  architect  and  a  building 
architect  to  draw  plans  for  the  development  of  the  school  during  the  next  twenty  or 
thirty  years.     In   1909  plans  were  drawn  showing  the  location  and  arrangement  of  the 


future  Western  buildings.  Both  of  the  original  architects  lived  to  see  the  Western 
campus  and  buildings  developed  as  they  had  planned  them  in  1909.  Although  changing 
conditions  through  the  years  have  altered  the  original  plans  somewhat,  the  general 
landscaping  of  the  campus  and  the  arrangement  and  placement  of  buildings  are  es- 
sentially the  same  as  they  were  planned  in  1909. 

In  the  spring  of  1917  the  period  of  comparatively  quiet  but  rapid  growth  and  ad- 
vancement, which  Western  had  enjoyed  since  its  removal  to  the  hill  in  1911,  was  rudely 
interrupted  by  the  entrance  of  the  United  States  into  the  World  War,  but  by  1920  the 
expansion  was  going  forward  again.  It  was  during  this  year  that  three  new  buildings 
made  their  appearance,  J.  Whit  Potter  Hall  (completed  January  1921),  the  Cedar 
House,  and  a  temporary  gymnasium.  It  was  also  during  this  year  that  an  Industrial 
Arts  Department  was  organized,  and  the  Department  of  Extension  and  Correspondence 
was  started. 

In  1922  the  Western  Kentucky  State  Normal  School  was  officially  made  a  teachers 
college  by  the  Kentucky  Legislature,  and  the  history  of  the  college  following  that  event 
is  a  story  of  rapid  expansion  and  growth  in  buildings  and  equipment,  faculty  and 

In  1922  the  principal  buildings  on  the  hill  were  the  Administration  Building,  J.  Whit 
Potter  Hall,  Cedar  House,  Cabell  Hall  and  Recitation  Hall,  and  a  temporary  gym- 
nasium.    Only  the  first  three  of  these  now  remain  as  a  part  of  the  physical  plant. 

Other  buildings  on  the  campus  at  the  present  time  and  the  order  of  their  completion 

are  the  Training  School    (1925),  Home  Economics  Building    (1926),  Library    (1927)., 

Heating  Plant   (1927),  Stadium    (1927),  West  Hall    (1928),  Industrial  Arts  Building 

(1928),  Physical  Education  Building   (1930),  President's  Home  (1931),  Henry  Hardin 

Cherry  Hall   (1937),  Music  Building  (1939),  and  the  Kentucky  Building  (1939). 

In  addition  to  these  buildings  Western  in  1928  leased  the  property  of  Ogden  College 
for  twenty  years.  The  Ogden  property  includes  two  buildings,  Perry  Snell  Hall  and  the 
Ogden  Science  Building. 

Western's  academic  advancement  kept  stride  with  the  physical  expansion,  as  is  in- 
dicated by  her  admission  to  the  American  Association  of  Teachers  Colleges  in  1924,  to 
the  Kentucky  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools  in  1925,  and  to  the 
Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools  in  1926. 

When  Western  was  elevated  to  the  rank  of  teachers  college,  the  general  four-year 
curriculum  leading  to  the  Bachelor  of  Arts  and  Bachelor  of  Science  degrees  and  the 
College  Certificate  was  the  basic  curriculum. 

In  1930  an  arts  and  science  curriculum  leading  to  the  Bachelor  of  Arts  and  Bachelor 
of  Science  degrees  was  organized  for  the  benefit  of  those  students  not  planning  to 
enter  the  teaching  profession.  In  1931  a  year  of  graduate  work  leading  to  the  Masters 
degree  was  added  to  the  curricula.  Graduate  work  was  discontinued  from  the  fall  of 
1936  to  the  summer  of  1941. 

After  the  certification  laws  passed  by  the  legislature  of  1934  became  effective  in 
1935,  there  were  in  existence  at  Western  fourteen  curricula,  only  one  of  which  was  less 
than  four  years. 

The  academic  expansion  of  Western  after  1922  is  indicated  not  only  by  the  increase 
in  the  number  and  length  of  the  curricula  during  that  time,  but  also  by  the  great  in- 
crease in  the  number  of  courses  offered.  During  the  last  year  of  the  Normal  period 
there  were  less  than  two  hundred  courses  being  offered  at  Western,  whereas  at  the 
present  time  there  are  more  than  five  hundred. 

In  1922  the  number  of  books  in  the  Western  Library  was  slightly  more  than  11,000. 
Today  there  are  approximately  67,000  volumes  reported  by  the  Western  Library.     Of 


this  number  approximately  12,000  volumes  are  in  the  Kentucky  Library,  which  is 
housed  in  the  Kentucky  Building,  and  approximately  5,000  are  in  a  library  used  by 
the  Training  School.  The  number  of  periodicals  received  at  the  library  has  trebled 
since  1922,  more  than  300  being  reported  at  the  present  time. 

Since  1918,  Western  has  had  an  infantry  unit  of  the  Reserve  Officers  Training 
Corps.  On  June  19,  1924,  the  State  Board  of  Vocational  Education  approved  Western's 
application  for  training  teachers  under  the  Smith-Hughes  Act  for  the  federally-aided 
high  schools  of  the  state,  and  on  June  19,  1924,  the  Federal  Board  for  Vocational 
Education  concurred  in  the  decision  of  the  State  Board.  The  work  in  the  Agriculture 
Department  and  Home  Economics  Department  was  expanded  in  order  to  meet  the 
requirements  of  the  federal  government  for  institution  training  teachers  under  the 
Smith-Hughes  Act.  In  connection  with  the  Department  of  Agriculture  the  college 
maintains  a  120-acre  farm  which  was  included  in  the  property  leased  from  Ogden 
College,  a  556-acre  farm  which  was  purchased  in  1934,  and  a  60-acre  farm  which  is 
used  as  a  field  laboratory  for  soils  and  agronomic  plots.  In  addition  to  these  facilities 
50  acres  adjoining  the  college  campus  is  known  as  the  agricultural  campus.  On  it  is 
located  an  agricultural  pavilion  used  for  instructional  purposes  in  livestock  judging 
and  husbandry. 

The  first  four-year  degree  class  was  graduated  from  Western  in  1924.  From  1924 
through  the  school  year  1942-1943  the  institution  granted  a  total  of  4,517  degrees. 
Of  this  number  4,394  were  Bachelors  degrees,  and  123  were  Masters  degrees. 

In  athletics  the  college  has  established  a  national  reputation  and  at  the  present  time 
is  a  member  of  the  Southern  Intercollegiate  Athletic  Association,  Kentucky  Inter- 
collegiate Athletic  Conference,  and  the  National  Collegiate  Athletic  Association. 

In  1922,  when  the  Western  Kentucky  State  Normal  School  was  made  a  teachers 
college,  fifteen  years  had  passed  since  the  institution  on  January  22,  1907  first  opened 
its  doors  as  a  school.  During  all  of  that  time  H.  H.  Cherry  had  served  as  its  president. 
Fifteen  more  years  elapsed  between  the  time  Western  became  a  teachers  college  in  1922 
and  the  death  of  H.  H.  Cherry  on  August  1,  1937. 

During  his  thirty-year  span  as  Western's  president,  the  Western  founder  saw  the 
college  grow  from  an  humble  beginning  to  a  place  of  national  prominence  in  the 
teachers  college  field. 

In  September,  1937,  Western's  first  president  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  Paul  L.  Garrett, 
who  since  1915  has  been  engaged  in  school  administration  except  from  June,  1918,  to 
March,  1919,  when  he  was  in  service  in  the  United  States  Army. 

Soon  after  Pearl  Harbor,  President  Garrett  offered  the  facilities  of  the  college  to 
the  United  States  Government  to  be  used  in  connection  with  the  war  program,  and 
in  April,  1943,  the  United  States  Army  Air  Force  made  Western  one  of  its  training 
centers  for  air  crew  students. 


The  charter  of  the  University  of  Louisville,  granted  by  the  legislature  of  Kentucky 
on  February  7,  1846,  contemplated  the  founding  of  all  the  departments  of  a  university 
for  the  promotion  of  every  branch  of  science,  literature,  and  the  liberal  arts.  Its  basis 
was  to  be  the  Louisville  Medical  Institute,  then  a  flourishing  institution;  a  law  depart- 
ment was  to  be  at  once  established,  and  power  was  given  to  convert  Louisville  College, 
the  successor  of  old  Jefferson  Seminary,  founded  in  1816,  into  the  collegiate  department. 
The  proposed  institution  was,  according  to  the  plan  of  management  adopted  for  the 
Louisville  Medical  Institute  in  1837,  to  be  governed  by  a  board  of  eleven  trustees,  who 
were  to  be  appointed  by  the  mayor  and  city  council  of  Louisville  and  were  given  the 


right  to  confer  all  degrees  usually  conferred  in  colleges  or  universities.  This  board  has 
since  exercised  supervision  over  the  original  medical  department  and  over  the  law  de- 
partment, which  was  soon  added,  but  the  contemplated  conversion  of  Louisville  College 
into  its  academic  department  was  never  regularly  completed,  and  so  the  University  of 
Louisville,  as  at  present  constituted,  embraces  only  medical  and  law  schools,  located  in 
the  city  of  Louisville.  Jeiferson  Seminary,  or  Louisville  College  as  it  came  to  be  called 
after  1830,  is,  however,  worthy  of  some  notice  in  this  connection  on  account  of  the  im- 
portant educational  position  it  held  for  some  time  in  the  early  history  of  the  city. 


This  was  one  of  the  State  academies  created  by  the  act  of  February  10,  1798,  which 
gave  to  it  an  endowment  of  6,000  acres  of  public  land.  An  additional  act  of  December 
17,  1798,  gave  to  it  the  privilege  of  raising  $5,000  by  lottery  for  building  purposes. 
The  control  of  the  proposed  institution  was  vested  originally  in  a  board  of  eight  trustees, 
whose  number  was  for  some  reason  increased  to  sixteen  in  1800.  The  land  granted  was 
later  surveyed  and  located  in  Union  County,  but  no  use  seems  ever  to  have  been  made 
of  the  lottery  privilege. 

Nothing  was  done  toward  opening  the  school  for  several  years,  owing  largely,  it 
seems,  to  the  little  interest  taken  in  it  on  the  part  of  its  unwieldy  board  of  trustees, 
whose  rights  had  several  times  to  be  confirmed  by  subsequent  legislative  action,  but 
owing  partly,  perhaps,  to  the  lack  of  funds  for  inaugurating  the  enterprise.  At  last, 
on  July  2,  1813,  the  trustees,  now  reduced  in  number  to  ten,  purchased  for  $800  a  lot 
of  2%  acres  on  Eighth  Street,  between  what  is  now  Walnut  and  Green  Streets,  upon 
which,  soon  after,  a  brick  house,  one  and  a  half  stories  high,  with  two  large  ground 
rooms  opening  toward  Grayson  Street,  was  erected. 

In  this  building  the  school  was  opened  in  1816,  with  the  historian,  Mann  Butler,  as 
its  first  principal.  Mr.  Butler  was  assisted  by  Reuben  Murray  and  William  Thomp- 
kins,  the  principal's  salary  being  $600  a  year  and  that  of  the  other  teachers  $500  each. 
The  school  term  was  six  months  in  length,  and  the  rate  of  tuition  was  $20  per  term. 
Between  40  and  50  students  were  in  attendance  upon  the  seminary  during  its  first  term. 
It  was  from  the  beginning  of  comparatively  high  grade,  and  was  the  finishing  school 
for  the  more  elementary  oldfield  schools  then  located  throughout  the  city.  In  1817  an 
unsuccessful  attempt  was  made  to  improve  the  institution's  financial  condition  by  start- 
ing a  town  on  its  Union  County  lands,  and  in  1820  authority  was  obtained  from  the 
legislature  to  dispose  of  these  lands  at  auction.  It  does  not  appear  how  much  was 
realized  from  this  transaction.  In  1829  the  plan  of  governing  the  school  was  much  im- 
proved by  having  the  number  of  its  trustees  reduced  to  seven,  who  were  appointed  by 
the  county  board  of  Jefferson  County. 

On  September  30,  1830,  inspired  by  the  success  of  the  new  city  school  which  had 
taken  away  its  principal,  Mann  Butler,  its  trustees  secured  legislative  authority  for 
transferring  one-half  of  its  property  to  the  city  of  Louisville  for  a  high  school.  The 
city  accordingly  took  possession  soon  afterwards  of  the  city  property  of  the  seminary, 
which  it  converted  into  what  was  known  as  Louisville  College,  the  city  agreeing  to 
augment,  as  far  as  necessary,  its  tuition  fees  by  an  annual  appropriation.  Its  first 
regular  college  faculty,  organized  in  1830,  was  composed  as  follows:  Rev.  B.  F.  Farns- 
worth,  president  and  professor  of  intellectual  and  moral  philosophy  and  political 
economy;  John  H.  Harney,  professor  of  mathematics,  natural  science,  and  civil  engi- 
neering; James  Brown,  professor  of  the  Latin  and  Greek  languages  and  literatures; 
Leonard  Bliss,  professor  of  belles-lettres  and  history;  H.  F.  Farnsworth,  tutor  in  the 
preparatory  department.     Rather  a  modern  tone  is  given  to  the  school  by  the  fact  that 


chairs  of  modern  languages,  of  commercial  science,  and  of  agricultural  and  mechanical 
arts  were  contemplated  as  future  departments.  These  were,  however,  probably  never 

Although  popularly  having  the  name  of  college  and  really  doing  considerable  work 
of  collegiate  grade,  the  legal  title  of  the  institution  was  still  Jefferson  Seminary  until 
January  17,  1840,  when  it  was,  by  legislative  action,  regularly  incorporated  as  Louisville 
College,  and  became  the  official  head  of  the  city  public-school  system,  then  consisting 
of  primary  and  grammar  schools  and  a  college.  The  city  was  then  to  pay  $2,000  a 
year  into  the  funds  of  the  college  and  to  receive  in  return  30  free  scholarships  for  its 
most  deserving  grammar  school  students.  The  college,  however,  seems  later  to  have 
received  regular  tuition  fees  for  these  pupils  in  addition  to  the  regular  appropriation, 
Its  faculty  at  this  period  in  its  history  was  an  able  one,  including  among  its  members 
for  some  time  Prof.  Noble  Butler,  noted  throughout  the  state  as  an  eminent  educator 
and  the  author  of  popular  text-books. 

Under  the  legislative  act  of  February  7,  1846,  it  was  proposed  to  make  the  institu- 
tion the  academical  department  of  the  contemplated  University  of  Louisville  provided 
for  by  the  act,  but  this  union  was  never  regularly  consummated,  and  by  the  terms  of 
the  second  charter  of  Louisville,  adopted  March  4,  1851,  all  tuition  fees  in  Louisville 
College  were  abolished,  and  it  lost  its  identity  in  the  city  public-school  system,  of  which 
it  has  since  remained  a  part,  as  the  male  high  school.  Some  mention  will  again  be  made 
of  it  in  describing  the  public-school  system  of  Louisville. 

The  old  seminary  property  was  sold  in  different  parcels  in  1845  and  soon  after, 
and  the  proceeds  subsequently  used  to  erect  on  the  university  grounds,  on  Chestnut 
street  near  Ninth  street,  the  building  of  the  law  department  of  the  university,  which 
has,  however,  since  its  construction  been  used  almost  exclusively  as  the  home  of  the 
Male  high  school,  that  school  thus  remaining,  in  location  at  least,  if  not  otherwise,  a 
department  of  the  university.  As  old  Jefferson  Seminary  and  Louisville  College  it  had, 
from  the  beginning,  taken  a  high  standing,  partly  on  account  of  Mann  Butler,  its  nrst 
principal,  and  was  for  a  long  time  the  only  seat  of  higher  learning  in  the  city.  In  this 
capacity  it  furnished  to  many  of  the  early  citizens  of  Louisville  the  elements  of  a  liberal 
education,  of  the  benefits  of  which  they  would  otherwise  have  been  deprived. 

Medical  Department 

The  Medical  Department  of  the  University  of  Louisville  is  the  second  oldest  medical 
school  now  in  existence  west  of  the  Alleghenies. 

In  1908  the  following  named  Medical  Schools,  by  mutual  agreement  of  the  respec- 
tive Faculties,  and  in  perfect  accord,  united  and  became  the  Medical  Department  of 
the  University  of  Louisville,  transferring  their  properties,  good  will  and  prestige,  and 
their  alumni  are  made  alumni  of  the  Medical  Department  of  the  University  of 

The  Medical  Department  of  the  University  of  Louisville,  Organized  in  1837;  The 
Kentucky  School  of  Medicine,  Organized  in  1850;  The  Louisville  Medical  College, 
Organized  in  1869;  The  Hospital  College  of  Medicine,  Organized  in  1873;  Medical 
Department  of  Kentucky  University,  Organized  in  1898. 

These  five  schools  have  graduated  20,000  physicians,  and  now  have  in  active  prac- 
tice nearly  10,000  alumni. 

(Quoted  from  Hamlett,  History  of  Education  in  Kentucky) 

662  A    S  E  S  Q  U  I  -CENTENNIAL 


In  September  of  the  year  1886  there  gathered  at  a  little  weather-beaten  country 
church  in  the  mountains  of  Eastern  Kentucky  a  few  men  representing  eighteen  Baptist 
churches.  It  was  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Mt.  Zion  Association  in  a  region  contain- 
ing about  one  hundred  thousand  children,  and  having  only  one  small  school  that  offered 
as  much  as  an  academic  education,  and  the  charter  of  that  school  permitted  the  co- 
education of  whites  and  colored  people.  Though  these  few  men  had  only  a  meager 
common  school  education  themselves,  and  some  of  them  scarcely  that,  they  felt  the 
responsibility  of  providing  some  means  for  the  higher  education  of  the  children  of  the 
Kentucky  Mountains.  Accordingly  though  their  minutes  show  that  they  were  very 
poor — $366.00  was  the  total  amount  contributed  by  their  eighteen  churches  during  the 
year  1887-88  to  pastors'  salaries — they  solemnly  passed  a  resolution  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Rev.  R.  C.  Meadris,  looking  toward  the  founding  of  a  college. 

Pursuant  to  that  resolution  the  first  building  of  the  Williamsburg  Institute  was 
erected  in  the  fall  of  1888.  It  was  built  of  brick,  and  contained  six  or  eight  rooms, 
only  four  of  which  were  finished.  School  was  opened  on  the  first  of  January,  1889, 
under  the  direction  of  Professor  C.  D.  Garlough.  Among  the  chief  supporters  of  this 
school  at  the  beginning  were  Dr.  A.  Gatliff,  J.  M.  Mahan,  and  J.  W.  Siler.  Mr. 
Mahan  and  Mr.  Siler  were  both  staunch  friends  and  liberal  contributors  to  the  insti- 
tute as  long  as  they  lived;  and  each  provided  in  his  will  that  in  the  course  of  time  the 
bulk  of  his  estate  (they  had  grown  wealthy) ,  should  come  to  the  school  Dr.  Gatliff 
was  and  is  still  the  largest  contributor. 

Rev.  W.  J.  Johnson,  Principal  of  the  school  during  the  second  year  of  its  existence, 
afterward  raised,  by  a  campaign  among  the  Baptist  churches  of  the  State,  the  first 
endowment  fund.  This  campaign  was  too  much  for  Mr.  Johnson's  strength  and  he 
died  soon  after  it  was  finished. 

In  the  summer  of  1890,  E.  E.  Wood  was  called  to  the  principalship  of  the  institute, 
which  he  held  for  three  years.  Dr.  J.  N.  Prestridge  was  then  elected  President  and 
served  in  that  capacity  for  three  years,  during  which  E.  E.  Wood  was  Vice-President. 
At  the  end  of  that  time,  upon  the  resignation  of  Dr.  Prestridge,  E.  E.  Wood  was  elected 
President,  and  has  held  the  position  ever  since. 

Prof.  Gorman  Jones  has  been  instructor  in  Greek  and  History  since  the  winter  of 
1891.    He  has  served  two  years  as  acting  President. 

To  the  first  building  containing  six  rooms  and  two  large  halls,  six  rooms  were  added 
in  1892.  In  1893  a  brick  dormitory  for  boys,  afterwards  used  for  girls,  and  called 
Johnson  Hall  for  Rev.  Johnson,  was  completed.  It  accommodated  forty  boys.  The 
boys'  dormitory,  a  fine  brick  structure  with  room  for  ninety  persons  was  built  in  1906. 
It  is  called  Felix  Hall,  in  honor  of  Dr.  W.  H.  Felix.  Highland  College  was  purchased 
in  the  summer  of  1907.  Two  years  ago  Dr.  Gatliff  built  and  presented  to  the  school 
a  brick  gymnasium.  He  is  now,  at  his  own  expense,  having  Johnson  Hall  enlarged  to 
hold  about  one  hundred  girls.  This  hall  is  nearly  completed.  Today  the  entire  prop- 
erty of  the  school  is  valued  at  $125,000.  Through  the  efforts  of  the  trustees,  assisted 
by  Rev.  Johnson  and  Dr.  H.  H.  Hibbs,  and  through  the  generosity  of  friends  over 
the  State  and  elsewhere,  of  Mr.  John  T.  Burgess  of  Lexington,  of  Mr.  Carnegie,  and 
especially  of  the  General  Education  Board  of  New  York  City,  the  school  is  out  of 
debt,  and  has  paid  endowment  of  over  $227,000  with  $60,000  more  in  sight. 
(Quoted  from  Hamlett,  History  of  Education  in  Kentucky) 



The  chief  founder  of  Berea  College  was  Rev.  John  G.  Fee,  for  it  was  largely  through 
his  influence  and  efforts  that  the  school  was  established,  being,  as  it  is,  the  direct  out- 
growth of  the  Anti-Slavery  agitation  in  which  he  was  engaged  in  Eastern  Kentucky. 

Berea  College  was  first  opened  in  the  early  part  of  1855.  Its  first  teachers  were 
William  E.  Lincoln  and  Otis  B.  Waters,  who  came  from  Oberlin  College,  Ohio.  Mr. 
Waters  remained  at  Berea  for  two  years  and  Mr.  Lincoln  somewhat  longer,  and  in  1858, 
the  third  teacher,  also  from  Oberlin,  Rev.  J.  A.  R.  Rogers,  arrived. 

Prof.  Rogers  may  be  called  the  first  Principal  of  the  school,  and  was  destined  to  have 
more  to  do  with  shaping  its  future  than  any  other  one  man,  except  Mr.  Fee.  He  opened 
a  school  in  a  small  rude  building  prepared  for  it  soon  after  his  arrival,  with  his  wife 
as  assistant  teacher.  There  were  at  first  only  fifteen  pupils,  but  before  the  end  of  the 
term  the  enrollment  had  been  brought  up  to  ninety-six.  During  the  next  term,  Prof. 
Rogers  was  assisted  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  G.  Hanson,  of  Bracken  County,  Kentucky. 

In  July,  1859,  a  Constitution  was  prepared  for  the  incorporation  of  the  College.  The 
general  character  of  this  instrument  and  the  nature  of  the  institution  it  proposed  to 
call  into  existence,  may  be  seen  from  the  following  clause:  "This  College  shall  be  under 
an  influence  strictly  Christian  and  as  such,  opposed  to  sectarianism,  slave-holding,  caste 
and  every  other  wrong  institution  or  practice:  The  object  of  this  College  shall  be  to 
furnish  the  facilities  for  a  thorough  education  to  all  persons  of  good  moral  character, 
at  the  least  possible  expense  to  the  same,  and  all  the  inducements  and  facilities  for 
manual  labor  which  can  reasonably  be  supplied  by  the  Board  of  Trustees  shall  be  offered 
to  the  students." 

At  the  time  of  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution,  a  Board  of  Trustees  was  organized 
and  steps  taken  to  procure  a  charter  for  the  proposed  College.  The  John  Brown  Raid 
occurred  just  at  this  time,  and  caused  the  enterprise  to  be  abandoned  for  a  time. 

The  school  had  aroused  considerable  opposition  in  the  State,  on  account  of  the  Anti- 
Slavery  sentiments  of  its  managers,  and  a  large  county  convention  held  in  Richmond, 
Kentucky,  appointed  a  committee  of  sixty-five  men  to  see  that  it  was  removed  from  the 
State,  which  "was  accomplished  with  as  much  dignity  and  decorum  as  was  consistent 
with  such  an  enterprise."  On  December  23,  1859,  this  committee  notified  Mr.  Rogers 
and  ten  others,  including  Mr.  Fee,  that  they  must  leave  the  State  in  ten  days,  and  ac- 
cordingly, they  departed  with  their  families,  numbering  about  forty  persons.  So  the 
school  was  closed  for  the  time  being. 

Principal  Rogers  was  back  in  1862  engaged  in  repairing  the  buildings,  when  the 
Confederate  invasion  and  the  battle  of  Richmond  again  forced  an  exodus  of  the  Berea 

In  1865,  the  friends  of  the  College  returned,  the  Board  of  Trustees  was  reorganized, 
a  charter  for  a  College  obtained  under  the  general  law  of  the  State,  and  it  was  reopened 
as  Berea  College,  the  teachers  at  that  time  being  Prof.  Rogers  and  wife  together  with 
W.  W.  Wheeler  and  wife.  The  present  campus  was  then  occupied,  and  Howard  Hall, 
still  in  use  erected. 

In  1868,  E.  H.  Fairchild,  an  alumnus  of  Oberlin,  was  called  to  the  presidency  of 
Berea.  He  assumed  the  duties  of  the  position  in  1869,  in  which  year  a  regular  college 
class  of  five  members  was  first  organized,  and  the  school  may  be  said  to  have  started 
on  its  career  as  a  real  college.  President  Fairchild  remained  at  its  head  for  twenty 
years,  and  the  growth  of  the  institution  continued  steadily  during  his  administration, 
which  terminated  with  his  death  in  1889.  President  Fairchild  left  the  institution  with 
four  good  buildings:    Howard  Hall,  Ladies  Hall,   Lincoln  Hall  and  Chapel,  and  had 


gathered    for   it   an   endowment   of   $100,000.00,    not   all   of   which,    however,    was   yet 

In  1890,  Rev.  William  B.  Stewart  became  Mr.  Fairchild's  successor  in  the  presidency 
of  the  institution,  resigning  in  1892.  The  presidency  of  the  College,  which  had  been 
tendered  to  Rev.  William  G.  Frost  just  prior  to  President  Fairchild's  death,  but  had 
been  declined  for  personal  reasons,  was  again  offered  to  him  and  was  accepted  at  this 
time,  the  new  President  entering  upon  his  duties  in  the  summer  of  that  year. 

Under  his  administration,  the  work  of  the  institution  has  made  steady  progress.  The 
College  has  not  for  many  years  been  aided  by  the  American  Missionary  Association  nor 
by  any  State  or  benevolent  society,  but  has  depended  upon  the  income  of  its  endow- 
ment, the  small  amount  received  from  students'  fees  and  the  contributions  of  those 
interested  in  this  work. 

The  anti-slavery  principles  of  Berea's  early  supporters  led  to  the  undertaking  after 
the  war  of  the  training  of  colored  teachers  for  the  public  schools.  This  was  prohibited 
by  the  Legislature  of  1904,  and  the  work  transferred  to  an  independent  institution, 
Lincoln  Institute  of  Kentucky,  located  in  Shelby  County. 

From  its  earliest  years,  Berea  has  been  devoted  to  the  interest  of  the  people  in- 
habiting the  mountains  of  Eastern  Kentucky  and  adjoining  states.  Its  efforts  in  their 
behalf  were  hindered  by  the  burdens  of  "reconstruction  times,"  but  with  the  coming 
of  President  Frost  the  institution  began  a  series  of  adaptions  to  the  peculiar  conditions 
of  this  region,  and  it  has  been  a  pioneer  in  all  efforts  for  the  improvement  of  rural 

(Quoted  from  Hamlett,  History  of  Education  in  Kentucky) 


In  1873  Kentucky  provided  a  common  school  system  for  her  recently  enfranchised 
colored  citizens.  The  problem  of  staffing  the  schools  with  professionally  trained 
teachers  immediately  arose,  and  following  a  thirteen  year  period  of  agitation  on  the 
part  of  Negro  teachers  and  enlightened  white  leaders  the  legislature  passed  an  act 
creating  a  State  Normal  School  for  Colored  Persons. 

The  next  year,  1887,  the  doors  of  the  new  school  located  on  land  donated  by  the 
city  of  Frankfort  were  opened  to  the  first  class  of  55  students.  President  John  H. 
Jackson,  holder  of  a  masters  degree  from  Berea  College,  Kentucky,  and  three  other 
teachers  welcomed  the  prospective  common  school  teachers  to  their  four  room  normal 

The  first  major  expansion  of  the  institution  came  in  1890-91  when  in  order  to  obtain 
financial  support  from  the  federal  government  under  the  Morrill  Act  of  1890  depart- 
ments of  agriculture,  mechanical  arts,  and  home  economics  were  added  to  the  two  year 
normal  curriculum. 

In  the  years  that  have  followed  six  presidents  have  guided  Kentucky  State  College 
toward  the  goal  of  providing  an  adequate  measure  of  higher  educational  opportunities 
for  the  Negroes  of  Kentucky.  The  first,  President  John  H.  Jackson,  served  two  non- 
consecutive  periods  totaling  fourteen  years,  1887-1898  and  1907-1910;  the  second, 
President  James  E.  Givens,  a  Harvard  graduate,  served  from  1898  to  1900;  the  third, 
President  James  S.  Hathaway,  a  graduate  of  Berea  and  Simmons  University,  was  the 
chief  executive  from  1900  to  1907  and  from  1910  to  1912.  In  the  latter  year  President 
G.  P.  Russell,  holder  of  degrees  from  Berea  and  Wilberforce  University,  began  an 
administration  which  lasted  with  one  interruption  to  1929.  For  one  year,  1923-24, 
Dr.  F.  M.  Wood,  a  Kentucky  State  College  graduate  who  went  on  to  one  of  the  most 
important  positions  in  Negro  education  in  the  country,  superintendent  of  Negro  schools 


in  Baltimore,  Maryland,  was  president.  The  present  head  of  Kentucky  State  College, 
Dr.  R.  B.  Atwood,  a  graduate  of  Fisk,  Iowa  State,  and  the  University  of  Chicago,  was 
appointed  in  1929. 

For  fifty-eight  years  Kentucky  State  College  though  changed  in  name  several  times 
has  clung  to  its  primary  function,  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  created:  the  preparation 
of  teachers  for  the  public  schools  of  the  state. 

The  name  Kentucky  Normal  and  Industrial  Institute  for  Colored  Persons  was  ap- 
plied by  the  legislature  in  1902  as  a  result  of  the  inauguration  of  federal  land  grant 
courses  in  agriculture  and  the  mechanical  arts.  During  this  period  a  265  acre  farm 
was  purchased  and  a  high  school  department  was  added  to  the  institution. 

In  recognition  of  the  steadily  advancing  quality  of  work  done  at  the  institution  the 
state  legislature  changed  the  name  in  1926  to  the  Kentucky  State  Industrial  College 
for  Colored  Persons.  One  final  change  was  made  in  1938  when  the  legislature  named 
it  the  Kentucky  State  College  for  Negroes. 

With  a  normal  peace-time  enrollment  of  between  five  and  six  hundred  students 
from  all  sections  of  the  state,  Kentucky  State  College  is  a  symbol  of  Kentucky's  faith 
in  her  Negro  citizens  and  of  the  confidence  of  the  colored  people  in  their  own  leaders. 

On  the  campus  proper,  excluding  the  farm  property,  farm  house  and  barns,  there 
are  two  dormitories  for  women,  two  for  men,  a  beautiful  dining  hall  and  kitchen,  an 
administration  building  containing  the  school  auditorium,  library,  and  the  president's 
office,  the  gymnasium,  and  three  class  room  buildings.  In  addition  there  are  several 
teachers'  homes  and  the  president's  residence. 

In  the  past  fifteen  years  the  physical  plant  has  doubled  in  value.  In  that  period 
two  dormitories,  one  for  men  and  one  for  women,  a  dining  hall,  and  the  heating  plant 
were  constructed,  and  the  older  buildings  completely  renovated  and  their  usefulness  in 
the  educational  program  of  the  college  increased. 

At  present  Kentucky  State  College  is  a  standard  four  year  college  accredited  by  its 
regional  accrediting  association  and  offers  under-graduate  courses  leading  to  the  bache- 
lor of  arts  or  the  bachelor  of  science  degree  in  the  fields  of  English,  History  and 
Government,  Sociology  and  Economics,  Elementary  Education,  Business  Administration, 
Commercial  Teacher  Education,  General  Science,  Biology,  Chemistry,  Mathematics, 
Agriculture,  and  Home  Economics. 

Today,  confidently  anchored  on  its  green  clad  bluff  overlooking  the  valley  in  which 
our  state  capitol  is  located,  Kentucky  State  College  is  a  bright  beacon  of  learning 
for  the  Negro  citizens  of  the  state.  Its  leaders,  alumni,  and  friends  of  both  races  look 
forward  expectantly  to  its  continued  expansion  in  the  service  of  Kentucky. 


(From  1944  Catalogue) 

When  the  Southern  Baptist  Convention  was  constituted  in  1845  there  was  no  theo- 
logical seminary  within  its  territory.  Education  for  the  ministry  was  at  that  time  pro- 
vided by  the  Baptist  colleges,  most  of  which  had  theological  departments  or  professor- 
ships; and  by  private  study  in  the  homes  and  under  the  direction  of  individual  ministers, 
whose  interest  in  younger  ministers  led  them  to  provide  for  such  private  instruction 
and  training.  A  few  ambitious  men  studied  in  institutions  in  the  North.  There  was  a 
growing  sentiment  for  a  general  theological  seminary  for  the  Convention.  James  P. 
Boyce,  of  South  Carolina,  had  graduated  at  Brown  University,  and  upon  yielding  to  a 
conviction  of  a  call  to  the  ministry  had  studied  theology  in  Princeton  Theological 
Seminary.  As  Professor  in  the  Theological  Department  of  Furman  University  he 
manifested  unusual  ability  and  insight.    Taking  up  the  advocacy  of  a  general  theologi- 

8— Vol.    II 


cal  institution,  he  delivered  a  notable  inaugural  address  before  the  University  in  1856. 
This  led  to  conferences  and  discussions  culminating  in  a  special  Educational  Convention 
in  Louisville,  Kentucky,  in  May,  1857,  at  which  definite  decision  was  reached  to  estab- 
lish such  a  school.  The  Seminary  opened  its  session  in  Greenville,  S.  C,  in  1859,  with 
a  faculty  made  up  of  James  P.  Boyce,  John  A.  Broadus,  Basil  Manly,  Jr.,  William 
Williams.  The  Theological  Department  of  Furman  University  was  merged  with  the 
new  Seminary,  which  was  an  entirely  independent  school.  Beginning  auspiciously  and 
developing  with  fine  promise,  the  young  institution  was  soon  embarrassed  by  the  Civil 
War.  By  the  end  of  the  session  in  1862  it  was  found  necessary  to  suspend  operations, 
while  the  Professors  turned  to  pastoral  and  other  religious  work.  At  the  close  of  the 
War,  although  it  seemed  almost  impossible  to  resume  operations  because  of  the  loss  of 
resources  and  of  the  widespread  destitution,  the  indomitable  courage  and  the  heroic 
sacrifice  of  the  members  of  the  Faculty  caused  them  to  re-open  the  Seminary,  October 
1,  1865,  and  to  carry  it  on  in  the  face  of  discouragement  which  continued  for  many 

To  raise  any  adequate  endowment  seemed  hopeless  while  the  Seminary  was  located  in 
the  most  impoverished  section  of  the  Convention  territory,  and  it  was  decided  that  the 
institution  might  be  moved  into  some  other  region  where  more  prosperous  conditions 
might  afford  better  hope  of  support.  Certain  Baptists  of  Kentucky  lent  encourage- 
ment to  that  end,  and  the  Seminary  was  moved  to  Louisville  in  1877.  Its  support  re- 
mained uncertain  and  its  future  precarious  until  1880,  when,  in  an  hour  of  desperate 
need,  the  Hon.  Joseph  E.  Brown,  of  Georgia,  made  a  gift  of  $50,000,  which  preserved 
the  life  of  the  school  and  set  it  upon  the  way  of  permanent  material  progress. 

It  was  many  years  before  sufficient  funds  were  procured  to  establish  the  Seminary 
in  its  own  grounds  and  buildings.  It  pursued  its  work  in  rented  buildings  in  different 
locations  until  it  was  able  to  occupy  its  own  property  at  Fifth  Street  and  Broadway  in 
1888.  Here  four  buildings  were  erected  which  housed  the  institution  until  the  spring 
of  1926.  Early  in  the  present  century  it  became  increasingly  evident  that  it  would  be 
wise  for  the  Seminary  to  seek  a  more  quiet  site  with  larger  campus  facilities.  Move- 
ments in  this  direction  were  halted  by  the  World  War.  In  1921  a  tract  of  fifty-one 
acres  was  purchased  on  Lexington  Road,  to  which  some  three  acres  were  subsequently 
added.  The  building  of  the  new  home  was  projected  on  a  vigorous  plan.  The  corner- 
stone of  the  first  building  was  laid  in  November,  1924.  The  removal  to  the  new  site, 
known  as  "The  Beeches,"  was  effected  March  26  and  27,  1926,  and  the  Commencement 
for  that  session  was  held  in  the  assembly  room  of  the  Administration  Building. 

The  institution  has  been  owned  and  controlled  from  the  beginning  by  the  Southern 
Baptist  Convention  through  a  Board  of  Trustees.  Members  of  the  Faculty  have  been 
chosen  with  care  to  secure  men  of  scholarship,  consecration,  teaching  gifts  and  per- 
sonality. It  is  provided  in  the  Fundamental  Articles  that  every  professor  must  be  a 
member  in  good  standing  of  a  regular  Baptist  church,  and  all  are  required  to  enter 
upon  a  contract  to  teach  and  conduct  their  work  "in  accordance  with  and  not  contrary 
to"  the  convictions  of  Southern  Baptists  as  expressed  in  a  series  of  twenty  articles 
drafted  by  Basil  Manly,  Jr.,  adopted  by  the  Board  of  Trustees  and  made  a  provision 
of  the  charter  of  the  institution.  These  articles  deal  with  the  basal  principles  of  our 
religion  and  the  essentials  of  Baptist  polity. 

Reckoning  from  beginning  of  full  service,  whether  as  Instructor  or  Professor,  those 
who  have  served  on  the  Faculty  of  the  Seminary  are  the  following: 

James  P.  Boyce,  1859-88*,  (Chairman,  1859-88,  President  1888) ;  John  A.  Broadus, 
1859-95*,  (President,  1888-95);  Basil  Manly,  Jr.,  1859-71**  and  1879-92*;  William 
Williams,   1859-77*;   Crawford  H.  Toy,   1869-79|*;  William  H.  Whitsitt,   1872-99f*, 


(President,  1895-99);  George  W.  Riggan,  1881-85";  John  R.  Sampey,  1885-1943, 
(President,  1929-42),  (President  Emeritus,  1942-) ;  F.  H.  Kerfoot,  1887-99J*;  A.  T. 
Robertson,  1888-1934*;  Edwin  C.  Dargan,  1892-1907f*;  William  J.  McGlothlin,  1894- 
1919f*;  H.  H.  Harris,  1895-97*;  W.  Owen  Carver,  1896-1943,  (President  Emeritus, 
1943-);  Edgar  Y.  Mullins,  1899-1928*,  (President,  1899-1928);  George  B.  Eager, 
1900-20*,  (Professor  Emeritus,  1920-29);  B.  H.  DeMent,  1906-14f*;  Charles  S. 
Gardner,  1907-29,  (Professor  Emeritus,  1929-) ;  H.  C.  Wayman,  1915-23f;  L.  P.  Lea- 
vell,  1916-20f*;  F.  M.  Powell,  1918-41f;  W.  Hersey  Davis,  1919-;  G.  S.  Dobbins, 
1920-;  J.  McKee  Adams,  1921-;  R.  I.  Johnson,  1921-;  Kyle  M.  Yates,  1922-42f ;  H.  W. 
Tribble,  1924-;  J.  B.  Weatherspoon,  1929-;  E.  A.  McDowell,  Jr.,  1935-;  H.  C.  Goerner, 
1935-;  J.  Leo  Green,  1939-;  Ellis  A.  Fuller,  1942-,  (President,  1942-) ;  S.  L.  Stealey, 
1942-;  H.  R.  Peterson,  1943-;  Charles  A.  McGlon,  1943-;  O.  T.  Binkley,  1944-. 

This  Seminary  has  active  membership  in  The  American  Association  of  Theological 
Schools,  and  is  on  the  list  of  "Accredited  Schools"  prepared  by  the  Commission  on 
Accreditation  created  by  the  Association. 


The  purpose  of  a  theological  seminary  is  the  training  of  an  intelligent  spiritual  leader- 
ship for  the  interpretation  and  extension  of  the  Gospel  of  the  Kingdom  of  God.  Pri- 
marily such  a  leadership  expresses  itself  in  the  pastoral  ministration  and  direction  of 
local  churches.  This  was  the  dominant  idea  of  the  founders  of  this  Seminary  and  must 
remain  the  chief  function  of  the  institution.  A  great  denomination  functioning  as  a 
factor  in  a  world-wide  Christianity,  must  have  a  general  denominational  leadership  and 
must  produce  its  share  of  the  leadership  for  the  whole  Christian  movement  in  the  life 
of  the  world.    This  responsibility  has  been  in  the  program  of  this  institution  steadily. 

The  Baptist  polity  and  theory  of  the  calling  of  its  ministry  provide  that  any  church 
may  authorize  any  one  of  its  members  to  study  for  the  ministry  and  to  exercise  the 
ministerial  functions.  This  places  upon  the  educational  institutions  of  the  denomina- 
tion the  obligation  to  provide  scholastic  training  for  all  those  who  may  be  recognized 
by  the  churches  as  called  into  the  ministry.  At  the  same  time,  an  institution  must 
organize  its  courses,  project  its  work  and  formulate  its  regulations  in  the  light  of  the 
total  objective  which  it  must  serve.  From  the  first  this  Seminary  has  admitted  to  its 
classes  all  who  were  properly  accredited  by  their  churches;  but  has  always  reserved  its 
scholastic  recognitions  for  such  students  as  could  meet  high  standards  of  scholarship 
and  give  promise  of  efficient  work.  With  the  extension  of  general  knowledge  and  the 
elevation  of  scholastic  standards,  the  Seminary,  while  adhering  to  the  principle  of  free 
admission,  has  advanced  its  standards  and  tests  for  those  who  are  to  be  accredited  by 
its  diplomas;  and  has  also  extended  its  provisions  for  the  training  of  scholarly  leader- 
ship. As  far  as  its  resources  allow,  it  seeks  to  provide  for  the  varied  demands  of  a 
large  and  great  denomination  finding  its  tasks  in  the  complex  conditions  of  the  modern 

Its  facilities  are  not  at  all  limited  to  Baptists  but  are  open  on  the  same  terms  to  men 
of  all  denominations.  Its  rosters  carry  many  names  of  students  of  various  Christian 
communions  and  a  few  Jews.  Throughout  its  history  few  sessions  have  lacked  non- 
Baptist  students. 



**Resigned — re-elected  after  a  period  as  President  of  Georgetown  College. 



By  Frank  H.  Caldwell,  D.D. 

The  story  of  Louisville  Seminary  is  a  story  of  unique  ecclesiastical  cooperation,  far- 
sighted  administration,  able  teaching,  and  generous  giving.  An  excellent  history  of 
the  institution*  has  been  written  by  the  Rev.  I.  S.  McElroy,  D.D.,  whose  name  will 
always  be  inseparably  linked  with  the  first  strong  financial  undergirding  of  the  semi- 
nary. A  story  of  the  buildings  was  published  some  years  ago  by  Dr.  Charles  R. 
Hemphill  in  brochure  form.  More  recently  a  "Story  of  the  Buildings"  was  written 
by  the  Rev.  Peyton  H.  Hoge,  D.D.,  and  published  in  the  April,  May,  June,  1934, 
issue  of  The  Register. 

The  list  of  the  able  professors  and  instructors,  the  wise  ecclesiastical  statesmen,  the 
generous  donors,  and  the  loyal  and  outstanding  alumni  who  have  been  used  of  God  in 
the  building  of  this  "school  of  the  prophets"  is  too  long  to  be  included  in  a  brief  sketch 
like  this.  Rather,  it  is  the  purpose  of  this  booklet  to  present  a  bird's-eye  view  of  the 
development  of  the  seminary  during  five  significant  periods. 

I.    The  Two  Parent  Institutions 

The  seminary  had  its  beginning  some  years  before  the  division  of  the  Presbyterian 
Church  into  the  two  branches — U.  S.  A.  and  U.  S. 

The  older  of  the  parent  institutions  was  the  Danville  (Kentucky)  Theological  Semi- 
nary, founded  by  the  General  Assembly  of  1853  in  response  to  an  offer  of  the  Synod 
of  Kentucky  to  provide  a  site  of  at  least  ten  acres  and  $60,000  toward  the  endowment 
of  three  chairs.  The  high  standard  set  for  the  faculty  of  this  new  "seminary  of  the 
west"  is  indicated  by  the  names  of  the  first  four  professors  elected  by  that  Assembly 
of  1853— Rev.  R.  J.  Breckinridge,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  Rev.  Edward  P.  Humphrey,  D.D., 
Rev.  B.  M.  Palmer,  D.D.,  and  Rev.  Phineas  B.  Gurley,  D.D. 

The  seminary  opened  its  doors  October  13,  1853,  with  three  professors**  and  twenty- 
three  students.  Its  hopeful  beginning,  however,  was  soon  seriously  blighted  by  the 
turmoil  of  the  War  between  the  States  and  the  Period  of  Reconstruction,  so  that  by 
1883  only  one  professor,  Dr.  Stephen  Yerkes,  remained  in  the  faculty,  and  there  were 
very  few  students.  At  this  time  an  earnest  effort  was  made  to  secure  joint  use  of  the 
seminary  by  the  U.S.  and  U.S.A.  churches,  but  the  effort  failed  because  of  certain 
"practical  difficulties."  Shortly  afterward,  the  board  elected  some  new  professors,  and 
Danville  Seminary  was  revived  somewhat,  but  it  was  unable  to  regain  its  pre-war 
strength.  During  its  separate  life  of  forty-eight  years,  sixteen  professors  and  nine 
instructors  served  in  the  faculty  of  Danville  Seminary,  and  more  than  three  hundred 
ministers  received  all  or  part  of  their  training  in  its  halls. 

In  the  meantime,  following  the  failure  mentioned  above  to  make  Danville  Seminary 
an  institution  which  would  serve  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  U.S.,  as  well  as  the 
Presbyterian  Church,  U.S.A.,  the  feeling  grew  that  there  should  be  a  seminary  to  serve 
the  former  church  in  the  region  of  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  Valleys.  After  three 
years  of  diligent  and  fruitful  campaigning  under  the  leadership  of  the  Rev.  I.  S.  Mc- 

*The  Louisville  Presbyterian  Theological  Seminary,  published  by  the  Presbyterian 
Standard  Publishing  Co.,  Charlotte,  N.  C,  1929. 

:!c*Breckinridge,  Humphrey,  and  Joseph  G.  Reason.  Dr.  Palmer  and  Gurley  declined 
their  elections  to  the  faculty  by  the  General  Assembly.  Shortly  afterwards  two  other 
"giants"  were  elected — Dr.  Stuart  Robinson  and  Dr.  Stephen  Yerkes. 


Elroy,  D.D.,  the  Louisville  Presbyterian  Thelogical  Seminary  was  founded  in  1893 
under  the  joint  control  of  the  Synods  of  Kentucky  and  Missouri,  U.S.  It  began  its 
life  with  financial  resources  of  $147,000  which  were  increased  to  $247,000  by  the  end 
of  the  first  year.  The  first  faculty  was  composed  of  six  able  professors — Rev.  William 
Hoge  Marquess,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  L.H.D.,  Rev.  Charles  R.  Hemphill,  D.D.,  LL.D., 
Rev.  Francis  R.  Beattie,  Ph.D.,  DD.,  LL.D.,  Rev,  Thomas  Dwight  Witherspoon,  D.D., 
LL.D.,  Rev.  Thompson  M.  Hawes,  D.D.,  and  Rev.  Edwin  Muller,  D.D.  There  were 
thirty-one  students  the  first  year,  and  the  number  grew  steadily  to  a  peak  of  sixty-seven 
in  the  fourth  year,  with  an  average  of  forty-seven  students  during  the  eight  years  of  its 
life  as  a  separate  institution.  By  1901  the  financial  resources  of  the  seminary  had  been 
increased  to  "several  hundred  thousand  dollars." 

II.    The  Consolidation  of  1901 

Meanwhile,  there  had  come  to  be  in  Kentucky  two  Presbyterian  colleges — Central 
(U.S.),  and  Centre  (U.S.A.),  and  two  Presbyterian  seminaries — Louisville  (U.S.), 
and  Danville  (U.S.A.) ,  and  there  was  an  increasing  desire  for  consolidation.  Accord- 
ingly, in  1901  the  two  colleges  were  consolidated  as  the  Central  University  of  Kentucky 
at  Danville,  and  the  two  seminaries  were  consolidated  as  the  Kentucky  Presbyterian 
Theological  Seminary  at  Louisville.*  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  while  the  opposition 
in  the  General  Assembly  (U.S.)  to  the  approval  of  this  consolidation  was  not  large, 
one  ground  of  the  opposition  was  that  "it  tends  toward  organic  union  with  the  Presby- 
terian Church  in  the  U.S.A."  Louisville  Seminary  has  never  agitated  for  organic  union 
of  the  two  Presbyterian  churches  which  own  and  control  it,  but  for  more  than  thirty- 
five  years  it  has  demonstrated  the  possibility  of  intimate  and  fruitful  cooperation  be- 
tween these  two  churches,  and  it  has  sent  out  into  both  churches  a  constant  stream  of 
graduates  to  most  of  whom  the  ideal  of  re-union  is  not  so  much  the  result  of  propa- 
ganda as  the  consequence  of  vital  experience. 

III.    The  Administration  of  Dr.  Charles  R.  Hemphill,  1910-20 

Prior  to  the  election  of  Dr.  Hemphill  as  president  in  1910,  the  seminary,  like  most 
such  institutions,  functioned  without  such  an  official.  Each  member  of  the  faculty,  in 
turn,  served  as  the  chairman  of  that  body,  and  most  of  the  administrative  details  con- 
cerned with  the  care  and  maintenance  of  the  buildings,  refectory,  etc.,  were  handled  by 
the  "Intendent."  One  such  "Intendent"  during  the  period  following  the  consolidation 
was  Dr.  Francis  R.  Beattie,  who  shared  administrative  responsibilities  with  Dr.  Hemp- 
hill, and  who  in  friendship  was  to  Dr.  Hemphill  as  Jonathan  to  David.  His  death  in 
1906  was  a  severe  blow  to  the  institution  and  to  the  whole  community. 

It  is  practically  impossible  to  restrict  the  administration  of  Dr.  Hemphill  to  the  ac- 
tual period  of  his  presidency  of  the  seminary,  for  he  had  been  one  of  the  founders  of 
Louisville  Seminary  in  1893,  and  between  that  time  and  the  date  of  his  official  election 
as  president  so  much  had  been  done  by  him  which  is  usually  regarded  as  "administra- 

Dr.  Hemphill  had  a  large  part  in  securing  most  of  the  munificent  gifts  which  made 
possible  the  erection  and  furnishing  of  the  seminary  buildings  as  they  are  today.  His 
wise  ecclesiastical  statesmanship  can  be  seen  in  the  successful  effort  to  consolidate  Louis- 
ville and  Danville  Seminaries.  His  relation  to  the  Second  Presbyterian  Church  as  their 
former  pastor  made  it  possible  for  him  to  maintain  among  the  members  of  the  great 

'Tn  1926  the  name  of  the  Louisville  Presbyterian  Theological  Seminary  was  resumed 
as  the  official  name  of  the  institution. 


congregation  a  vital  interest  in  the  seminary,  without  which  one  wonders  whether  the 
institution  could  have  survived. 

During  most  of  Dr.  Hemphill's  administration  there  was  a  full  and  able  faculty — 
Dr.  William  Hoge  Marquess  in  the  Chair  of  English  Bible,  Dr.  Thompson  M.  Hawes 
teaching  Public  Speaking,  Dr.  Henry  E.  Dosker  in  Church  History,  Pastoral  Theology, 
and  Missions,  Dr.  R.  A.  Webb  in  Apologetics  and  Theology,  Dr.  Jesse  Lee  Cotton, 
who  was  just  beginning  his  long  and  fruitful  professorship  in  Hebrew  and  Old  Testa- 
ment, and  Dr.  J.  Gray  McAllister,  first  as  Acting  Professor,  then  as  full  Professor  of 
English  Bible.  But  one  year  after  Dr.  Hemphill  was  elected  president,  Dr.  Marquess 
resigned,  and  in  1919  Drs.  Webb  and  Hawes  died,  leaving  the  faculty  severely  depleted. 
The  student  body,  also,  was  considerably  reduced  in  size  toward  the  end  of  Dr.  Hemp- 
hill's administration,  as  was  the  case  with  the  student  bodies  of  most  seminaries  during 
the  years  immediately  following  the  World  War. 

IV.    Dr.  John  M.  Vander  Meulen's  Adminstration,  1920-30 

In  1920  Dr.  Hemphill  resigned  the  presidency  to  become  Dean  for  the  next  ten 
years  until  his  retirement  from  active  duty.  The  Board  then  called  to  the  presidency 
the  Rev.  John  M.  Vander  Meulen,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  who  was  pastor  of  the  First  Presby- 
terian Church  at  Oak  Park,  Illinois,  and  who  for  five  years  previously  had  been  pastor 
of  the  Second  Church  in  Louisville.  Dr.  Vander  Meulen  immediately  set  about  to  in- 
crease the  endowment  of  the  seminary  and  to  enlarge  the  student  body,  the  curriculum, 
the  faculty,  and  the  synodical  constitutuency  of  the  institution.  All  of  these  objectives 
were  accomplished  to  an  amazing  degree  during  the  ten  years  of  his  administration. 
The  financial  resources  were  increased  to  more  than  a  million  dollars.  Two  new  campus 
sites  were  procured — one  on  the  Upper  River  Road,  and  the  Pratt-Reynolds  Campus  on 
Cannon's  Lane — with  a  view  to  the  possible  removal  of  the  seminary  to  one  of  them. 
The  student  body  rose  in  numbers  to  119.  In  1921  Dr.  Thornton  Whaling  was  called 
from  the  presidency  of  Columbia  Seminary  to  the  Chair  of  Systematic  Theology,  which 
had  become  vacant  with  the  death  of  Dr.  Webb.  Dr.  Charles  H.  Pratt  was  called 
in  1924  to  the  newly-established  Reynolds  Chair  of  Missions  and  Evangelism.  To  the 
new  Mary  Hamilton  Duncan  Chair  of  Religious  Education,  Dr.  Lewis  J.  Sherrill  was 
called  later  in  the  same  year.  When  Dr.  J.  Gray  McAllister  resigned  to  go  to  Union 
Seminary  in  1925,  Dr.  Andrew  W.  Blackwood  was  immediately  secured  for  the  Chair 
of  English  Bible.  Following  the  death  of  Dr.  Henry  E.  Dosker  in  1926,  Dr.  Andrew 
K.  Rule  was  called  to  the  Chair  of  Church  History.  In  1928,  Dr.  W.  D.  Chamberlain 
was  called  as  associate  professor  of  New  Testament  Exegesis,  becoming  full  professor 
in  that  chair  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Hemphill  in  1932. 

During  this  administration  the  curriculum  was  enlarged  by  the  addition  of  chairs, 
undergraduate  electives,  and  of  courses  leading  to  a  Th.M.  degree.  Postgraduate  study 
was  also  stimulated  by  the  establishment  of  six  fellowships.  Also,  two  lectureships  were 
established,  and  an  excellent  archeological  museum  was  procured. 

Though  he  was  conspicuously  successful  in  his  administrative  duties  which  he  carried 
along  with  the  responsibility  for  the  Chair  of  Homiletics,  Dr.  Vander  Meulen  informed 
the  Board  in  1928  of  his  earnest  desire  to  retire  from  the  presidency  to  the  Chair  of 
Homiletics  as  soon  as  a  new  president  could  be  secured.  But  when  Dr.  Thornton 
Whaling  retired  from  the  Chair  of  Theology  in  1929,  and  Dr.  Vander  Meulen  supplied 
that  chair  for  a  while,  the  students  urged  that  he  accept  that  professorship  permanently, 
which  he  did,  holding  it  until  his  death  June  7,  1936.  To  the  vacant  Chair  of  Homi- 
letics, the  Rev.  Frank  H.  Caldwell  was  called,  at  the  same  time  that  a  new  president  was 
secured  to  succeed  Dr.  Vander  Meulen. 


V.    The  Administration  of  Dr.  John  R.  Cunningham,  1930-36 

The  Rev.  John  R.  Cunningham,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  came  to  the  presidency  after  con- 
spicuously successful  pastorates  at  Grenada,  Mississippi;  Gainesville,  Florida;  and  Bris- 
tol, Tennessee-Virginia.  As  he  began  his  administration  in  mid-summer  of  1930,  the 
people  of  America  were  being  assured  over  the  radio  and  in  the  newspapers  that  al- 
though the  stock  market  had  tumbled  in  an  unprecedented  crash  late  in  1929,  "pros- 
perity was  just  around  the  corner"!  A  few  weeks  later,  America  began  to  discover  that 
instead  of  prosperity  it  was  bank  failures  that  were  just  around  most  corners.  We  were 
caught  in  the  grip  of  perhaps  the  worse  economic  depression  in  history.  And  the  semi- 
nary found  itself  with  the  largest  faculty  (ten  active  professors  and  one  retired  on 
pension) ,  and  the  largest  administrative  staff  in  its  history.  Plainly,  the  first  administra- 
tive task  of  the  new  president  in  a  period  of  economic  depression  was  one  of  financial 
retrenchment  and  conservation.  How  well  this  task  was  performed,  and  with  what 
difficulties,  only  the  presentation  and  interpretation  of  data,  which  have  no  place  in  a 
brief  article  like  this,  could  show.  In  addition  to  this  work  of  conservation,  however, 
the  permanent  endowment  of  the  seminary  was  increased  during  these  depression  years 
by  more  than  $240,000.00. 

In  the  personnel  of  the  faculty  three  changes  occurred  during  Dr.  Cunningham's 
administration.  In  1931  the  Rev.  Julian  Price  Love,  Ph.D.,  D.D.,  was  called  to  the 
Chair  of  English  Bible  to  succeed  Dr.  Andrew  W.  Blackwood  who  had  resigned  in 
1929  to  accept  the  Chair  of  Homiletics  at  Princeton.  In  1932  Dr.  Hemphill  died, 
after  having  been  in  the  faculty  constantly  for  thirty-nine  years.  He  was  succeeded 
as  Dean  by  the  Rev.  Lewis  J.  Sherrill,  Ph.D.,  and  as  Professor  of  New  Testament 
Exegesis  by  the  Rev.  William  D.  Chamberlain,  Ph.D.  In  1935  the  Rev.  Jesse  Lee 
Cotton,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  retired  from  the  Chair  of  Old  Testament,  having  served  ably  in 
that  capacity  for  more  than  twenty-five  years. 

The  academic  standards  of  the  institution  were  notably  raised  during  this  adminis- 
tration. At  its  very  beginning  the  faculty  was  pursuing  a  study  of  theological  curricula 
with  a  view  to  making  changes  which  would  render  the  training  of  the  seminary  more 
effective.  This  new  curriculum  was  adopted  and  put  into  effect  in  1932.  At  the  same 
time  the  library  was  enlarged  and  made  more  usable,  greater  care  was  exercised  in  the 
admission  of  students  to  the  seminary,  academic  records  were  more  systematically 
handled,  and  students  judged  by  the  faculty  to  be  not  able  to  profit  by  seminary 
training  or  to  adapt  themselves  effectively  to  the  work  of  the  ministry  were  guided  into 
other  vocations  or  other  types  of  institutions  early  in  their  careers.  As  a  partial  result 
of  this  raising  of  standards,  the  size  of  the  student  body  was  somewhat  reduced,  but  in 
1936  for  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  the  institution  every  man  graduating  from 
Louisville  Seminary  had  already  received  his  college  degree  and  was  receiving  from  the 
seminary  a  degree  in  divinity. 

Various  churches  made  overtures  to  Dr.  Cunningham  during  his  administration  to 
return  to  the  pastorate,  and  in  March,  1936,  he  accepted  the  call  of  the  First  Presby- 
terian Church  of  Winston-Salem,  North  Carolina,  severing  his  connection  with  the 
seminary  immediately. 

The  Executive  Committee  named  Dean  Lewis  J.  Sherrill  to  serve  as  Acting  President 
until  the  end  of  that  academic  year,  at  which  time  the  Board  elected  Rev.  Frank  H. 
Caldwell,  Ph.D.,  D.D.,  as  President. 

The  Seminary  needs  additional  resources  amounting  to  $500,000  in  order  that  its 
work  may  be  adequately  endowed,  and  until  those  resources  are  made  available  through 
gifts  and  legacies,   we  shall  have   to  depend  upon   liberal  annual  gifts   toward  current 


expenses   from   friends  who  appreciate   the  significance   to  our  church  of  a  thoroughly 
trained  ministry. 





The  Eastern  Kentucky  State  Normal  School  was  created  by  a  legislative  act  March 
21,  1906,  and  as  provided  for  under  the  act,  the  Governor  of  the  Commonwealth  was 
authorized  to  appoint  four  regents  with  the  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction 
serving  as  ex  officio  Chairman.  On  May  9,  1906,  Governor  J.  C.  W.  Beckham  ap- 
pointed on  the  first  Board  of  Regents  Hon.  Jere  A.  Sullivan,  Richmond,  Kentucky; 
Hon.  P.  W.  Grinstead,  Cold  Springs,  Kentucky;  Hon.  Fred  Vaughn,  Paintsville,  Ken- 
tucky; and  Hon.  J.  W.  Cammack,  Owenton,  Kentucky.  James  H.  Fuqua,  Sr.,  State 
Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  was  ex  officio  chairman  by  virtue  of  his  office. 
Judge  J.  W.  Cammack  served  the  Board  continuously  from  1906  until  his  death  in 
February  5,  1939. 


Richmond  was  recognized  at  the  outset  as  a  probable  site  for  one  of  the  normal 
schools,  since  it  offered  a  "ready-made"  normal  school  plant,  a  main  college  building 
seating  800  and  worth  $60,000,  a  dormitory  of  35  rooms  worth  $30,000,  a  gymnasium 
worth  $5,000  and  fully  equipped,  an  athletic  field  and  grandstand,  a  city  with  a  college 
and  school  spirit,  and  a  railroad  center — the  most  accessible  point  to  the  majority  of 
Kentucky  teachers. 

On  May  7,  1906,  the  Normal  School  Commission  met  in  Louisville  and  accepted 
Richmond's  offer  of  property  worth  approximately  $125,000.  This  property  was  the  site 
of  Central  University  which  had  been  united  with  Centre  College  in  Danville  in  1901. 

College  Plant  and  Buildings 

The  present  campus  and  adjoining  dairy  and  truck  farm  consist  of  223  acres.  The 
campus  of  40  acres  and  the  college  farm,  devoted  to  dairying  and  vegetable  gardening, 
contains  183  acres. 

Sullivan  Hall  is  the  home  of  approximately  150  women  students  and  is  named  in 
honor  of  Eastern's  first  local  regent,  Honorable  Jere  A.  Sullivan.     It  was  built  in  1908. 

Burnam  Hall,  a  dormitory  for  women,  was  completed  in  1940.  The  first  section  was 
built  in  1920,  and  an  addition  was  constructed  in  1926.  The  entire  structure  provides 
living  quarters  for  370  women. 

The  John  Grant  Crabbe  Library  houses  over  fifty  thousand  volumes.  It  is  named 
in  honor  of  Eastern's  second  president.  The  original  structure  was  erected  in  1923 
and  the  addition  in  1936. 

The  University  Building  is  the  oldest  building  on  the  campus.  It  was  erected  in  1874 
and  was  the  home  of  Central  University  from  1874  to  1901.  It  is  now  used  for  the 
high  school  division  of  the  training  school. 

The  Cammack  Building  was  erected  in  1918.  It  is  named  for  the  Honorable  James 
W.  Cammack,  regent  from  1906  to  1939. 

The  Weaver  Health  Building,  constructed  in  1931,  houses  the  swimming  pool,  two 
basketball  floors,  R.  O.  T.  C.  headquarters,  offices  of  the  college  physician  and  several 
class  rooms.     It  was  named  for  Charles  W.  Weaver,  regent  from   1920  to  1932. 

The  Administration  Building  was  constructed  in  1928.  It  is  named  in  honor  of 
Eastern's    third    president    Thomas    Jackson    Coates.     The    Hiram    Brock    Auditorium 


adjoins  the  Coates  Administration  Building  and  might  be  considered  a  part  of  it. 
The  auditorium  is  named  for  Senator  Hiram  Brock,  Regent  from  Harlan,  Kentucky. 

Hanger  Stadium  was  built  in  1936.  The  college  received  this  valuable  addition  to 
the  plant  as  a  gift  from  students,  faculty,  and  friends  of  the  college,  supplemented 
by  a  PWA  grant.  This  concrete,  steel,  and  tile  structure  has  dormitory  accommodations 
for  thirty  men  students,  offices  for  coaches,  dressing  and  equipment  rooms,  and  showers. 
The  seating  capacity  is  5,000. 

Beckham,  McCreary  and  Miller  Halls,  the  new  dormitory  for  men,  are  three  separate 
buildings.  Each  section  provides  the  finest  dormitory  accommodations  for  48  men  which 
makes  the  total  capacity  of  the  dormitory  144.  This  building  was  completed  in  1939, 
and  Beckham  Hall  was  named  for  the  late  J.  C.  W.  Beckham,  who  was  Governor  of 
Kentucky  when  Eastern  was  founded.  McCreary  Hall  is  named  for  James  B.  McCreary, 
a  Richmond  citizen,  who  twice  served  the  state  as  chief  executive.  Miller  Hall  is  named 
for  Robert  W.  Miller,  a  Madison  Countain,  who  introduced  in  the  lower  house  of  the 
General  Assembly  a  bill  establishing  Eastern. 

Memorial  Hall,  dormitory  for  men,  which  was  on  the  campus  when  Eastern  was 
established,  was  torn  down  when  the  new  dormitory  for  men  was  built. 

Memorial  Hall  Annex  was  built  in  1920.  It  has  recently  been  remodeled  and  now 
provides  convenient  dormitory  accommodations  for  60  men. 

The  Fitzpatrick  Arts  Building  was  constructed  in  1939  and  houses  three  depart- 
ments of  the  college:  industrial  arts,  home  economics,  and  art.  It  is  named  for  the 
Honorable  H.  D.  Fitzpatrick  who  was  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Regents  of  the 
college  from  1930  to  1944. 

Eastern's  newest  and  finest  building  is  its  Student  Union  Building.  The  idea  of  a 
student  building  was  conceived  by  Dr.  H.  L.  Donovan,  President  of  Eastern  for  13 
years.  The  college  administration  felt  that  students  needed  something  more  than  class- 
room and  library  opportunities  in  order  to  develop  initiative,  personality,  and  social 
amenities  of  life. 

The  Student  Union  Building  contains  club  rooms  for  students,  recreation  halls,  a 
Little  Theater,  student  post  office,  bookstore,  soda  fountain  and  grill,  dining  halls,  the 
faculty  club  rooms,  and  a  spacious  reception  room.  It  was  named  in  honor  of  Ken- 
tucky's former  governor,  the  Honorable  Keen  Johnson,  who  has  served  on  the  Board  of 
Regents  since  1936. 

The  other  buildings  on  the  campus  not  described  are: 

11)  The  Amphitheater,  a  replica  of  an  ancient  Greek  Amphitheater.  It  was  built 
in  1936  and  has  a  seating  capacity  of  2,500.  (2)  The  Roark  Building,  erected  in  1908 
and  named  in  honor  of  Eastern's  first  president,  Dr.  Ruric  Nevel  Roark.  It  is  now 
used  as  a  science  building.  (3)  The  President's  home  which  is  next  to  the  Administra- 
tion Building.  (4)  The  Rural  Demonstration  School,  located  on  Stateland  Farm. 
(5)  A  residence  formerly  occupied  by  the  college  physician,  by  the  dean,  but  since  fall 
of  1945  has  been  used  as  the  home  management  house.  (6)  A  residence  on  the  campus 
occupied  by  the  Superintendent  of  Buildings  and  Grounds.  (7)  A  residence  on  South 
Second  Street  formerly  used  as  a  practice  house  for  home  economics  majors.  (8)  Tel- 
ford Music  Building,  acquired  from  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  — 

Income  and  Maintenance 

The  income  for  maintenance  increased  gradually  from  the  initial  appropriation  of 
$20,000.00  per  year  in  1906  to  $353,615.03  in  1930-31.  Beginning  with  the  school 
year  1931-32,  there  was  a  great  decline  in  the  income  of  the  college  for  maintenance 
purposes.    The  amount  of  income  for  this  purpose  continued  to  decrease  until  1933-34, 


when   the   total  amount  received  was   $188,283.28.     Appropriations   for  capital   outlay 
have  been  made  from  time  to  time. 

Value  of  College  Plant 

Book  value  of  college  property,  campus,  grounds,  buildings  and  equipment  was 
$3,058,184.22  on  January  1,  1945.     All  of  the  buildings  are  in  a  good  state  of  repair. 


During  the  period  of  thirty-nine  years  since  the  institution  was  established  it  has  had 
five  presidents  and  two  acting  presidents;  namely,  Ruric  Nevel  Roark,  President,  June  2, 
1906,  to  April  14,  1909;  Mrs.  Mary  C.  Roark,  Acting  President,  April  16,  1909,  to 
April  9,  1910;  John  Grant  Crabbe,  President,  April  9,  1910,  to  September  1,  1916; 
Thomas  Jackson  Coates,  President,  September  7,  1916,  to  March  17,  1928;  Homer  E. 
Cooper,  Acting  President,  March  19,  1928,  to  June  1,  1928;  Herman  Lee  Donovan, 
June  1,  1928,  to  July  1,  1941;  and  W.  F.  O'Donnell,  who  has  been  president  of  the 
institution  since  July  1,  1941. 

From  time  to  time  the  Board  of  Regents  has  created  administrative  offices  to  assist 
the  president  in  the  administration  of  the  college.  These  offices  are: 

1.  Dean  of  Women,  1906.  2.  Business  Agent,  1907.  3.  Registrar,  1908.  4.  Di- 
rector of  the  Training  School,  1907.  5.  Dean  of  the  Faculty,  1915.  6.  Superintendent 
of  Buildings  and  Grounds,  1918.  7.  Dean  of  Men,  1921.  8.  Director  of  Extension, 
1920.    9.  Director  of  Research,  1931.    10.  Director  of  Personnel. 

The  appointed  members  of  the  Board  of  Regents,  their  home  addresses,  and  their 
terms  of  service  are  as  follows: 

J.  W.  Cammack,  Owenton,  June  2,  1906,  to  February  5,  1939;  P.  W.  Grinstead, 
Cold  Springs,  June  2,  1906,  to  May  8,  1914;  J.  A.  Sullivan,  Richmond,  June  2,  1906, 
to  April  26,  1930;  Fred  A.  Vaughn,  Paintsville,  June  2,  1906,  to  June  16,  1916;  H. 
M.  Brock,  Harlan,  May  8,  1914,  to  April  26,  1930,  April  27,  1932,  to  January  10, 
1936;  W.  A.  Price,  Corbin,  June  16,  1916,  to  May  15,  1920;  Chas.  F.  Weaver,  Ashland, 
May  15,  1920,  to  October  21,  1932;  H.  D.  Fitzpatrick,  Prestonburg,  April  26,  1930,  to 
April  27,  1932,  January  21,  1933,  to  April  1,  1944;  N.  U.  Bond,  Berea,  June  21,  1930, 
to  April  27,  1932;  John  Noland,  Richmond,  August  12,  1932,  to  April  1,  1938;  Glenn 
O.  Swing,  Covington,  April  17,  1939,  to  April  1,  1944;  Jesse  Alverson,  Paris,  September 
14,  1936,  to  — ;  Keen  Johnson,  Richmond,  September  14,  1936,  to  — ;  O.  F.  Hume, 
Richmond,  April  1,   1944,  to  — ;  E.  J.  Evans,  Paintsville,  April  1,  1944,  to  — . 

In  addition  to  the  appointed  members,  the  superintendents  of  public  instruction  who 
have  served  as  ex  officio  members  of  the  Board  of  Regents  are  as  follows: 

Jas.  H.  Fuqua,  January  2,  1906,  to  January  6,  1908;  John  Grant  Crabbe,  January  6, 
1908,  to  April  9,  1910;  Ellsworth  Regenstein,  April  9,  1910  to  January  1,  1912;  Barks- 
dale  Hamlett,  January  1,  1912,  to  January  3,  1916;  V.  O.  Gilbert,  January  3,  1916, 
to  January  5,  1920;  George  Colvin,  January  5,  1920,  to  January  7,  1924;  McHenry 
Rhoads,  January  7,  1924,  to  January  2,  1928;  W.  C.  Bell,  January  2,  1928,  to  January 
4,  1932;  Jas.  H.  Richmond,  January  4,  1932,  to  January  6,  1936;  Harry  W.  Peters, 
January  6,  1936,  to  January  4,  1940;  John  W.  Brooker,  January  2,  1940,  to  January 
2,  1944;  John  Fred  Williams,  January  2,  1944,  to  — . 

The  elected  officers  of  the  Board  of  Regents  are  a  vice-chairman,  secretary,  and  a 

Training  School 

The  campus  training  school  at  Eastern  is  the  oldest  in  Kentucky.  The  Normal  school, 
established  in   1906,  occupied  the  buildings  formerly   belonging  to  Central  University. 


On  the  campus  at  that  time  there  was  a  private  academy  which  was  taken  over  by  the 
"Normal"  and  converted  into  a  "Model  School,"  and  elementary  grades  were  added. 
In  normal  times  the  campus  training  school  has  about  330  pupils  and  fourteen  full- 
time  teachers.  It  includes  an  elementary  school  of  six  grades,  a  high  school  of  six 
grades  with  a  principal,  and  a  one-teacher  rural  school  located  near  by  on  the  college 
farm.  The  Richmond  City  School,  affiliated  with  the  college  for  the  extension  of  student 
teaching,  offers  the  services  of  from  ten  to  twelve  teachers.  This  makes  available  for 
the  student  teaching  on  the  campus  or  very  near  the  campus  a  total  of  about  twenty- 
five  training  teachers  and  approximately  750  pupils. 


In  1907,  enrollment  at  Eastern  Kentucky  State  Normal  School  was  made  up  largely 
of  people  taking  teacher  training  on  the  secondary  level.  The  change  was  gradually 
made  from  students  taking  work  of  the  secondary  level  to  those  taking  teacher  training 
on  the  college  level.  In  1930,  teacher  training  of  the  secondary  level  was  discontinued. 
The  enrollment  rose  from  a  small  number  to  a  maximum  of  1810  college  students  during 
the  regular  year.  Another  significent  change  in  the  enrollment  was  from  the  attendance 
of  short  periods  to  that  of  more  students  entering  for  the  four  year  course.  A  large 
percent  of  the  students  enrolled  in  the  curricula  for  the  training  of  teachers.  Others  en- 
rolled in  non-professional  courses  in  preparation  for  positions  or  professions  other  than 

This  information  was  assembled  from  Three  Decades  of  Progress,  the  minutes  of  the 
Board  of  Regents,  catalogs  of  the  institution  and  from  unpublished  report  on  "Plans 
and  Programs"  prepared  for  the  Commission  on  Teacher  Education  in  1942. 


The  heritage  of  St.  Catharine  of  Siena  foundation  of  the  Sisters  of  St.  Dominic, 
established  in  1822  in  Washington  County  near  Springfield,  Kentucky  dates  back  to 
the  early  thirteenth  century,  when  in  1206,  St.  Dominic  founded  the  first  convent  of 
Sisters  at  Prouille  in  France.  The  education  of  youth  and  the  personal  sanctification 
of  its  members  was  the  twofold  object  of  this  early  foundation,  which  for  more  than 
seven  hundred  years  has  transmitted  its  spirit  and  multiplied  its  following  until  prac- 
tically every  country  in  the  world  has  known  the  influence  of  Dominican  teaching.  The 
society  was  known  as  the  Second  Order  of  St.  Dominic. 

Of  the  same  spirit  and  origin  as  the  foundation  at  Prouille  was  that  of  the  First 
Order,  the  Friar  Preachers,  learned  and  zealous  monks,  whom  St.  Dominic  sent  two 
and  two  through  the  length  and  breadth  of  heresy-stricken  Europe  to  restore  the 
Catholic  faith  to  its  original  truth  and  vigor.  Apostolic,  yet  contemplative,  these  sons 
of  St.  Dominic  united  action  and  asceticism  in  such  a  way  that  their  charitable  ac- 
tivities were  vivified  by  contemplation  and  their  cloistered  life  was  quickened  through 
their  apostolic  labors. 

A  further  development  of  these  two  religious  endeavors  was  the  Third  Order  of 
St.  Dominic,  originally  a  lay  organization  for  the  dissemination  of  virtue  and  truth 
by  the  practice  of  self-sacrifice  and  prayer.  Under  the  leadership  of  Blessed  Emily 
Bicchieri,  in  1256  a  group  of  saintly  women  established  a  foundation,  conventual  in 
character,  where  the  subjects  lived  in  community,  took  the  vows  of  poverty,  chastity, 
and  obedience,  and  observed  the  Rule  of  St.  Augustine  and  the  Constitutions  of  the 
Sisters  of  Penance  instituted  by  St.  Dominic.  More  rapidly  than  the  Prouille  founda- 
tion this  organization  multiplied  and  spread,  oroviding  in  1822  an  ideal  for  the  infant 


community  pioneering  in  that  heart  of  the  wilderness  of  Kentucky.  It  was  from  this 
community  that  St.  Catharine  derived  its  spirit,  its  resourcefulness,  and  its  power  of 
adaptability  to  time  and  place,  qualities  indispensable  in  pioneer  life. 

The  history  of  St.  Catharine  community  has  been  one  of  a  century  and  quarter's 
record  of  patient,  courageous  struggles,  and  glorious  achievements  in  the  cause  of  re- 
lition  and  the  betterment  of  society.  From  the  first  humble  foundation  of  seven  Sisters 
on  Cartwright  Creek  the  congregation  has  grown  into  an  institution  that  now  counts 
its  members  by  the  hundreds  and  its  pupils  by  the  thousands,  its  influence  extending 
from  the  east  coast  to  the  middle  west  and  from  the  far  north  to  the  deep  south. 

It  has  fulfilled  and  is  still  realizing  the  ideal  of  its  thirteenth  century  origin,  adapting 
itself  to  the  conditions  and  needs  of  nineteenth  and  twentieth  century  America,  taking 
its  birth  in  the  humble  beginnings  of  this  great  democracy  and  coming  to  maturity  with 
the  growth  and  expansion  of  the  nation. 

The  history  of  the  Dominican  Fathers  in  America  has  always  been  closely  interwoven 
with  that  of  St.  Catharine.  It  was  Edward  Fenwick,  O.P.,  an  American  by  birth  but 
educated  in  Europe,  who  first  cherished  the  hope  of  seeing  the  Order  established  in  his 
native  land.  After  many  disappointments  and  long  periods  of  waiting  he  finally  ar- 
rived in  November,  1804,  at  Norfolk,  Virginia,  from  England.  Under  the  direction  of 
Bishop  Carroll  he  proceeded  to  Kentucky,  where  in  1806  with  Reverend  Samuel  Thomas 
Wilson  and  Reverend  William  Raymond  Tuite,  he  established  the  first  Dominician 
priory  under  the  patronage  of  St.  Rose  of  Lima.  Later,  in  1806,  the  cornerstone  of  St. 
Rose  church  was  laid  and  with  the  growth  and  expansion  of  missionary  endeavors  of  the 
Fathers,  the  need  of  teaching  sisters  to  aid  them  in  the  work  of  Christian  education  in 
the  territory  under  their  jurisdiction  became  imperative.  The  fulfillment  of  this  demand 
was  realized  through  the  foundation  of  the  first  order  of  teaching  Dominican  Sisters  in 
the  United  States.  Like  St.  Dominic,  their  founder,  these  American  friars  would  have 
a  sisterhood  to  unite  the  work  of  contemplation  with  that  of  education  of  youth. 

One  has  only  to  return  in  spirit  to  that  pioneer  period  to  realize  the  hopes  and  fears 
that  must  have  harassed  the  minds  of  Father  Wilson,  then  Superior  of  St.  Rose,  and 
his  counsellors  as  they  considered  the  establishment  of  a  new  community  of  women  in 
Kentucky.  Could  they,  in  this  remote  unsettled  region,  repeat  what  St.  Dominic  had 
accomplished  in  the  heart  of  civilized  Europe?  If  they  could  find  souls  to  make  the 
great  surrender,  were  the  people  prepared  for  the  undertaking?  Had  the  people  the 
vision  of  the  future  of  the  state  and  nation,  and  the  realization  of  the  opportunities 
ahead  for  those  undertaking  such  an  apostolate? 

In  the  period  of  fifteen  years  since  the  Dominicans  had  come  to  Kentucky,  their 
ministry  had  been  extended  in  the  state,  with  a  large  part  of  Ohio  under  their  care. 
It  had  been  a  fruitful  ministry,  devout  congregations  filled  their  churches;  a  college 
established  for  boys  was  well  attended,  and  to  their  novitiate  came  the  sons  of  some  of 
the  leading  families  of  the  south.  By  those  not  of  the  Catholic  faith,  the  Dominicans 
had  been  well  received,  and  many  came  to  embrace  the  teachings  of  the  Church  that 
they  so  zealously  cherished  and  upheld.  Such  conditions  tended  to  allay  any  mis- 
givings they  might  have  as  to  the  feasibility  of  founding  a  community  of  Sisters. 

Too,  these  sons  of  St.  Dominic  were  prayful  men.  They  were  men  of  vision,  with 
confidence  in  America  and  in  a  future  that  would  yield  a  harvest  of  souls  in  the  fields 
of  the  Church  in  the  new  continent.  They  realized  that  learning  was  one  of  the  great 
weapons  in  fighting  error  and  that  santity  was  the  true  stimulant  for  zeal  and  the  chief 
requisite  for  the  holy  formation  of  youth.  They  wished  for  holy  and  learned  women 
to  train  the  minds  and  to  mould  the  character  of  the  youth  of  their  day. 

Father  Wilson  accordingly  laid  plans  for  the  establishment  of  a  community  of  con- 


ventual  Third  Order  of  women  before  Bishop  Flaget  of  Bardstown,  who  highly  ap- 
proved the  undertaking.  Likewise  Very  Reverend  Pius  Maurice  Viviani,  Pro-Vicar 
General  of  the  Order,  not  only  approved  of  the  foundation  but  accorded  to  its  new 
members  all  the  privileges  belonging  to  the  Second  Order.  Thus  from  the  very  be- 
ginning the  future  St.  Catharine  was  affiliated  with  Second  Order. 

Memorable  was  the  Sunday,  on  which  the  announcement  was  made  before  the  con- 
gregation assembled  in  St.  Rose  church  of  the  inauguration  of  this  great  undertaking. 
Not  alone  for  Kentucky  but  for  the  entire  country  was  this  an  important  event  since 
in  the  century  that  has  followed  the  establishment  of  the  first  Dominican  Sisterhood, 
the  community  had  expanded  to  practically  every  section  of  the  United  States.  Nine 
young  women  presented  themselves  before  Father  Wilson  on  February  28,  1822,  as 
the  first  candidates  and  founders  of  the  new  community  which  was  to  be  known  as 
Saint  Mary  Magdalen. 

Only  the  barest  records  remain  of  the  proceedings  of  that  occasion  which  organized 
the  first  foundation  in  America.  The  simple  ceremony  over,  their  first  efforts  were 
bent  upon  establishing  a  home.  Their  life  was  not  an  easy  one.  All  the  hardships  of 
pioneering  in  an  unchartered  course  was  theirs. 

On  a  farm  belonging  to  St.  Rose  was  a  one-room  log  cabin,  with  a  loft  above,  which 
provided  the  first  humble  home  of  the  Sisters.  Roughly  built  of  trees  from  the  sur- 
rounding forest,  with  the  chimney  made  of  mud  and  wattles,  with  small  holes  fot 
windows,  with  earthen  floors  and  homemade  furnishings,  the  original  home  of  the 
first  Dominican  Sisters  in  the  United  States  possessed  nothing  of  beauty  and  little  of 
comfort.  But  in  it  they  immediately  entered  upon  their  regular  conventual  life,  and 
the  same  exercises  and  rules  observed  by  their  unknown  Sisters  in  the  stately  convents 
in  Europe  were  followed  in  the  rude  cabin  on  the  frontier.  Here  at  midnight  they 
arose  for  Matins  and  Lauds,  and  dawn  found  them  beginning  their  day  of  toil  and 
prayer.  Their  lives  had  the  variety  of  religious  instruction,  study,  sacrifice,  toil,  and 
often  the  pangs  of  hunger.  But  their  prayer,  their  study,  their  labors,  their  privations 
and  their  hunger  won  the  divine  blessings  which  have  given  their  community  perman- 
ency, numbers,  strength,  and  unity. 

As  teaching  was  to  be  their  chief  duty,  they  immediately  arranged  for  classes  in 
English,  history,  and  mathematics.  Father  Wilson  and  Rev.  Richard  Miles,  their  first 
chaplain,  proved  able  teachers,  attending  to  the  spiritual  as  well  as  the  intellectual 
needs  of  the  Sisters. 

But  the  material  necessities  the  Sisters  had  to  provide  for  themselves.  With  faith  in 
God  they  took  up  the  work  nearest  at  hand  and  labored  in  the  fields  as  well  as  in  the 
house  and  in  the  classroom,  to  sustain  their  bodily  needs  and  to  provide  wherewith  to 
make  their  clothes. 

On  Easter  Sunday,  April  7,  1822,  the  first  reception  of  Dominican  nuns  in  the  United 
States  was  held  at  St.  Rose  Church.  Father  Wilson  officiated  and  gave  the  habit  to 
Marie  Sansbury,  to  be  known  as  Sister  Angela  and  later  to  be  elected  the  first  superior 
of  the  community.  In  St.  Mary  Magdalen  chapel  her  companions  were  to  share  in  the 
privilege  of  receiving  the  habit  and  of  choosing  from  their  number  the  one  who  was 
to  be  their  superior. 

The  father  of  Sister  Angela,  who  had  seen  two  of  his  daughters  enter  the  community, 
presented  them  with  a  farm  on  which  was  a  large  house,  situated  near  Cartwright  Creek 
in  the  heart  of  a  rich  and  beautiful  valley.  It  was  here  that  the  foundation  was  laid 
for  the  future  community.  An  old  still  house  nearby  was  converted  into  a  school,  the 
Academy  of  St.   Mary  Magdalen,  later  renamed  Saint  Catharine   of  Siena.     A  small 


chapel  was  built  and  gradual  improvements  were  made.  By  1825  sufficient  funds  were 
available  to  erect  a  new  school. 

The  century  that  followed  this  humble  beginning  was  one  of  gradual  expansion  and 
growth.  Through  the  trials  and  vicissitudes  of  frontier  life  the  community  emerged, 
adapting  itself  to  the  changing  conditions  and  needs  of  growing  America  and  extend- 
ing its  frontiers,  as  calls  from  far  and  near  came  for  Sisters  to  establish  new  founda- 

The  phenomenal  growth  of  the  parochial  schools  system  at  the  close  of  the  nineteenth 
century  provided  the  community  with  many  opportunities  for  augmenting  its  field  of 

In  1830  came  the  first  opportunity  for  extending  its  field  of  labor,  when  Bishop  Fen- 
wick  of  Cincinnati  solicited  a  foundation  of  Sisters  for  his  diocese.  This  community, 
Saint  Mary  of  the  Springs,  established  first  at  Somerset,  Ohio,  but  later  moved  to 
Columbus,  became  the  nucleus  of  a  great  educational  congregation  that  today  numbers 
hundreds  and  has  foundations  in  many  states. 

Other  large  and  independent  communities  which  owe  their  origin  to  St.  Catharine 
have  their  original  foundations  at:  St.  Cecelia's,  Nashville,  Tennessee,  organized  in 
1860;  Sacred  Heart  Convent,  Springfield,  Illinois,  founded  in  1873;  Sacred  Heart  Con- 
vent, Galveston,  Texas,  established  in  1882;  and  Saint  Catharine  of  Siena  Convent, 
Fall  River,  Massachusetts,  founded  in  1892. 

In  1851  a  foundation  in  the  diocese  of  Nashville,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Peter  Church, 
Memphis,  gave  the  Sisters  their  first  house  in  Tennessee,  under  the  patronage  of  St. 
Agnes.  Today  St.  Agnes  Academy  and  Conservatory  of  Music,  and  Siena  College, 
established  in  1926,  stand  as  a  tribute  to  the  sacrifices  and  labors  of  nearly  a  century. 

In  1866  a  foundation  was  made  in  Louisville  in  St.  Louis  Bertrand  parish  and  a  year 
later  Holy  Rosary  Academy  was  established.  From  1877  to  1882  were  established  sev- 
eral local  missions,  including  the  colored  school  at  Briartown  and  the  parochial  school 
in  Springfield. 

Expansion  in  1882  extended  to  Mattoon,  Illinois,  and  in  1888  to  Water  town,  Massa- 
chusetts. In  1901  Spalding,  Nebraska  was  the  first  of  several  midwest  foundations, 
including  one  in  Iowa.  Later,  in  West  Virginia  and  in  Indiana,  missions  were  founded. 
Since  1921  large  parochial  schools  have  been  accepted  in  Chicago,  Illinois;  Brooklyn, 
New  York;  and  Boston,  Massachusetts.  St.  Catharine  Hospital  in  McCook,  Nebraska 
has  been  in  operation  since  1921. 

The  community  now  teaches  16,000  children  in  the  Archdiocese  of  Baltimore  and 
Washington,  Boston,  Chicago,  and  Louisville,  and  in  the  Diocese  of  Brooklyn,  Des 
Moines,  Grand  Island,  Indianapolis,  Lincoln,  Little  Rock,  Nashville,  Omaha,  and 
Owensboro.  It  conducts  one  senior  college,  one  junior  college,  one  hospital,  thirty-two 
parochial  schools  and  seven  academies.    The  membership  is  600. 

In  1839  the  State  of  Kentucky  granted  a  charter  for  establishing  an  academy  at 
St.  Catharine,  with  all  necessary  privileges  and  rights.  On  July  24,  1845,  the  first 
graduation  at  St.  Catharine  took  place.  By  a  grant  of  the  state  legislature  in  1851, 
the  Sisters  were  permitted  to  change  the  name  of  the  foundation  from  St.  Mary 
Magdalen  to  that  of  Saint  Catharine  of  Siena. 

Though  the  work  of  the  Sisters  is  primarily  education,  the  annals  of  St.  Catharine 
record  many  instances  where  in  grave  emergencies  they  have  served  in  other  capacities, 
often  at  the  risk  of  their  lives.  The  cholera  epidemics  in  1832  and  1854  found  the 
Sisters  laboring  in  the  plague-stricken  areas,  one  of  their  number,  Sister  Teresa  Lynch, 
sacrificing  her  life  as  a  victim  of  the  plague. 

In   the  crisis  of   the   Civil  War,   the   Sisters,   true   to   the  spirit  of  neutrality  which 


Kentucky  proclaimed,  sought  to  help  the  soldiers  in  both  camps.  In  the  Battle  of 
Perryville  they  went  to  the  battlefield  to  minister  to  the  wounded  and  dying.  They 
converted  their  convent  into  a  temporary  hospital  to  house  the  wagonloads  of  wounded 
soldiers  brought  in  from  the  field  of  battle.  At  the  request  of  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  Whe- 
lan,  O.P.,  the  Sisters  of  St.  Agnes  Academy,  Memphis,  took  charge  of  the  city  hospital 
which  had  been  requistioned  for  wounded  soldiers. 

During  the  yellow  fever  epidemics  of  1867,  1873,  and  1878  in  Memphis,  many 
Sisters  in  their  effort  to  give  aid  were  victims  themselves  of  the  plague.  To  this  day 
the  citizens  of  Memphis  honor  the  Sisters  for  their  fidelity  and  loyalty  during  that 
time  of  agonizing  grief.  A  little  graveyard  at  Saint  Agnes  Academy  mutely  testifies 
to  the  heroism  of  those  Sisters  who  gave  their  lives  that  others  might  live. 

The  World  War  period  found  the  Sisters  again  summoned  to  the  exercise  of  charity 
when  the  influenza  epidemic  swept  across  the  country,  taking  its  toll  of  victims  alike 
in  army  camps  and  in  civilian  life.  To  Camp  Zachary  Taylor  near  Louisville  and  into 
the  mountain  and  mining  districts  of  Kentucky  went  the  Messengers  of  Mercy  to 
alleviate  the  sick  and  console  the  dying. 

The  greatest  tragedy  in  the  history  of  the  community  occurred  in  the  winter  of 
1904  when  a  fire  razed  to  the  ground  the  academy,  chapel,  and  convent,  valued  at 
$350,000.00.  In  one  night  the  results  of  eighty-two  years  of  sacrifice  and  labor  were 
reduced  to  ashes. 

Not  daunted,  however,  the  Sisters  immediately  erected  a  modern,  well-equipped 
building  on  a  new  and  more  reliable  site.  It  stands  high  on  a  hill  facing  Bardstown 
pike,  about  two  and  one-half  miles  from  Springfield.  Later  the  grounds  were  landscaped 
and  two  additions  have  been  made;  a  chapel  and  novitiate  building  in  1930,  and  a  fifty- 
five  room  fireproof  residence  hall  in  1936. 

A  milestone  in  the  history  of  St.  Catharine  came  at  the  first  centenary  celebration 
in  1922,  when  distant  friends  and  alumnae  assembled  at  the  motherhouse  to  unite  with 
the  Sisters  in  celebrating  the  hundredth  anniversary  of  their  foundation.  Felicitations 
from  the  Holy  Father,  Pius  XI,  and  from  Fr.  Ludovicus  Theissling,  the  Master  Gen- 
eral of  the  Dominican  Order,  were  supplemented  by  greetings  from  many  old  and 
distant  friends.  Among  the  speakers  during  the  days  of  celebration  were  Rt.  Rev. 
John  T.  McNicholas,  O.P.,  Bishop  of  Duluth,  now  Archbishop  of  Cincinnati,  and 
the  late  Right  Reverend  Thomas  Shahan,  at  that  time  Rector  of  the  Catholic  Uni- 
versity, Washington,  D.  C. 

Since  the  education  of  youth  is  the  chief  work  of  the  community,  the  Sisters  devote 
their  lives  to  preparation  and  study.  Summer  sessions  at  St.  Catharine  Junior  College, 
now  in  its  twelfth  year,  and  courses  offered  at  Siena  College,  Memphis,  where  the  Catho- 
lic University  conducts  an  extension  summer  session,  provide  the  Sisters  with  oppor- 
tunities of  study  within  their  own  community.  Other  students  take  courses  at  the  lead- 
ing colleges  and  universities  in  the  vicinity  of  their  convents  where  they  prepare  for 
their  master  and  doctorate  degrees.  A  house  of  studies  erected  in  1938,  near  the 
Catholic  University  of  America  in  Washington,  D.  C.  provides  the  Sisters  with  every 
convenience  of  study. 

The  government  of  the  congregation,  originally  under  the  direction  of  the  Provincial 
of  St.  Joseph  Province  and  later  transferred  to  the  ordinary  of  the  Diocese  is  now  under 
a  Cardinal  Protector,  resident  at  Rome.  It  was  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  Esser,  O.P.  and  Rt. 
Rev.  John  T.  McNicholas,  O.P.  who  generously  assisted  in  securing  papal  approbation, 
placing  the  community  in  the  rank  of  approved  congregations.  The  revision  of  the 
rule  in  1918  provided  that  a  Mother  General  and  four  Counsellors  be  created  as  a 
ruling  body  to  replace  that  of  Prioress.    This  revision  of  the  rule  in  its  approved  form 


has  been  a  model  for  other  Dominican  communities  interested  in  revising  the  govern- 
ment of  their  congregations.  Candidates  for  admission  to  the  Order  are  received  upon 
application.  Certificates  of  health  and  recommendations  from  approved  religious  auth- 
orities are  among  the  requirements  for  admission.  After  two  years  of  intensive  re- 
ligious and  educational  training  the  subject  is  allowed  to  make  profession,  after  which 
she  may  begin  the  work  entrusted  to  her  by  the  community. 

The  history  of  the  development  of  the  Dominican  Order  in  the  United  States  has 
been  fruitful  and  inspiring.  This  fact  is  especially  true  of  Dominican  communities  of 
women,  whose  foundation  was  laid  by  Mother  Angela  Sansbury  and  her  companions, 
on  the  banks  of  Cartwright  Creek  a  century  and  a  quarter  ago.  Scarcely  can  one 
grasp  the  magnitude  of  the  work  of  those  pioneers  in  the  wilderness  of  America.  Be- 
sides the  outdoor  labor  there  was  the  struggle  to  adapt  the  interior  life  of  the  congre- 
gation to  the  conditions  of  time  and  place.  In  both  they  succeeded  eminently,  with 
little  notice  or  encouragement  or  approbation  of  the  world.  Today,  contemplating 
the  result  of  their  work,  the  expansion  of  the  congregation,  the  multiplication  of  their 
schools,  the  excellence  of  their  educational  training,  the  holiness  of  their  members,  one 
realizes  how  truly  was  that  little  band  of  women  the  instrument  of  God  for  the  dis- 
semination of  knowledge  and  the  sanctification  of  souls. 


By  Sister  Mary  Ramona  Mattingly,  S.C.N. 

When  Bishop  Benedict  Joseph  Flaget,  the  first  Bishop  of  Bardstown,  took  possession ' 
of  his  diocese  in  June  1811,  he  was  welcomed  to  Kentucky  by  the  members  of  more 
than  a  thousand  Catholic  families  many  of  whom  had  emigrated  from  Maryland  before 
Kentucky  achieved  statehood.  Reverend  Stephen  Theodore  Badin,  the  first  priest  or- 
dained in  the  United  States,  had  been  sent  to  Kentucky  by  Bishop  John  Carroll  in 
1793.  Here,  he  with  the  assistance  of  Reverend  Charles  Nerinckx  and  other  missionary 
priests  had  ministered  to  the  spiritual  needs  of  the  settlers,  supervised  the  erection 
of  sixteen  log  churches,  and  zealously  promoted  the  spread  of  the  Catholic  religion  in 
scattered  districts.  Life,  both  physical  and  spiritual,  was  vigorous  on  the  frontier,  and 
Bishop  Flaget  soon  realized  that  vast  possibilities  were  present  for  the  development  of 
a  nourishing  Catholic  center  if  facilities  for  Catholic  education  were  available. 

The  formation  of  religious  congregations  of  women  who  would  supply  this  need  was 
suggested,  and  the  communities  of  both  the  Sisters  of  Loretto  and  the  Sisters  of  Charity 
of  Nazareth  were  established  near  Bardstown  in  1812. 

The  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Nazareth  consider  Reverend  John  Baptist  David  and 
Mother  Catherine  Spalding  as  co-founders.  The  former,  who  was  later  made  Bishop 
of  Mauricastro,  was  the  devoted  friend  and  assistant  of  Bishop  Flaget,  and  accom- 
panied him  to  Kentucky;  the  latter  was  the  first  superior  of  the  congregation.  De- 
cember 1,  1812,  is  the  date  of  the  foundation  since  on  that  day  Miss  Teresa  Carrico 
and  Miss  Elizabeth  Wells  left  their  respective  homes  with  the  purpose  of  becoming 
Sisters,  and  took  possession  of  two  rooms  in  a  log  cabin  which  had  been  prepared  for 
their  accommodation  near  Saint  Thomas  Seminary. 

The  humble  convent  was  christened  "Nazareth"  and  the  Sisters  soon  became  known 
as  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Nazareth.  By  Easter  in  1813  the  community  numbered  six, 
and  at  that  time  Sister  Catherine  Spalding,  although  less  than  twenty  years  of  age, 
was  chosen  superior.  She  was  singularly  fitted  for  the  work  intrusted  to  her,  and 
for  almost  fifty  years  guided  her  associates  by  word  and  example. 

In   the   early   years  most  of   the   members  of   the   congregation   came   from   Catholic 


homes  in  the  vicinity,  and  were  trained  for  the  teaching  profession  by  Father  David, 
an  experienced  educator,  who  had  taught  at  Anger  in  France  and  at  Baltimore  and 
Georgetown  before  coming  to  Kentucky.  His  educational  ideals,  outlined  more  than 
one  hundred  thirty  years  ago,  are  applicable  today,  and  as  the  basis  of  the  educational 
philosophy  of  the  Nazareth  community  have  been  responsible  for  much  of  the  success 
it  has  attained.  He  insisted  that  the  congregation  must  adopt  the  best  in  educational 
policies;  that  the  Sisters  be  trained  in  the  most  approved  methods,  and  thoroughly 
prepared  for  their  work,  which  was  to  be  always  solid  rather  than  brilliant. 

Father  David  was  relieved  of  some  of  his  responsibilities  by  the  arrival  of  Miss  Ellen 
O'Connell  of  Baltimore  who  joined  the  little  community  early  in  1814.  She  was  a 
gifted  woman,  an  experienced  teacher  with  an  excellent  education,  and  as  Sister  Ellen 
she  gave  invaluable  aid  to  Mother  Catherine  in  the  selection  and  preparation  of 
teachers.  Sister  Ellen  was  directress  of  the  first  school  which  was  opened  on  August 
23,  1814,  and  in  it  she  gave  practical  application  to  the  ideals  which  were  inculcated 
by  Father  David  and  Mother  Catherine.  In  1822  the  mother  house  of  the  congrega- 
tion and  the  school  were  moved  to  the  present  site  two  miles  south  of  Bardstown,  and 
two  years  later  Nazareth  Academy  had  one  hundred  boarders.  Henry  Clay  presented 
diplomas  to  the  members  of  the  first  graduating  class  in  1825,  and  presided  at  the 
public  examination  which  preceded  this  function. 

In  1829  the  Sisters  sought  and  obtained  from  the  Kentucky  legislature  a  charter 
which  gave  the  congregation  legal  existence  and  its  official  name,  The  Nazareth 
Literary  and  Benevolent  Institution,  and  also  empowered  it  to  grant  academic  degrees. 
At  that  date  Nazareth  Academy  was  already  the  alma  mater  of  daughters  of  repre- 
sentative families,  both  Catholic  and  non-Catholic,  and  the  Sisters  had  established 
three  schools,  which  are  still  existing,  in  other  sections  of  Kentucky.  The  first,  Bethle- 
hem Academy  at  Bardstown,  was  opened  in  1819;  the  second,  Saint  Vincent  Academy, 
was  established  in  Union  County  near  Morganfield  in  1821;  and  two  years  later  Sisters 
went  to  Scott  County  to  establish  the  third  institution  at  White  Sulphur  on  the 
Limestone  Road.  Saint  Catherine  Academy,  as  it  was  called,  was  transferred  to  Lex- 
ington in  1833. 

Two  years  after  the  charter  was  granted,  Mother  Catherine  opened  the  first  Catholic 
school  in  Louisville  in  a  small  building  adjoining  Saint  Louis  Church.  This  was  the 
beginning  of  Presentation  Academy,  and  two  other  outstanding  institutions  of  Louis- 
ville, Saint  Vincent  Orphanage  and  Saint  Joseph  Infirmary,  originated  from  the  same 
foundation.  Both  were  the  outgrowth  of  Mother  Catherine's  charitable  interests  in 
orphans  and  sick  persons  in  the  vicinity. 

Meanwhile  the  school  at  Nazareth  was  making  rapid  and  steady  progress.  The 
earliest  printed  copy  of  the  curriculum  is  found  in  the  Catholic  Almanac  for  1833-35. 
In  it  reading,  writing,  arithmetic,  English  grammar,  geography  (with  the  use  of 
globes) ,  history,  rhetoric,  botany,  natural  philosphy  including  the  principles  of  as- 
tronomy, optics,  chemistry,  etc.,  plain  sewing,  marking,  needlework,  drawing,  painting, 
music,  and  the  French  language,  are  enumerated,  and  it  also  notes  that  "a  course  of 
Lectures  on  Rhetoric  and  Philosophy  will  be  given  annually  by  the  Professors  of  St. 
Joseph  College."  In  1841  another  advertisement  records  the  addition  of  Italian  and 
Spanish  languages,  the  harp,  guitar,  and  dancing,  to  the  list  of  subjects  taught.  A 
clause  in  the  same  notice  states  that:  "no  solicitude  or  influence  is  used  to  change  the 
religious  principles  or  creed  of  the  pupils;  should  any  manifest  a  desire  for  such  change, 
the  parents  or  guardians  are  informed  of  the  same." 

The  earliest  existing  catalogue  of  Nazareth  Academy  is  dated   1857.    This  and  those 
following  years  indicate  a  numerous  attendance  of  girls  from  the  southern  states.     In 

9— Vol.    II 


1860  the  enrollment  from  Louisiana  alone  was  one  hundred  girls;  in  the  following  year 
the  registrants  from  both  Mississippi  and  Louisiana  outnumbered  those  from  Kentucky. 
The  proximity  to  Nazareth  of  Saint  Joseph  College,  Bardstown  and  Saint  Mary  College 
near  Lebanon  was  advantageous  in  securing  patronage  from  the  deep  south  and  else- 
where. The  enrollment  continued  to  increase  until  the  end  of  the  Civil  War  period, 
and  during  the  conflict  more  than  four  hundred  resident  students  were  at  Nazareth. 
When  the  war  was  concluded,  however,  many  girls  returned  to  their  homes  in  the 
affected  areas  and  took  up  the  work  of  supporting  families  made  destitute  through 
the  ravages  of  war  and  deprived  of  the  care  of  fathers  and  brothers  who  were  killed 
in  battle. 

With  the  reconstruction  of  the  southern  regions,  greater  educational  facilities  became 
available  and  it  was  not  necessary  to  journey  to  Kentucky  to  secure  these  advantages. 
Through  the  years,  however,  it  has  become  traditional  in  many  southern  families  to 
send  daughters  to  Nazareth,  and  a  great  percentage  of  the  student  body  has  continued 
to  be  descendants  and  relatives  of  students  of  early  days.  Another  factor  in  maintain- 
ing traditions  at  Nazareth  has  been  the  comparatively  few  changes  in  administrative 
personnel.  Sisters  Ellen  O'Connell,  Columba  Carroll,  Marietta  Murphy,  Mary  Ig- 
natius Fox  each  served  as  directress  for  a  long  period  of  years,  and  the  present  dean  and 
directress,  Sister  Margaret  Gertrude  Murphy,  has  served  since  1937. 

Ecclesiastical  superiors  and  chaplains  residing  at  Nazareth  have  likewise  greatly  in- 
fluenced the  institution.  These,  too,  have  served  long  terms  of  office  and  have  come  to 
know  more  than  one  generation  of  Nazareth  students.  Bishop  David,  who  is  foremost 
in  this  list,  gave  unstintedly  of  his  time  and  talent  until  1833.  Reverend  Joseph  Hazel- 
tine  proved  a  worthy  successor  between  1835  and  1861,  and  he  is  largely  responsible 
for  the  excellent  records  of  early  students  which  are  on  file  at  Nazareth.  Reverend 
Francis  Chambige,  a  recognized  authorized  authority  in  the  physical  sciences,  proved  a 
valuable  addition  to  Nazareth's  faculty,  and  shared  his  knowledge  with  both  Sisters  and 
students.  His  mineralogical  and  geological  specimens  were  given  to  the  school,  and  they 
form  the  nucleus  of  a  valuable  collection.  From  1871  to  1900  students  of  Nazareth 
were  privileged  to  share  the  friendship  and  guidance  of  Reverend  David  Russell,  a 
former  vice-rector  of  the  American  College  of  Louvain.  His  interest  and  industry 
are  recorded  in  the  museum  in  a  full  collection  of  the  various  woods  found  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  motherhouse.  Reverend  Richard  Davis,  who  became  chaplain  in  1903, 
gave  thirty-eight  years  of  his  life  to  Nazareth.  He  was  an  experienced  teacher,  a  great 
lover  of  the  classics,  and  an  earnest  advocate  of  a  thorough  training  in  physical  educa- 
tion. He  was  the  donor  of  the  two  medals  awarded  each  year  to  a  college  and  an 
academy  student. 

Nazareth  is  greatly  indebted  to  these  and  other  benefactors  for  their  aid  in  attaining 
and  maintaining  the  high  moral  standards  for  which  the  institution  is  noted.  The  educa- 
tional influence  of  Nazareth,  the  oldest  boarding  school  west  of  the  Allegheny  moun- 
tains, can  be  judged  from  the  fact  that  since  1814  thousands  of  students  have  enrolled 
from  many  states  of  the  United  States  and  from  Latin  American  countries.  During 
the  past  twenty-five  years  students  from  Puerto  Rico,  Cuba,  and  South  America  have 
been  on  the  school  roster,  but  1943  brought  the  first  group,  five  college  freshmen  and 
three  academy  students,  from  Costa  Rica. 

The  Nazareth  Alumnae  Association  was  formed  in  1896,  and  Mrs.  Anna  Bradford 
Miles,  a  niece  of  Jefferson  Davis,  was  elected  first  president.  Since  its  organization 
the  society  has  seconded  the  work  of  the  Sisters  in  all  that  benefits  the  college  and 
academy.  Notable  achievements  have  been  the  presentation  of  the  reading  room,  rest 
house,  gymnasium,  and  chairs  for  the  auditorium. 


When  developments  in  the  educational  world  called  for  accreditation  and  certifica- 
tion, Nazareth  welcomed  these  movements.  In  1913  the  high  school  department  of 
the  academy  was  accredited  by  the  University  of  Kentucky,  and  the  following  year 
it  was  affiliated  with  the  Catholic  University  of  America.  In  1920  the  institution  was 
accorded  membership  in  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools,- 
and  in  the  National  Catholic  Educational  Association. 

Preparations  were  made  for  the  opening  of  a  community  normal  school  in  1914. 
In  that  year  and  thereafter,  summer  schools  have  been  held  in  which  courses  in  methods 
and  administration  are  offered  to  prospective  and  in-service  teachers  and  administra- 
tors. The  junior  college  department  was  added  in  1921  and  this,  together  with  the 
normal  school,  received  recognition  from  the  Kentucky  State  Department  of  Education 
in  1922.  The  junior  college  became  a  member  of  the  Southern  Association  of  Col- 
leges and  Secondary  Schools  in  1929,  and  the  program  of  college  studies  was  raised 
to  the  senior  level  in   1937  through  incorporation  with  Nazareth  College  in  Louisville. 

During  the  more  than  one  hundred  thirty  years  of  its  existence,  the  Congregation  of 
the  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Nazareth  has  established  schools  in  many  sections  of  the 
United  States,  from  Mississippi  to  Massachusetts,  from  Maryland  to  Oregon.  The 
community  now  numbers  more  than  thirteen  hundred  members,  and  educational  ac- 
tivities are  carried  on  in  two  colleges,  thirty-seven  high  schools  and  ninety-seven  grade 
schools.  Two  of  the  high  schools  and  six  of  the  grammar  schools  are  located  in  rural 
sections  of  Kentucky,  and  one  high  school  and  five  grammar  schools  are  attended  by 
colored  children  of  the  state.  The  total  enrollment  in  schools  conducted  by  the  Sisters 
of  Charity  of  Nazareth  is  more  than  thirty  thousand  pupils  of  which  almost  one-half 
are  sons  and  daughters  of  Kentucky  citizens. 

By  Emma  Vorhees  Meyer 

Cardome  Visitation  Academy,  Georgetown,  Kentucky,  occupies  the  Governor  Robin- 
son Estate  to  which  the  Sisters  moved  their  school  for  young  ladies  which  they  had 
established  at  White  Sulphur  in  1875. 

At  Georgetown  in  the  District  of  Columbia  is  the  oldest  house  of  the  Visitation  in 
America  which  had  been  established  by  Miss  Alice  Lalor  and  two  companions  under 
the  direction  of  Father  Leonard  Neale,  S.J.,  a  native  of  Charles  County,  Maryland. 
When  Father  Neale  was  created  Bishop  of  Baltimore,  the  highest  dignitary  of  the 
Church  in  the  United  States,  he  obtained  from  Pius  VII  a  grant  for  the  group  to  be 
considered  as  belonging  to  the  Order  of  the  Visitation.  Mention  should  be  made  here 
that  the  site  of  the  Georgetown  house  in  the  District  is  one  of  historic  interest  to 
American  educators  because  it  marks  the  spot  where  Miss  Lalor  and  her  Sisters 
opened,  June  24,   1799,  what  became  the  first  free  school  in  the  District  of  Columbia. 

The  Visitation  Sisters  made  their  first  Kentucky  settlement  at  Maysville,  on  the 
Ohio,  in  1865.  From  the  Maysville  group  seven  Sisters  established  a  school  at  White 
Sulphur  ten  years  later. 

White  Sulphur  had  much  to  recommend  it  to  the  Sisters.  The  winding  Elkhorn 
was  mentioned  in  descriptions  to  be  found  in  magazines  and  newspapers  of  the  State. 
One  mentions  that  visitors  to  White  Sulphur  referred  to  "that  beautiful  Elkhorn 
tract  ...  to  which  no  description  can  do  justice."  Known  as  a  particularly  healthful 
section,  it  was  in  the  neighborhood  chosen  by  Colonel  Richard  M.  Johnson,  Vice 
President  of  the  United  States,  when  he  thought  it  wise  to  move  his  Choctaw  Academy 
from  Blue  Spring.  He  had  also  erected  there  a  hotel  two  hundred  feet  long,  with 
double  verandas,  as  well  as  a  similar  building  called  "The  Tavern"  in  order  that  the 


many  who  desired  to  drink  the  water  might  be  accommodated.  The  establishment  was 
referred  to  as  a  watering  place  of  "considerable  celebrity."  One  account  stated  that 
a  visitor  "described  a  fashionable  company  of  between  150  and  200  happy  mortals 
quaffing  water  and  luxurating  in  the  shades  of  the  forest  trees."  He  went  on  to  say 
that  he  spent  one  night  there  when  there  was  a  ball  attended  by  the  "beauty  and  re- 
finement of  Kentucky." 

White  Sulphur  was  also  inseparately  associated  with  the  history  of  the  Church  in 
Kentucky,  for  it  was  there  that  one  of  the  first  churches  in  the  State  had  been  erected. 
The  first  humble  structure  of  logs  had  been  so  much  frequented  that  the  ever  increasing 
congregation  had,  in  1820,  constructed  a  handsome  and  substantial  church  which  was 
placed  under  the  patronage  of  St.  Pius.  About  thirty-eight  years  later  the  Covington 
Diocese  had  been  created  with  the  Rt.  Rev.  C.  A.  Carrell,  S.J.,  D.D.  as  first  bishop. 
The  scholarly  prelate  found  the  retirement  of  White  Sulphur  so  pleasing  that  he  spent 
much  time  there.  Of  interest  to  educators  as  the  region  where  Indian  students  of  the 
now  extinct  Choctaw  Academy  had  returned  to  their  people  as  "stars  in  the  dark  night," 
it  is  interesting  also  as  the  place  where  Bishop  Carrell  established  a  college  for  young 
men.  This  college  flourished  until  the  breaking  of  the  War  for  Southern  Independence 
when  the  students  laid  down  their  books  to  take  up  arms  for  the  South  and  her  cause. 
An  Orphan  Asylum  for  Boys  succeeded  the  college  but  it  was  not  a  success. 

It  was  also  at  White  Sulphur  that  Father  Stephen  Theodore  Badin,  the  first  priest 
ordained  within  the  limits  of  the  thirteen  original  states,  had  settled  following  the  trip 
he  made  in  company  with  Father  Barriere  from  Washington,  D.  C.  to  Lexington, 
Kentucky,  walking  all  the  way  except  that  part  of  the  trip  on  flatboat  from  Pittsburg 
down  the  Ohio  river  to  Maysville. 

A  beautiful  healthful  region  where  a  historic  church  had  a  bishop  actively  interested 
in  education  and  which  was  a  center  of  the  States's  social  life  and  "meeting  place  of 
the  brilliant  seekers  of  health  or  pleasure"  was  a  challenge  to  the  Sisters  who  held  a 
long  and  enviable  record  for  successful  teaching  and  who  had  established  a  school  at 
Maysville  in  1865.  That  such  a  place  would  be  favorable  to  the  establishment  of  a 
school  for  young  ladies  was  proven  by  the  success  of  the  venture  which  was  headed  by 
Mother  Mary  Angela  Sweeney. 

To  Mount  Admirabilis,  for  that  is  the  name  by  which  the  Academy  was  first  known, 
Kentuckians  of  culture  and  refinement  sent  their  daughters  who  soon  had  as  their 
fellow  students  young  ladies  from  other  states.  The  course  of  instruction,  equal  to 
those  in  the  best  academies  of  the  East,  set  a  high  standard  for  the  education  of  young 
women.  Students  continued  to  come  in  such  growing  numbers  that  not  only  the  faculty 
but  the  equipment  and  accommodations  of  the  Academy  were  constantly  being  enlarged. 
In  September,  1875,  there  were  seventeen  rooms  for  fifteen  boarders  and  a  number  of 
day  pupils.  Three  years  later  a  new  building  was  erected  containing  a  study  hall,  music 
hall  and  a  dormitory  for  girls.  In  1888  the  Academy's  sixty  boarders  and  numerous  day 
pupils  were  housed  and  taught  in  a  number  of  buildings,  which  gave  the  appearance  of 
a  little  village,  and  the  Academy  was  referred  to  as  one  of  the  leading  educational  insti- 
tutions of  the  South. 

Finally,  the  Sisters  were  faced  both  with  the  desirability  of  locating  where  better 
travel  facilities  would  accommodate  the  growing  number  of  young  ladies  who  came 
from  a  distance,  and  the  necessity  of  holding  a  clear  title  to  a  more  extensive  acreage 
upon  which  more  commodious  buildings  could  be  erected.  Being  members  of  an  Order 
in  which  each  group  is  independent  of  every  other  group  the  responsibility  of  deciding 
upon  a  new  location  and  the  expense  incurred  was  now  upon  those  who  had  invested 


practically  all  their  funds  in  improvements.  With  characteristic  fortitude  they  made 
their  own  decisions  and  financial  arrangements. 

After  a  time  the  Sisters  found  available  in  the  same  delightful  region,  Scott  County, 
an  Estate  on  the  crest  of  a  gentle  eminence  dominating  an  extensive  panorama  of  the 
country  with  the  beloved  Elkhorn  forming  a  cresent  about  its  fertile  meadows.  Here 
was  not  only  the  same  dry  bracing  air  free  from  violent  disturbances  but,  less  than  a 
mile  away  near  the  historic  Big  Spring  known  to  the  Indians  and  the  early  settlers  of 
the  West,  could  be  seen  the  growing  county  seat,  Georgetown,  with  its  railroad  stations 
and  other  conveniences.  The  Lexington-Cincinnati  road  passed  the  entrance  to  the  Es- 
tate and  the  Frankfort-Cincinnati  trains  stopped  there.  The  location  seemed  ideally 
suited  to  their  purpose  and  so  Mother  Mary  Agatha  Cahill,  representing  the  group, 
made  the  first  cash  payment  upon  their  new  home  to  which  they  moved  in  1896. 

A  hospitable  mansion  famous  in  the  early  days  as  a  frequent  rendezvous  of  great 
leaders  and  which  had  welcomed  LaFayette,  Webster,  Clay  and  other  illustrous  visitors, 
had  been  built  in  1821  by  Major  Benjamin  Stuart  Chambers,  an  officer  in  the  War  of 
1812,  who  called  it  "Acacia  Grove."  The  beautifully  proportioned  and  well  preserved 
mansion  had  passed  through  the  hands  of  different  owners  until  it  came  into  the  pos- 
session of  Governor  James  F.  Robinson  who  changed  its  name  to  "Cardome"  (Caret 
Domus.)  The  superb  banquet  hall  and  delicately  turned  spiral  stairway,  both  added 
by  Governor  Robinson,  are  prized  architectural  features  of  the  old  mansion  which  also 
has  some  examples  of  beautifully  panelled  woodwork. 

To  the  original  mansion  the  new  owners  added  spacious  class  rooms,  study  halls,  and 
dormitories.  A  few  years  later  plans  for  the  construction  of  a  new  Main  Building  were 
submitted  by  a  firm  of  eminent  architects  and  a  structure  of  imposing  proportions  was 
then  erected,  the  gem  of  which  is  the  beautiful  Romanesque  chapel  on  the  second  floor. 
This  building,  connected  with  the  old  mansion,  is  heated  by  a  modern  plant  located  at 
a  safe  distance  and  is  connected  by  modern  walks  to  a  recreation  building  called  "White 
Hall"  erected  in  1941  on  the  site  of  a  small  building  which  had  been  moved  to  the 
Estate  from  White  Sulphur.  A  wide  veranda  leading  from  the  study  hall  and  audi- 
torium overlooks  the  immense  recreation  grounds  reserved  for  the  exclusive  use  of  the 

Encouraged  to  spend  all  the  time  not  required  for  study  and  class  work  in  the  open 
air  the  young  ladies  are  offered  every  possible  diversion  for  their  recreation  periods. 
On  the  north  side  of  the  playgrounds  are  concrete  tennis  courts  and  basketball  grounds; 
on  the  west,  the  outside  gymnasium;  while  the  archery  and  croquet  sets  adorn  the  east 
portion  of  the  extensive  campus.  Canoeing  upon  the  beautiful  Elkhorn  creek  which  is 
within  the  Academy  grounds  and  "hikes"  under  the  watchful  eyes  of  two  chaperones 
usually  end  with  a  weiner  roast  at  the  outdoor  grill  by  the  tennis  courts,  in  one  of  the 
summer  houses  or  in  "White  Hall."  During  the  winter  season  musical,  dramatic  and 
literary  evenings  are  frequent.  The  students  have,  in  addition  to  their  club  rooms,  the 
large  auditorium  with  its  musical  instruments  and  its  smooth  floor  where  they  may  dance. 

Graduates  of  the  Academy  are  admitted  to  colleges  and  universities  without  examina- 
tion, having  spent  four  years  under  the  training  of  a  faculty  whose  members  are  highly 
qualified  and  professionally  trained.  The  faculty  is  headed  by  His  Excellency  the  Most 
Reverend  Bishop,  Francis  W.  Howard,  D.D.  for  twenty  years  President  of  the  National 
Catholic  Educational  Association. 

Now,  the  first  traces  of  the  old  sulphur  spring  in  the  narrow  dell  just  beyond  the 
old  convent  grounds  and  the  White  Sulphur  Church,  and  the  pile  of  ruins  on  the  hill 
above,  are  the  last  vestages  of  the  old  order  of  things  and  the  ante  helium  days  of 
social  elegance  and  distinction.     But  near  the  city  limits  of  Georgetown  is  the  stately 


entrance  to  Georgetown  Visitation  Academy  where  busses  along  the  Dixie  Highway 
make  regularly  scheduled  stops  to  accommodate  young  ladies  from  all  parts  of  the 
United  States  who,  under  the  direction  of  the  Sisters,  find  the  constantly  serene  and 
maternal  atmosphere  which  the  Sisters  of  the  Visitation  have  always  emphasized. 

The  Order  of  the  Visitation  was  founded  in  France  in  1610.  Its  founders,  St.  Francis 
de  Sales,  one  of  the  great  writers  of  the  17th  Century  (now,  patron  of  the  Catholic 
press)  and  St.  Jane  Frances  de  Chantal,  were  both  of  the  nobility.  A  culture  of  over 
three  hundred  years  prevails  in  all  academies  of  the  Visitation  and  each  girl  who  comes 
under  the  strong,  kindly  guidance  of  the  Sisters  is  regarded  as  a  sacred  personality. 
The  modern  dictum  of  education — "Learning  is  specific"  was  not  unknown  to  the 
founders  of  the  Order;  and  the  members,  trained  in  their  school  of  philosophy,  are 
conscious  of  their  heritage  and  their  responsibility  as  teachers.  That  spirit  of  refinement 
and  gentility  which  marked  the  beginnings  of  the  Visitation  has  been  handed  down 
through  the  generations  in  its  academies. 

Cardome  is  a  school  of  Christian  education.  To  the  graces  of  the  mind  and  body 
it  would  add  the  higher  beauties  of  the  soul.  It  would  inculcate  the  virtues  which 
ennoble,  strengthen  and  refine;  which  form  the  crown  of  pure  womanhood  and  prepare 
the  girl  to  go  forth  to  the  battle  of  life,  in  truth,  a  "valiant  woman." 


In  the  dim  dawn  of  Catholicity  in  Kentucky  (1819  to  be  exact),  St.  Joseph's  Col- 
lege was  founded  under  the  aegis  of  Bishop  Flaget.  The  Reverend  George  O.  M. 
Elder  was  first  president.  The  students  varied  in  number  from  one  hundred  to  two 
hundred  and  fifty,  many  of  whom  were  from  Louisiana  and  Mississippi.  Classes  were 
first  held  in  the  seminary  basement,  but  as  the  south  and  later  north  wings  were  built 
to  be  finally  connected  by  the  present  main  building,  professors  and  students  filled 
all  available  quarters  as  they  were  completed.  In  January,  1837,  disaster  struck  when 
a  fire  starting  under  the  roof  gutted  the  main  building.  This  hastened  the  death  of 
Father  Elder  who  died  eight  months  later.  Succeeding  presidents  were  the  Reverends 
Ignatius  Raynolds,  Dr.  M.  J.  Spalding,  J.  M.  Lancaster,  and  Edward  McMahon  until 
the  Jesuits  took  the  school  over  in  1848. 

Reverend  Peter  Verhegen  was  the  first  Jesuit  Superior  of  St.  Joseph's.  In  June, 
1848,  he  became  Rector  of  the  College  and  St.  Joseph's  Cathedral  parish.  Several 
secular  clergy  also  helped  to  staff  the  college.  Under  Father  Emig's  presidency  the 
present  Flaget  Hall  was  erected.  Many  ground  improvements  were  made  plus  the 
liquidating  of  a  $23,000.00  debt.  Trouble  arose,  however,  between  the  Jesuits  and  the 
diocese  in  that  the  property  of  St.  Joseph's  had  been  given  to  them  in  trust.  This 
""Trust"  clause  was  objectionable  in  the  contract.  The  Jesuit  Fathers  petitioned  the 
diocese  to  deed  the  property  to  them  in  "fee  simple."  This  was  not  granted.  The 
property  was  then  redeeded  to  the  diocese  in  1868  when  the  Jesuits  left  the  state.  In 
the  fall  of  1869  the  preparatory  seminary  was  moved  from  St.  Thomas  to  St.  Joseph's 
College.  Reverend  P.  de  Fraine  was  superior.  In  1872  boys  were  admitted  who  had 
no  thought  of  studying  for  the  priesthood.  In  1872  Father  Coughlan  became  president 
until  his  death  in  1877.  Reverend  William  J.  Dunn  assumed  the  presidency  for  one 
year  when  Father  O'Connell  took  charge.  In  1880  Reverend  W.  P.  Mackin  became 
president  at  which  time  the  college  was  in  a  promising  and  flourishing  condition.  Father 
O'Connell  resucceeded  to  the  presidency  in  1887  and  remained  its  head  until  the  college 
closed  in  1889. 

The  closing  of  St.  Joseph's  occurred  when  the  Diocese  was  faced  with  the  imminent 
abandonment  of  St.  Mary's  College  at  Lebanon.     Unable  to  support  two  colleges,  St. 


Joseph's  was  closed  and  the  students  sent  to  St.  Mary's  to  bolster  a  slender  enrollment. 
St.  Joseph's  remained  vacant  until  1892  when  the  orphanage  at  St.  Thomas,  which 
had  burned,  was  transferred  to  St.  Joseph's.  The  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Nazareth  and 
their  charges  occupied  the  main  building  until  1902  when  they  left  for  more  suitable 
quarters  in  Louisville.  The  college  again  was  vacant  until  1911.  An  uncommon  coin- 
cidence then  took  place. 

Back  in  1836  a  poor  travel-worn  pilgrim  named  Theodore  Ryken  was  visiting  Bishop 
Chabrat  at  Bardstown.  He  was  then  seeking  episcopal  support  for  his  projected  con- 
gregation of  teachers  which  he  was  to  found  in  Bruges,  Belgium  in  1839.  No  doubt 
he  visited  the  beautiful  campus  and  buildings  of  St.  Joseph's  College  which  was  di- 
rectly behind  the  Bishop's  residence.  Little  did  he  realize  that  the  congregation  that 
was  still  but  a  figment  in  his  mind  would  one  day  be  the  faculty  of  this  famous  center 
of  learning.  Such  a  coincidence  after  a  span  of  almost  a  century  assures  us  that  we 
live  in  an  ordered  world,  that  there  is  a  design  for  living.  This  rhyming  of  life's  epic 
between  the  visit  of  an  unknown,  poverty  clothed  Ryken  and  the  accession  to  St. 
Joseph's  seventy-two  years  later  of  his  own  religious  family  makes  one  tingle.  When  the 
Xaverian  Brothers,  which  Theodore  Ryken  founded,  took  control  of  St.  Joseph's  amid 
the  panoply  and  splendor  of  the  apostolic  delegation  somewhere  in  titanic  space  a  planet 
must  have  smiled — smiled  and  whirled  in  reverse. 

1.  St.  Joseph's  College  was  reopened  September  9,  1911.  It  was  formally  dedicated 
by  Most  Reverend  Diomede  Falconio,  Apostolic  Delegate  to  the  United  States.  Brother 
Sulpicius,  C.F.X.,  long  engaged  in  Catholic  educational  work  in  Kentucky,  Virginia,  and 
New  England  was  the  first  President,  when  control  of  the  school  was  assumed  by  the 
Xaverian  Brothers. 

(a)  85  pupils — 50  day  and  35  boarders  were  enrolled  on  opening  day.  Before  the 
end  of  the  year,  the  registration  reached  100. 

(b)  Three  distinctive  courses  of  study  were  pursued — Classical,  Latin,  Scientific,  and 
General  Business. 

(c)  Extra-curricular  activities  consisted  of  various  sports,  debating  society,  literary 
club,  biking  and  over  land  hiking  clubs. 

(d)  In  four  years,  the  school  gained  an  enviable  reputation  for  a  high  scholastic 
standard,  excellent  discipline,  and  admirable  school  spirit. 

(e)  Student  body  was  represented  by  a  majority  of  students  from  Kentucky,  In- 
diana, Ohio,  Tennessee,  and  Illinois. 

2.  Brother  Fidelis,  C.F.X.,  became  headmaster  in  1915.  His  administration  was 
marked  by  an  increased  enrollment,  additions  made  to  the  gymnasium,  and  a  new 
power  plant  was  built. 

3.  Brother  Ignatius,  C.F.X.,  assumed  charge  of  the  administration  in  1918.  Dur- 
ing his  directorship,  the  school  celebrated  its  centenary  of  establishment  (1919).  A 
number  of  Alumni  from  the  East  and  West,  who  had  been  former  students,  attended 
the  centennial  banquet  which  was  held  at  the  school  in  June,  1919. 

4.  Brother  Victorian,  a  member  of  the  school  faculty  since  1913,  became  head- 
master in  August,  1920.  He  remained  in  charge  during  two  terms  of  three  years  each. 
During  his  administration,  St.  Joseph  Alumni  began  to  assume  leadership.  Many  had 
become  lawyers,  doctors,  and  prominent  business  men.  They  manifested  an  interest  in 
the  school  by  their  frequent  visits  and  by  recruiting  the  student  body. 

5.  Brother  Vincent,  C.F.X.,  was  headmaster  from  1926-1928.  During  his  regime 
the  old  stone  wall  which  faced  the  entire  frontage  and  the  handball  alley,  which  had 
been  built  on  the  front  lawn  were  removed.  The  campus  was  hedged,  thus  giving  the 
property  a  more  modern  appearance. 


6.  Owing  to  illness,  Brother  Vincent  resigned  in  1928,  and  Brother  Victorian  as- 
sumed charge  during  1928-1929. 

7.  Brother  Aurelius,  C.F.X.,  was  appointed  headmaster  in  1929.  He  continued  in 
office  for  two  years.  During  his  administration,  the  buildings  were  renovated  and  re- 
decorated. The  General  Commercial  course  was  discontinued  and  a  General  English 
course  supplanted  it. 

8.  During  the  summer  of  1929,  Brother  Benignus,  C.F.X.,  was  appointed  to  the 
office  of  headmaster  and  remained  as  principal  for  one  year.  During  his  principalship 
the  school  gymnasium  burned. 

9.  Brother  Liguori,  C.F.X.,  became  headmaster  in  August,  1932.  During  his  di- 
rectorship, a  new  gymnasium  was  built  and  the  alumni  association  was  formally  orga- 
nized and  officers  were  elected.  The  name  of  the  school  changed  from  St.  Joseph 
College  to  St.  Joseph  Preparatory  School. 

10.  Brother  Colombiere,  C.F.X.,  succeeded  Brother  Liguori  as  headmaster  in  1938. 
During  his  principalship,  the  school  has  reached  a  new  record  of  enrollment.  One 
hundred  and  nfty  boys  are  now  enrolled.  Among  its  enrollment  are  representatives 
from  six  states.  The  school  has  maintained  a  Class  "A"  rating  since  1936,  when  it 
was  so  classified  by  the  Kentucky  State  Board  of  Education. 

Today  St.  Joseph's  Prep  is  preeminent  among  Catholic  boarding  schools  of  this 
area.  Advances  have  been  made  in  courses  and  equipment  to  keep  pace  with  the  ever 
progressing  light  of  education.  At  present,  St.  Joseph's  is  a  shining  sword  lying  in 
the  hands  of  the  sovereign  state  of  Kentucky.  Sheathed  for  over  one  hundred  years 
in  the  scabbard  of  Catholic  spirit  and  tradition,  its  power  and  strength  is  now  being 
wielded  in  shaping   future  God-fearing  citizens   for  an  even  greater  America. 


Gethsemani  Abbey  lies  nestled  amid  the  knobs  of  Nelson  County,  Kentucky.  Its 
foundation  is  due,  in  the  designs  of  God,  to  a  crisis  which  the  Abbey  of  Melleray  in 
the  Department  of  Lower  Loire,  France,  was  facing  in  the  eventful  year  1848. 

On  the  part  of  the  government  eviction  and  expulsion  were  threatening,  whilst  the 
community  had  grown  into  an  overcrowded  hive,  and  a  swarm  was  inevitable.  So  for 
a  double  reason  it  was  deemed  advisable  to  anticipate  events  and  seek  a  refuge  in 
foreign  lands. 

Coincidentally  Bishop  Flaget,  the  first  incumbent  of  the  See  of  Louisville,  had  just 
entered  a  request  for  a  Trappist  foundation  in  his  diocese.  Everything  contributed  to 
make  his  wish  realizable,  and  in  the  autumn  of  that  same  year  a  band  of  forty  Trap- 
pists,  to  be  reenforced  shortly  after  by  a  second  detachment  of  fourteen,  set  out  for 
the  Wilds  of  Kentucky  where,  in  Nelson  County,  a  farm  had  been  purchased  for  them 
from  the  Sisters  of  Loretto. 

They  set  sail  on  November  2nd,  and  arrived  via  New  Orleans  at  the  present  site  of 
the  monastery  on  December  21,  1848.  This  date  marks  the  official  opening  of  the  new 
foundation.  Pioneer  work  was  the  daily  program  of  the  monks,  but  we  may  say  what 
the  Fathers  of  our  Country  said  when  they  set  on  foot  the  great  movement  which  gave 
us  liberty  and  put  us  on  the  roll  of  the  world's  great  nations:  "Annuit  Coeptis" — He 
blessed  the  work  now  begun. 

In  1850  the  monastery  was  canonically  erected  into  an  abbey.  The  initial  holder  of 
the  abbatial  chair  was  the  leader  of  the  expedition  to  the  New  World, — Dom  Eutro- 
pius  Proust,  and  it  was  the  Most  Reverend  Martin  J.  Spalding,  then  Bishop  of  Louis- 
ville, who  conferred  on  him  the  Abbatial  Blessing,  and  so  became  the  first  prelate  to 
bless  and  install  an  abbot  in  the  New  World. 


The  monks  set  to  work  gathering  material  for  a  church  and  adequate  buildings.  Work 
was  commenced  in  the  face  of  many  difficulties  whilst  the  "Civil  War"  was  raging. 
However  at  the  end  of  the  struggle  between  North  and  South,  in  1866,  the  church  was 
consecrated  and  the  buildings  dedicated  to  divine  service.  The  Ceremony  was  performed 
by  the  Most  Reverend  John  B.  Purcell,  Archbishop  of  Cincinnati,  whilst  the  Most. 
Reverend  Martin  J.  Spalding,  now  become  Archbishop  of  Baltimore,  delivered  the 

The  second  Abbot,  Dom  Benedict  Berger  devoted  all  his  energies  to  the  development 
of  the  religious  spirit,  to  prayer  and  penance, — the  real  purpose  of  the  Order  of  Trap- 
pists,  or  Cistercians  of  the  Strict  observance.  His  term  lasted  28  years,  and  he  died 
in  1890. 

His  successor,  Dom  Edward  Chaix-Bourbon  was  remarkable  for  his  personal  holiness. 
His  life,  in  general,  was  an  inspiration  and  an  incitement  to  good  for  all  who  were 
privileged  to  come  into  contact  with  him.  His  health  failing,  he  resigned  after  eight 
years,  and  became  Chaplain  for  the  Trappistine  Nuns  of  Notre  Dame  des  Gardes, 
m  France. 

The  fourth  Abbot,  Dom  Edmund  M.  Obrecht,  was  a  man  of  eminent  endowments  of 
mind  and  heart.  During  his  long  administration  of  36  years  he  raised  the  Abbey  to  a 
position  of  honor  and  recognition.  Shortly  after  his  entrance  into  office  Gethsemani 
celebrated  its  Golden  Jubilee,  June  7,  1899.  This  event  brought  the  monastery  into 
relations  with  the  most  eminent  Church  Dignitaries  in  the  country.  Dom  Edmund 
was  efficient  in  both  material  and  spiritual  activities.  His  crowning  achievement  in  the 
temporal  order  was  the  enclosure  wall, — a  stretch  of  masonry,  8  feet  high  and  describ- 
ing a  circumference  of  one  and  a  quarter  miles  around  the  monastic  buildings. 

The  year  1924  was  perhaps  the  most  memorable  in  the  annals  of  the  Institute,  made 
so  by  the  Triple  Jubilee  kept  on  May  21st.  Gethsemani  held  its  Diamond  Jubilee 
whilst  the  Abbot  celebrated  the  50th  Anniversary  of  his  Ordination  to  the  Priesthood 
and  the  Silver  Jubilee  of  his  Abbatial  Blessing  and  Installation. 

Gethsemani  School  and  College 

A  few  words  on  the  School  and  the  College  will  not  be  amiss  here.  Gethsemani 
School  and  College  are  the  outgrowth  of  Christian  charity  in  the  pioneer  days  when 
Kentucky  was  just  emerging  from  the  wilderness  where  Daniel  Boone  had  hunted  and 
fought,  and  where  Henderson  and  Harrot  bartered  with  their  tawny  host,  the  Chero- 
kee. It  was  not  at  first  planned  or  designed  for  a  school,  but  providentially  served  to 
fill  a  crying  need,  and  providentially  withdrew  when  the  need  no  longer  existed. 

Its  inception  synchronized  with  the  arrival  of  the  Trappists  in  the  State.  Already 
in  1851  the  founders  of  the  new  monastery  recognized  the  distressing  situation  of  the 
surrounding  country-folk,  owing  to  lack  of  schooling  and  religious  instruction.  One 
of  their  first  cares  after  settling  down,  was  to  open  a  school  for  the  gratuitous  educa- 
tion of  boys.  Those  were  thrilling  days  full  of  romantic  interest.  Mr.  John  A.  Doyle, 
of  Louisville  who  died  in  his  91st  year  in  1942,  loved  to  tell  of  the  olden  times  when 
he  attended  school  here  whilst  Grant  and  Lee  were  battling  in  Virginia.  Pupils  of  all 
denominations  were  admitted,  and  soon  there  was  an  enrollment  of  60  boys.  Subjects 
taught  in  the  early  days  were  the  3  R's  and  grammar.  On  Sundays  the  monks  imparted 
religious  instruction  to  a  large  congregation,  doubly  attracted  by  the  additional  novelty 
of  having  members  of  the  Trappist  Order,  the  children  of  Citeaux  who  rank  the  great 
St.  Bernard  as  their  outstanding  ornament  and  light,  in  their  midst.  The  chant,  es- 
pecially that  of  the  historic  and  incomparable  "Salve  Regina"  was  always  a  drawing 
card,  second  only  to  the  Faith  which  was  the  light  and  the  life  of  their  existence. 


In  the  course  of  time  rudimentary  training  was  considered  inadequate,  and  at  the 
request  of  many  amongst  its  benefactors  and  patrons  the  school  was  raised  to  the  rank 
of  a  Boarding  Institution,  and  still  later  became  a  College  with  powers  from  the  State 
to  confer  academic  degrees. 

It  continued  its  activities  for  decades  whilst  towns  grew  up  to  stud  the  map  of 
Nelson  County.  In  1912  on  March  1st  a  fire  destroyed  both  College  and  School 
buildings,  and  it  was  decided  not  to  rebuild,  as  the  needs  which  had  occasioned  the  in- 
ception of  this  particular  activity  no  longer  existed. 

Gethsemani  Today 

Today  Gethsemani  gives  its  special  attention  in  the  line  of  educational  activities  to  its 
Ecclesiastical  Seminary  and  to  Retreats  for  both  clergy  and  laymen.  Under  the  guidance 
of  its  5th  Abbot,  Dom  Frederic  M.  Dunne,  the  first  native  American  to  hold  the  office, 
the  community  is  flourishing.  Its  members  are  practically  all  native  born  and  number 
140.  The  hidden  mission  of  prayer  and  sacrifice  for  the  benefit  of  a  suffering  mankind 
goes  on  night  and  day,  according  to  the  Holy  Rule  of  St.  Benedict.  The  Trappist 
Order,  on  the  whole,  numbers  about  80  houses,  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  and  its  member- 
ship of  monks  and  nuns  runs  up  a  total  of  5,000.  In  character  it  is  the  member  of  a 
Contemplative  Order,  doing  no  outside  ministry,  but  giving  all  its  best  attention  to 
the  execution  of  the  Divine  Office  and  to  Church  Service,  whilst  the  members  support 
themselves  by  the  labor  of  their  hands. 

It  is  trusted  that  the  mission  of  the  Order  will  continue  to  benefit  our  dear  country, 
and  our  Kentucky  Commonwealth  in  particular.  If  Moses  on  the  mountain  won  the 
battle  for  his  people  by  prayer  and  supplication,  may  we  not  be  confident  that  the  im- 
mutable God  of  Armies  will  have  kind  regard  to  the  men  and  women  who  have  conse- 
crated all  their  talents  and  the  powers  of  soul  and  body  to  His  service  alone?  Their 
prayers  and  sacrifices  will  avail  much  to  preserve  our  homeland  in  prosperity  in  days 
of  peace,  bring  it  the  blessings  of  victory  in  the  crucial  day  of  battle  and  keep  it  ever 
true  to  the  high  standard  set  by  the  Founders  of  the  Kentucky  Commonwealth: — 
"United, — in  prayer  and  good  will, — we  stand;  divided, — by  discord  and  enmity, — we 
fall";  true  to  the  standard  raised  by  the  Fathers  of  the  Country,  so  beautifully  con- 
ceived and  so  warmly  cherished  as  the  pledge  of  further  thrift  and  safety  and  peace, — 


By  Mrs.  Henry  H.  Hunt 

Near  the  midwestern  boundary  of  Graves  County,  about  ten  miles  west  of  Mayfield 
on  State  Highway  98,  lies  the  thriving  and  neat  little  town  of  Fancy  Farm.  It  ranks 
among  the  oldest  settlements  in  Jackson's  Purchase,  the  first  pioneers  coming  to  the 
site  in  1829. 

Connected  with  and  inseparable  from  the  history  of  this  town  is  the  story  of  St. 
Jerome  Catholic  Church.  To  reveal  the  history  of  one  is  to  unravel  the  life  story  of 
the  other.  For  what  became  known  as  Fancy  Farm,  was  at  first  only  a  small  Catholic 
settlement  with  the  first  St.  Jerome  Church,  a  small  log  structure  (built  in  1836),  as 
the  center  of  social  as  well  as  religious  activity.  1836  is  considered  the  date  of  the 
beginning  of  the  parish,  while  a  post  office  was  not  established  or  a  name  given  the 
place  till  several  years  later. 

St.  Jerome  is  doubtless,  one  of  the  oldest  churches  in  the  Purchase,  and  is  the  oldest 
of  nine  Catholic  parishes  in  the  same  area.  She  continues,  as  she  has  from  the  begin- 
ning and  through  a  century  and  more  of  existence,  to  be  the  guiding  spirit  that  rules 


the  lives  and  fortunes  of  her  people.  She  is  the  hub  or  axis  about  which  dial  the 
principal  events   in  the   foundation,  growth,   and  development  of  Fancy  Farm. 

During  the  past  eight  years,  the  parish  has  been  under  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  Edward 
Russell,  a  native  of  Springfield,  Kentucky.  He  received  his  early  education  in  the  graded 
school  there  and  later  attended  St.  Xavier  College,  Cincinnati.  His  studies  in  philosophy 
and  theology  were  made  at  St.  Meinrad  Seminary,  St.  Meinrad,  Indiana. 

The  present  St.  Jerome  Church,  now  fifty  years  old,  beautiful,  unique,  and  impres- 
sive, almost  invariably  arrests  the  attention  of  passing  and  visiting  strangers.  Recently 
renovated  both  exteriorly  and  interiorly  by  Fr.  Russell,  it  stands  serene  and  imposing, 
presiding,  over  the  enterprises  of  the  surrounding  country  and  the  little  town  whose 
bosom  it  adorns.  It  is  the  only  church  at  Fancy  Farm  or  for  miles  around  as  the  people 
all  profess  the  Catholic  faith.  This  is  the  reason  for  the  immense  proportions  of  St. 
Jerome  as  a  rural  church;  the  secret  of  her  uniqueness.  It  is  also  the  one  thing  that 
gives  to  Fancy  Farm  a  far-and-wide  reputation;  one  not  common  to  towns  of  only  fout 
hundred  souls. 

Under  the  pastorate  of  St.  Jerome  are  two  other  Catholic  parishes,  branch  missions 
of  and  once  a  part  of  St.  Jerome  parish.  These  are  St.  Charles,  Carlisle  County,  about 
one  and  one-half  miles  west  of  Kirbyton  and  St.  Denis'  lying  between  Dublin  and 

Remnants  of  Catholics  of  Fancy  Farm  also  form  a  portion  of  St.  Joseph  parish, 
Mayfield.  The  first  church  there  was  built  in  1887  by  Rev.  Lawrence  B.  Ford  who  was 
then  pastor  of  Fancy  Farm.  The  St.  Joseph  parish  continued  under  the  pastorate  of 
St.  Jerome  till  1911,  when  a  resident  pastor  took  charge. 


Bound  up  in  the  history  of  Fancy  Farm  of  St.  Jerome  Church  and  the  missions,  is 
the  story  of  the  people  who  came  and  settled  here  in  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth 

The  people  themselves  are  almost  one  hundred  percent  lineal  descendents  of  the 
persecuted  Catholics  who  came  over  from  England  with  the  Catholic  Lord  Baltimore, 
Cecil  Calvert,  and   founded  the  Catholic  colony  of  Maryland  in   1634. 

Descendents  of  these,  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  later,  decided  to  settle  in  Ken- 
tucky. They  were  doubtless  moved  by  a  spirit  of  adventure  and  the  desire  to  found 
new  homes  on  new  and  better  lands.  They  were  also  actuated  by  a  desire  to  evade  new 
persecutions  which,  according  to  the  history  of  Maryland,  were  at  that  time  rather  potent. 

By  the  terms  of  the  pact  signed  in  Baltimore,  sixty  families  agreed  to  settle  in  Ken- 
tucky on  Pottenger's  and  Cartwright's  creek  at  the  nearest  possible  date.  The  first 
group,  led  by  Basil  Hayden,  left  St.  Charles  and  St.  Mary's  counties  in  the  early 
months  of  1785.  Trekking  across  the  mountains  of  upper  Virginia,  they  came  by  way 
of  Pittsburgh,  and  from  there  on  down  the  Ohio  on  flatboats.  Entering  the  wilderness  at 
Limestone,  (Maysville)  they  stopped  by  Goodwin's  Station.  Pressing  on,  they  reached 
Pottenger's  creek,   their  intended  destination,  by  the  end  of  spring  of  the  same  year. 

There  they  made  their  homes,  warding  off  Indian  invasion  and  enduring  the  toil  and 
hardships  necessary  to  pioneering  in  the  wilderness  of  Kentucky.  They  built  the  first 
Catholic  Church  in  the  state,  dedicating  it  to  the  Holy  Cross  in  1792.  Holy  Cross, 
Marion  County,  marks  the  site  of  this  first  Catholic  settlement  in  the  state. 

Belated  arrivals  of  the  signers  of  the  Baltimore  Pact  came  in  1887  and  settled  on 
Cartwright's  Creek,  about  twenty  miles  from  Holy  Cross.  The  site  of  this  settlement, 
the  birthplace  of  Lincoln,  is  Springfield,  Kentucky. 


Other  contingents  of  the  pact  got  over  in  the  approximate  years  that  followed.  In 
fact  there  was  a  steady  influx  of  Catholics  into  the  state  during  the  last  quarter  of 
the  eighteenth  century.  In  all,  eight  Catholic  settlements  were  made.  Besides  those 
named  there  were  Lebanon,  Bardstown,  New  Hope,  New  Haven,  and  Fairfield. 

According  to  records,  the  first  families  at  Holy  Cross  and  Springfield  bore  such 
names  as  Hayden,  Willett,  Carrico,  Toon,  Hobbs,  Spalding,  Elliott,  Buckman,  Cash, 
Mills,  Riley,  Bowlds,  Burch,  Thomas  and  Wilson.  These  same  names  have  been  the 
most  prevalent  at  Fancy  Farm  from  the  beginning  to  the  present  time. 


When  in  1818  General  Andrew  Jackson  and  Isaac  Shelby  bought  the  west  end  of 
our  state  from  the  fierce  Chicksaw  Indians,  news  of  the  new  and  unmolested  territory 
soon  spread  throughout  the  commonwealth.  The  first  white  settlers  got  here  in  1821. 
Others  followed  and  settlement  of  the  Purchase  was  soon  under  way. 

Meanwhile,  at  Springfield  in  1808  the  Dominican  Fathers  had  erected  the  first 
Church  of  St.  Rose.  The  same  year,  there  was  born  in  that  parish  a  youngster  whose 
name  now  heads  the  list  of  Catholic  pioneers  to  Graves  County.  This  was  Samuel 

In  July  1828,  at  the  age  of  twenty  he  married  Elizabeth  Hobbs,  also  of  St.  Rose 
parish.  Having  heard  of  the  new  rich  territory,  the  Purchase,  these  newlyweds  decided 
to  stake  their  chances  in  the  west.  In  the  spring  of  1829  they  made  their  toilsome 
journey  cross  state  on  horseback  and  came  to  Graves  County.  Young  Sam  bought  a 
half  a  township  of  land  from  the  government  at  the  rate  of  twelve  and  one-half  cents 
an  acre.    His  domain  embraced  all  the  present  site  of  Fancy  Farm. 

At  Christmas,  John  W.  Willett  came  to  visit  his  brother,  Samuel,  and  to  make  his 
home  here.  These  two  brothers,  with  a  few  families  that  followed  in  the  approximate 
years,  were  the  pioneers  of  St.  Jerome's  congregation  and  founders  of  Fancy  Farm. 
Ever  found  to  be  among  the  most  active  members  of  the  neighborhood,  they  toiled  for 
the  good  of  the  church,  and  for  the  furtherance  of  any  enterprises  that  were  conducive 
to  their  civic  advancement. 

Having  been  a  leader  in  the  building  of  the  first  and  second  churches  at  Fancy 
Farm,  Mr.  Willett  had  fondly  hoped  to  see  the  completion  of  the  present  edifice. 
However,  death  claimed  him  in  the  year  of  its  erection,  June   1892,  at  the  age  of  84. 

Others  who  pioneered  to  these  parts  were  former  friends  and  neighbors  of  the  Wil- 
letts  in  Washington  County.  Mrs.  Polly  Hobbs,  mother  of  Sister  Julia  one  of  the 
first  members  of  the  Nazareth  Sisterhood,  and  also  mother  of  Elizabeth  Willett,  wife 
of  Samuel  Willett,  came  in  1831.  With  her  came  two  grown  sons,  Albert  and  Thomas 
Hobbs.  In  1833,  William,  Hilary,  and  Lloyd  Toon  as  well  as  Cornelius  and  Henry 
Carrico  brought  their  families  and  settled  in  the  vicinity  of  St.  Jerome.  John  and 
James  Cash  came  with  their  families  in  1834.  James  Cash  bought  and  homesteaded 
a  place  near  the  present  site  of  St.  Denis  Church  in  Hickman  County.  The  late 
William  Bennett  and  Louis  A.  Cash,  financiers  of  Fancy  Farm,  were  his  sons.  Grand- 
sons are  the  late  Edward  F.  Cash,  Will  L.  Cash,  James  Cash  of  Fancy  Farm,  and 
Robert  L.  Cash  of  St.  Louis.  Granddaughters  are  Mrs.  Allie  Carrico  of  Paducah, 
Mrs.  Edward  Gardener  of  Mayfield,  Mrs.  Victoria  Elliott,  Mrs.  Maggie  Blincoe  and 
Mrs.  Julia  Carrico  of  Fancy  Farm. 

In  1834,  also,  Thomas  M.  Hayden  migrated  here  with  ten  sons  and  three  daugh- 
ters. Several  of  these  were  married  and  had  large  families  at  the  time.  This  Thomas 
Hayden,   the  ancestor  of  all  the  many  Haydens  in  Jackson's  Purchase,  as  well  as  of 


a  great  many  in  Missouri  and  Arkansas,  was  a  known  direct  descendant  of  the  first 
Catholics  in  Kentucky.  He  was  the  son  of  Basil  Hayden,  whose  name  is  on  record 
as  being  the  leader  of  the  first  group  of  Catholics  who  left  Maryland  and  settled  Holy 
Cross,  Kentucky,  in  1785.  Basil  Hayden  and  his  brother  of  Fancy  Farm  are  his 


The  Rev.  Elisha  Durbin,  who  for  many  years  was  famous  as  a  missionary  of  all 
Western  Kentucky,  heard  of  the  sprinkling  of  Catholics  in  the  Purchase.  From  his 
headquarters  at  Sacred  Heart  Church,  Union  County,  he  visited  them  as  early  as 
1830  or  1831.  In  their  homes,  he  administered  the  sacraments  bringing  to  them  the 
consolations  of  their  faith. 

It  was  at  the  exhortation  of  Father  Durbin  the  first  church  of  St.  Jerome  was  built. 
He  bought  a  plot  of  ground  and  in  1836  a  small  log  church  stood  by  to  mark  the  zeal 
of  the  pioneer  Catholics  of  Graves  County. 

Rev.  Alfred  Hagan,  a  native  of  Nelson  County,  was  appointed  the  first  resident 
pastor  of  St.  Jerome  in  1843.  Father  Durbin  never  relented  his  interest  in  the  parish. 
He  continued  his  visitation  at  long  intervals,  practicing  his  ministry  here  until  pre- 
vented by  enfeebled  health  about  1885. 


Up  to  1845,  Father  Durbin  had  acted  as  postman  for  the  isolated  Catholic  pioneers. 
Collecting  their  sparce  mail  at  certain  stations  in  the  upper  counties,  he  brought  it  in 
his  saddle  bags  as  he  made  his  rounds  to  visit  them. 

During  the  pastorate  of  Father  Hagan,  the  people  living  near  the  St.  Jerome  Church 
petitioned  for  the  establishment  of  a  post  office  in  the  neighborhood.  A  Government 
Inspector  was  sent  to  investigate  and  report  on  the  matter.  While  staying  here,  he 
was  the  guest  of  Mr.  John  Peebles  an  applicant  for  the  position  as  postmaster.  The 
Inspector  was  requested  to  suggest  a  suitable  name  for  the  new  post  office.  In  compli- 
ment to  the  neat  home-surroundings  and  well  planned  farm  of  his  host,  Mr.  Peebles, 
he  suggested  the  name  "Fancy  Farm."  The  post  office  was  established  in  that  year, 
1845.  The  suggested  name  was  applied  and  the  then  incipient  town  has  ever  since 
been  known  as  "Fancy  Farm." 

Father  Hagan  died  at  Fancy  Farm  in  1846.  His  remains  were  interred  in  the  St. 
Jerome  Cemetery. 

Rev.  Patrick  McNicholas  then  had  the  pastorate  till  about  1851.  He  was  succeeded 
by  Rev.  William  Oberhiiiilsman,  a  Belgian.  He  began  the  second  church  of  St.  Jerome. 
This  was  to  be  of  brick,  burnt  on  the  premises  by  members  of  the  parish.  Death  over- 
took Father  Oberhiiiilsman  and  the  task  of  completing  the  church  fell  to  his  successor, 
Rev.  Patrick  Bambury.  He  saw  the  beautiful  ornate  brick  structure  dedicated  June  13, 
1858.  This  church  after  1893,  was  used  as  a  town  hall  and  school  auditorium.  In 
1911  it  was  razed  and  the  brick  used  in  the  interior  construction  of  the  present  rectory. 

In  the  St.  Jerome  Church  Cemetery  today  stands  a  plain  tomb  in  the  form  of  a  shaft 
bearing  the  insignia  of  the  priesthood.  It  marks  the  final  resting  place  of  Fathers  Hagan 
and  Oberhiiiilsman. 

During  and  after  the  Civil  War,  we  find  Rev.  John  M.  Beyhurst,  Rev.  William 
Bourke  and  Rev.  Thomas  A.  Barrett  on  the  roster.  From  1871  to  1881  the  Carmelite 
Fathers,  who  were  then  stationed  at  Paducah,  had  the  pastoral  care  of  St.  Jerome. 

In  1881  Rev.  Richard  P.  Feehan  of  the  Louisville  diocese  became  the  pastor.  He 
built  the   first  parochial  school    (the  present  convent  building)    at  Fancy  Farm.     This 


school  was  first  opened  in  September,   1882,  with  the  Franciscan  Sisters  of  Shelby ville, 
Kentucky  in  charge. 

The  late  Mr.  W.  C.  Carrico  of  Fancy  Farm  as  a  lay  teacher  had  had  the  educa- 
tional care  of  the  youngsters  of  Fancy  Farm  in  his  hands  before  that  time. 

After  eight  years  here,  the  Sisters  of  St.  Francis  moved  to  Iowa  in  1890.  Two 
years  later  the  St.  Jerome  School  was  reopened  by  the  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Nazareth. 
This  Sisterhood  has  ever  since  retained  their  charge  at  Fancy  Farm.  Due  to  the  untiring 
zeal  of  these  Sisters,  many  students  have  left  the  portals  of  St.  Jerome's  School  imbibed 
with  higher  education  and  more  extensive  training  than  is  ordinarily  obtained  from 
secular  schools  of  the  same  standing. 

Resigning  the  pastorate  in  1884,  Father  Feehan  was  replaced  by  Rev.  Lawrence  B. 
Ford.  He  remained  in  charge  till  1888,  being  the  guiding  spirit,  and  winning  the  love 
and  respect  of  the  people  in  whose  midst  he  moved  and  worked. 

Many  of  the  old  residents  of  Fancy  Farm  remember  as  far  back  as  the  pastorate 
of  Fathers  Bourke  and  Barrett,  of  the  cherished  Carmelites,  and  of  Fathers  Feehan 
and  Ford.  We  have  in  Fancy  Farm  today  a  white  haired  patriarch,  Mr.  James  B. 
Carrico,  who  was  baptized  in  his  infancy  by  Rev.  Patrick  Bambury  in  1859.  Mr. 
Carrico  now  84  years  of  age,  is  the  grandson  of  the  pioneer,  Henry  Carrico.  He  has 
witnessed   the  growth   of  Fancy  Farm   from  a  village   to  its  now  most  modern  stage. 

On  September  30,  1888  Rev.  Charles  A.  Haeseley,  who  rightly  has  been  called  the 
"Builder  of  Fancy  Farm,"  arrived  to  begin  a  lengthy  pastorate  of  thirty-two  years. 
Volumes  might  be  written  and  all  would  not  be  told  of  the  many  good  deeds  performed 
by  Father  Haeseley  for  the  benefit  of  the  people  of  his  parish  and  the  advancement  of 
Fancy  Farm. 

Native  son  of  Switzerland  of  German  descent,  he  came  here  after  having  spent  eleven 
years  in  the  priesthood  in  Kentucky.  With  his  coming,  there  distinctly  begins  in  the 
history  of  Fancy  Farm  what  we  might  term  "a  period  of  transition."  Here  he  spent 
his  best  years,  giving  vent  to  his  genius,  and  leaving  to  his  credit  and  to  his  memory 
the  only  buildings  of  moment  at  Fancy  Farm — the  church,  the  school,  and  the  rectory. 
These  buildings  are  visible  proof  that  Father  Haeseley  was  a  man  far  ahead  of  his  times. 
For  who  would  have  conceived  of  buildings  of  such  proportions  for  a  rural  parish  in  the 
nineties  and  early  years  of  the  present  century.  It  is  to  the  farsightedness  and  genius 
as  well  as  to  the  zeal  of  Father  Haeseley  that  Fancy  Farm  is  indebted  for  these  beautiful 
and  substantial  buildings  today. 

Seeing  the  need  for  a  mission  church  in  Carlise  County,  his  first  care  was  the  build- 
ing of  the  present  St.  Charles  Church  in  1891. 

In  1901  Father  Lambert,  a  Jesuit,  preached  a  mission  at  Fancy  Farm.  Having 
long  before  seen  the  urgent  need  of  a  larger  parochial  school,  Father  Haeseley  peti- 
tioned of  the  Bishop  of  Louisville  through  Father  Lambert  the  permission  to  build.  The 
request  was  denied  at  the  time.  However,  filled  with  the  hope  of  a  new  school  in  the 
near  future,  Father  Haeseley  began  preparations  for  building.  Brick  was  burnt  and 
lumber  was  cut  and  placed  on  the  grounds.  In  1907  Father  Lambert  gave  a  second 
mission  at  Fancy  Farm.  At  Father  Haeseley's  request,  he  again  asked  the  Bishop  to 
consent  to  the  building  of  a  large  parochial  school  at  Fancy  Farm.  This  time  the  re- 
quest was  granted.  At  an  expense  of  $13,000,  with  much  labor  and  materials  furnished 
by  members  of  the  parish,  the  present  school  was  erected.  Debt  on  the  structure  was 
cleared  by  the  time  it  was  ready  for  classes  in  September,  1909. 

The  following  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Nazareth  have  held  the  superiorship  of  St. 
Jerome  since  the  beginning  of  their  charge: 


Sister  Samuella,  who  with  two  others  reopened  St.  Jerome  after  the  Franciscans  re- 
linquished their  charge. 

Sister  Lazarilla,  superior  at  the  time  of  the  opening  of  the  present  school. 

Sister  Mary  Josepha— 1911-1915. 

Sister  Mary  Claver,  in  charge  during  World  War  I. 

Sister  Agnes  Patricia,  who  for  twenty-three  years  was  missioned  at  Fancy  Farm  as  a 
primary  teacher  and  superior  for  one  term  of  six  years. 

Sister  Mary  Martnia  and  Sister  Mary  Bathildes,  both  superiors  here  during  the  de- 

Sister  Helen  Frances,  enshrined  in  the  hearts  of  all  who  knew  her. 

Sister  Mary  Carmelia,  present  Superior,  who  already  claims  the  love  and  esteem  of 
the  people  of  Fancy  Farm. 

The  crowning  glory  of  St.  Jerome's  School  as  well  as  of  the  parish  are  her  many 
former  pupils  who  have  devoted  themselves  to  the  religious  life. 

In  the  priesthood  she  claims:  Rev.  Francis  M.  Burch,  Rev.  Paul  Durbin,  Rev. 
Hildebrand  Elliott,  Rev.  Rudolph  Carrico,  Rev.  Thomas  M.  Hayden,  Rev.  William 

In  the  brotherhood:  Otis  Elder,  Brother  Dominic. 

More  than  fifty  young  ladies  in  recent  years  have  entered  the  Nazareth  sisterhood. 

Close  on  to  fifty  others  have  entered  other  orders,  to  mention:  Mt.  St.  Joseph's  Con- 
vent, Davies  County,  Mt.  Clare,  Clinton,  Iowa,  the  Holy  Cross  Sisters  of  Notre  Dame, 
Indiana,  and  others. 

In  1913  and  1914  Father  Haeseley  and  his  assistant  were  occupied  with  the  build- 
of  the  St.  Denis  Church  named  above. 

Rev.  Albert  J.  Thompson  was  appointed  assistant  in  1915.  With  the  coming  of 
World  War  I,  he  volunteered  his  services  in  the  U.  S.  Army.  This  left  the  whole 
burden  of  St.  Jerome  and  the  missions  on  Father  Haeseley  who  already  was  fast  be- 
coming enfeebled  by  age. 

In  April  1920,  a  fire,  originating  in  the  church,  damaged  the  interior  to  the  extent 
as  to  necessitiate  a  complete  renovation  and  decoration.  To  see  this  huge  task  through, 
Father  Haeseley  remained  at  Fancy  Farm  nearly  a  year  longer  than  he  had  intended. 

Resigning  the  pastorate  November  20,  1920,  he  was  given  the  chaplaincy  of  St. 
Joseph's  Infirmary,  Louisville.  His  death  occurred  there  October  19,  1926.  His  re- 
mains were  interred  in  St.  Louis  Cemetery,  Louisville. 

He  was  succeeded  at  Fancy  Farm  by  his  assistant,  Rev.  Albert  J.  Thompson  who 
had  returned  from  France  to  his  former  post,  July,  1919. 

Father  Thompson  had  as  assistant  erected  the  parochial  schools  at  St.  Charles  and 
St.  Denis.  In  1923  as  pastor  of  St.  Jerome,  he  directed  the  exterior  renovation  of  the 
church.  About  1929  a  plot  of  ground  was  purchased  enlarging  the  school  premises. 
In  1931  the  present  boys'  playground  was  improved  and  reconstructed.  In  1933,  due 
to  the  effects  of  the  Depression,  it  became  necessary  to  ask  state  aid  for  the  school. 
Through  the  efforts  of  Father  Thompson,  this  was  obtained  and  the  people  of  St. 
Jerome  thereby  relieved  for  the  time  being  of  the  financial  burden  of  the  school. 

Father  Thompson's  pastorate  was  not  marked  by  any  great  material  advancement, 
but  he  certainly  had  the  spiritual  interests  of  his  people  at  heart.  It  has  been  said, 
"He  stood  at  his  post  during  one  of  the  most  trying  times  in  the  history  of  our  country, 
preaching  to  the  exclusion  of  all  other  interests,  Christ  and  Him  crucified." 

He  left  Fancy  Farm  in  February,  1935,  and  took  up  his  charge  as  pastor  of  St. 
Stephen  Church,  Owensboro.  For  the  past  four  or  five  years  he  has  been  pastor  of 
St.  Francis  De  Sales,  Paducah. 


The  present  pastor,  Father  Russell,  aforenamed  took  charge  of  the  parish,  March  1, 
1935.  The  present  assistant  pastor  is  the  Rev.  Benedict  F.  Huff,  who  devotes  most  of 
his  time  to  care  of  the  missions  of  St.  Charles  and  St.  Denis. 

During  these  eight  years,  he  has  completely  lost  himself  in  service  to  his  people. 
His  first  care  was  the  spiritual  advancement  of  his  charges.  He  organized  societies: 
The  Holy  Name,  Altar  Society,  Sodality  of  Our  Lady  and  Children's  Holy  Childhood 
Society,  all  conducive  to  the  spiritual  benefits  of  members.  The  material  side  has  not 
been  overlooked.  Large  debts  have  been  completely  cancelled  and  the  church  renovated 
both  exteriorly  and  interiorly  at  an  expense  of  about  twenty  thousand  dollars.  The 
convent  building  and  school  have  each  been  repaired  and  improved. 

Father  Russell  plans  to  build  an  auditorium  and  classrooms  to  supplement  the  now 
crowded  school.  The  St.  Jerome  School  has  under  the  pastorate  of  Father  Russell  be- 
come consolidated.  The  Pirtle,  Wrights,  Richardson,  Salem  schools  of  Graves  County 
and  the  Redix  school  of  Carlisle  have  of  recent  years  been  merged  with  St.  Jerome's;  the 
people  of  those  districts  so  desiring  this  change. 

Our  Boys  in  the  Service 

Father  Russell's  pastorate  here  will  ever  be  remembered  as  of  World  War  II.  Over 
one  hundred  and  fifty  names  are  inscribed  on  the  Honor  Roll  in  St.  Jerome's  Church. 
They  are  of  young  men  of  the  parish  who  have  been  called  and  have  volunteered  their 
services  to  their  country  in  the  present  war.  To  date,  June,  1944,  one  gold  star,  in 
memory  of  Thomas  Merritt  Willett,  has  been  placed  on  our  service  flag. 


Notre  Dame  Academy,  Covington,  has  been  functioning  as  an  educational  institution 
since  1876.  In  1875  the  Sisters  of  Notre  Dame  purchased  a  lot  upon  which  was 
erected  a  four-story  building.  Solemn  dedication  took  place  July  26,  1876.  In  Sep- 
tember classes  were  opened  for  grade  and  high  school  students,  with  music  and  needle- 
craft  as  private  courses. 

Within  a  short  time,  it  was  necessary  to  enlarge  the  building  by  the  addition  of  east 
and  west  wings,  and  by  adding  another  story  to  the  entire  structure.  In  1901  a  new 
chapel  building  was  erected.  An  adjoining  residence  was  purchased  in  1921,  and  con- 
verted into  a  music  studio. 

From  an  enrollment  of  sixty  pupils,  including  grades  and  high  school,  the  registra- 
tion steadily  increased.  In  1937,  the  elementary  grade  department  was  discontinued  in 
order  to  devote  the  entire  building  to  high  school  classes.  The  present  enrollment,  in 
1943,  is  three  hundred  and  eighty  girls. 

Notre  Dame  Academy  was  accredited  by  the  State  in  1923  and  received  an  "A" 
rating,  which  has  been  maintained  to  the  present.  In  1924,  Notre  Dame  Academy 
became  a  member  of  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools  and 
has  remained  a  fully  accredited  high  school. 

Covington,  Kentucky 

It  was  1856,  and  leap  year.  More  than  that  it  was  February  twenty-ninth,  when  at 
Nazareth,  Kentucky,  the  Council  of  the  Sisters  of  Charity  met  in  special  session  to  make 
final  deliberations  on  what  was  at  the  period  of  history,  a  momentous  venture,  a  new 
colony  of  Sisters  would  be  sent  out  to  found  a  schoql  in  the  Northern  Kentucky  diocese 
of  Covington. 


Covington,  originally  known  as  "The  Point"  because  of  its  location  at  the  confluence 
of  the  Ohio  and  Licking  Rivers,  had  long  outgrown  its  status  of  a  mere  trading  post 
in  the  wilderness,  and  was  fast  becoming  a  flourishing  industrial  settlement.  It  counted 
in  its  population  a  goodly  number  of  German  and  Irish  immigrants  eager  to  establish 
homes  in  America,  the  "Land  of  Promise,"  and  to  give,  in  full  reciprocation,  all  their 
youthful  vigor  and  enthusiasm  to  the  beloved  land  of  their  adoption. 

In  testimony  of  the  religious  spirit  of  its  growing  population,  Covington  was  a  city  of 
churches.  As  early  as  1833,  it  had  been  made  the  center  of  the  newly  formed  Northern 
Kentucky  diocese  with  Most  Reverend  George  Augustine  Carrell,  its  first  bishop.  This 
saintly  prelate  immediately  interested  himself  in  the  spiritual  and  material  welfare  of 
the  people.  Quite  naturally,  he  felt  the  training  of  the  young  was  his  serious  obligation 
and  he  insisted  that  no  matter  at  what  sacrifice  schools  must  be  built  and  a  Christian 
education  provided. 

Animated  by  this  spirit,  Bishop  Carrell,  in  1855,  petitioned  Nazareth  that  the 
Sisters  "take  charge  of  a  pay  and  poor  school  in  Covington."  The  terse  minutes  for 
the  Council  meeting  merely  record  the  resolution  together  with  the  names  of  Sister 
Clare  Gardiner,  who  was  appointed  superior,  and  her  five  assistants,  two  of  whom  were 
to  teach  in  the  "poor"  school  and  the  others  at  the  "pay  school." 

The  Cincinnati  Commercial  gave  publicity  to  the  event  and  after  eulogizing  the 
work  of  the  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Nazareth,  went  on  to  say,  "The  charitable  services 
of  these  Ladies  will  find  a  proper  field  in  the  growing  and  industrial  population  of 
their  new  charge."  The  Cincinnati  Telegraph  and  Advocate  in  its  issue  of  January  26, 
1856,  quaintly  and  "respectfully  solicits  the  kind  countenance  and  aid  of  the  benevo- 
lent public  of  the  sister  cities"  toward  furnishing  the  house  and  school  for  the  Sisters. 
The  generous  response  to  the  appeal  was  evidence  of  the  esteem  and  welcome  accorded 
the  newcomers. 

The  new  school  was  established  in  a  small  two-story  brick  house  on  "The  Commons," 
the  present  site  at  Seventh  and  Greenup  Streets.  At  the  request  of  Bishop  Carrell,  it 
was  given  the  title  of  Academy  of  Our  Lady  of  La  Salette  after  the  famous  French 
shrine  where  the  Blessed  Virgin  had  appeared  in  1840.  Classes  were  organized  im- 
mediately and  sixteen  families  were  registered  as  patrons.  The  average  tuition  was  one 
dollar  a  month,  often  paid  "in  kind."  The  next  year  the  enrollment  had  more  than 
doubled  itself. 

Interesting  are  the  entries  in  the  carefully  kept  records  of  those  early  days:  "Mr.  John 
Handlcn  donates  a  box  of  candles  .  .  .  often  keeps  the  little  community  in  milk,  butter, 
and  eggs  all  month."  "Mr.  Murray  donates  vinegar."  Five  pair  of  shoes  are  invoiced 
at  a  total  of  $5.50;  a  barrel  of  sugar  is  purchased  for  $14.90;  even  the  opening  of  a 
barrel  of  flour  is  recorded  as  an  event  of  importance. 

In  short  time  the  little  six  room  school  and  convent,  with  its  clean  whitewashed  in- 
terior, had  become  far  from  adequate.  There  was  the  added  disadvantage  that  the 
Sisters  did  not  own  even  the  ground  on  which  the  school  was  located,  and  it  was  not 
until  1886  that  this  was  secured.  Plans  for  a  new  building  had  long  been  in  the  making 
and  now  the  cornerstone  was  finally  laid  for  what  was  then  the  latest  in  school  buildings. 
Immediately  the  number  of  pupils  so  increased  that  additional  teachers  had  to  be  pro- 
vided. By  1903,  expansion  again  was  necessary.  A  third  story  was  added  to  the  school 
and  a  permanent  convent  at  last  supplied  for  the  Sisters. 

The  story  of  La  Salette  is  akin  to  that  of  other  pioneers  in  the  field  of  education. 
The  unbounded  trust  in  Divine  Providence  instilled  by  Saint  Vincent  de  Paul  in  his 
first  Daughters  of  Charity  and  received  as  a  precious  heritage  by  the  Sisters  of  Charity 
in  the  New  World,  gave  them  dauntless  courage  in  the  face  of  every  obstacle;  love  of 

10— Vol.    II 


God  and  of  neighbor  prompted  whole-hearted  response  to  every  call  for  self-sacrifice. 
Truly  did  the  Sisters  live  their  motto,  "The  charity  of  Christ  urges  us!" 

But  the  history  of  La  Salette  would  be  incomplete  were  not  some  mention  made  of 
those  admirable  women,  administrators  and  teachers,  whose  influence  has  left  a  distinc- 
tive impress  on  the  school's  aims  and  quality  of  instruction,  for,  under  the  Providence 
of  God,  it  is  to  their  ability,  generosity,  and  self-sacrifice  that  the  institution  owes  its 
growth  and  opportunity  for  service.  Notable  among  them  are:  Sister  Clare  Gardiner, 
the  pioneer  superior;  Mother  Helena  Tormey  and  Mother  Cleophas  Mills,  both  of 
whom  later  became  Superior  General  at  Nazareth;  and  Sister  Lauretta  Meagher,  who 
was  the  last  living  Civil  War  nurse  and  whose  life  would  make  rich  copy  for  the  bio- 
grapher. It  was  she  who  directed  the  school  during  a  period  of  over  thirty  years,  from 
1879  to  1912. 

La  Salette,  in  the  century  of  rapid  and  manifold  changes  in  education  has  kept  abreast 
of  each  advance;  yet,  conservatively,  she  has  clung  to  the  permanent  in  ideals  and 
principles.  The  weighted  curriculum  of  earlier  days  offers  an  interesting  comparison  to 
the  present  clearly  organized  courses  of  studies,  classical,  commercial,  and  homemaking, 
each  of  which  is  supplemented  by  speech;  music,  instrumental  and  vocal;  and  physical 

In  1920,  La  Salette  merited  affiliation  with  the  Catholic  University  of  America;  in 
1923,  the  school  was  accredited  by  the  State  of  Kentucky;  and,  in  1930,  by  the  Southern 
Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools. 

We  have  seen  how  in  rapid  stages,  the  Academy  outgrew  its  humble  foundations. 
In  1939  came  the  crowning  achievement  when  the  modern  fireproof  high  school  was 
completed.  It  contains  all  that  is  latest  and  best  in  classrooms,  library,  science  and 
homemaking   laboratories,   gymnasium-auditorium,   lunchroom,   and   recreation   hall. 

For  close  upon  a  century,  La  Salette  has  served  the  community  of  Covington  in  the 
field  of  education.  In  times  of  public  distress,  she  has  hastened  at  the  call  of  charity 
to  relieve  the  suffering  and  the  afflicted.  But  it  is  not  in  this,  nor  is  it  in  her  excep- 
tional educational  opportunities  that  she  takes  just  pride;  rather  her  joy  is  in  the 
fruit  of  her  labor,  the  sterling  young  women  who,  through  the  years,  have  confidently 
gone  forth  from  her  prepared  to  occupy  intelligently  and  with  becoming  grace  an  hon- 
orable place  in  Christian  society,  be  that  place  the  professions,  business,  or  woman's 
grandest  career,  the  home. 


Academy  Notre  Dame  of  Providence,  a  five-story  brick  ediface  in  Renaissance  style, 
was  erected  at  Sixth  and  Linden  Avenues,  Newport,  Kentucky,  by  the  Sisters  of  Divine 
Providence  in  September,  1903.  The  Academy  was  established  with  the  approval  of  the 
Right  Reverend  Camillus  Paul  Maes,  D.D.,  then  Bishop  of  Covington,  who  recognized 
both  the  desirability  of  such  a  select  educational  institution  in  the  newly  opened  resi- 
dential district  of  eastern  Newport  and  the  inadequacy  of  the  quarters  of  the  original 
school  begun  in  1899  at  Mount  Saint  Martin's  Convent,  Newport,  the  first  home  of 
the  Sisters  of  Divine  Providence  in  America. 

Academy  Notre  Dame  of  Providence  was  built  with  vision.  It  is  spacious  and  sur- 
rounded with  grounds  laid  out  into  park,  lawns,  and  playground.  From  the  beginning 
it  was  equipped  far  in  advance  of  the  times.  It  has  a  chapel,  an  extensive  reference 
and  a  fiction  library,  chemistry  laboratories,  museum,  specialized  commercial,  domestic 
science,  dress-making,  and  fancy-work  departments,  an  art  department  and  a  music 
department,  a  large  study  hall,  capacious  recreation  halls,  cafeteria,  and  an  excellent 
auditorium  with  stage  and  balcony. 


It  opened  as  a  day  school  in  September,  1903  with  an  enrollment  on  the  first  day  of 
one  hundred  pupils,  the  number  increasing  thereafter  year  by  year.  The  purpose  of 
the  Academy,  as  the  early  prospectus  states,  is  "to  provide  for  girls  and  young  women 
a  solid,  practical,  and  Christian  education  and  to  develop  in  them  that  simplicity  of 
manner  and  delicacy  of  feeling  characteristic  of  noble  Christian  womanhood."  Boys 
were  admitted  to  the  grades,  however;  and  difference  of  religion  was  no  obstacle  to 
entrance,  attendance  at  classes  in  religion  not  being  exacted  of  non-Catholic  students. 
The  academic  or  high-school  department  offered  then  as  now  four  courses:  the  Classi- 
cal, the  Scientific,  the  English,  and  the  Commercial,  the  last  now  being  limited  to 
elective  classes.  Modern  languages  were  specially  cultivated  from  the  elementary 
grades  throughout  the  academic  classes  with  the  particular  advantage  of  native  teach- 
ers. There  were  also  a  literary  post-graduate  course  and  a  course  in  elocution.  The 
Academy  is  authorized  to  confer  diplomas  in  music  and  elocution  as  well  as  in  the 
academic  field. 

Since  October,  1905,  Academy  Notre  Dame  of  Providence  has  been  affiliated  with  the 
University  of  Kentucky  at  Lexington.  James  K.  Patterson,  then  the  distinguished  and 
learned  president  of  the  University  of  Kentucky,  made  the  final  inspection  in  person. 
At  the  close  of  his  visit  he  remarked:  "When  I  see  all  this,  it  almost  makes  me  regret 
that  I  cannot  go  back  forty  years  and  begin  all  over  again."  In  1914  the  Academy  was 
also  affiliated  with  the  Catholic  University  of  America  at  Washington,  D.  C. 

In  September,  1929,  the  scholarly  Bishop  of  Covington,  the  late  Most  Reverend  Fran- 
cis W.  Howard,  D.D.,  selected  Academy  Notre  Dame  of  Providence  as  the  Central 
Catholic  High  School  of  Campbell  County.  The  classes  expanded  so  extensively  as  a 
result  that  in  June,  1934,  the  grade  school  was  discontinued.  The  enrollment  at  the 
present  date,  January,  1945,  numbers  250  young  girls  who  come  from  the  various  dio- 
cesan and  private  grade  schools  in  the  vicinity.  As  Central  Catholic  High  School  the 
Academy  retains  its  title,  Academy  Notre  Dame  of  Providence;  it  remains  an  institution 
of  the  Sisters  of  Divine  Providence  whose  members  constitute  its  faculty. 


The  Sisters  of  Divine  Providence  are  the  youngest  of  the  communities  of  religious 
women  in  Kentucky,  the  Congregation  having  made  its  American  foundation  at  New- 
port, Kentucky  in  the  Diocese  of  Covington,  in  August,  1889.  In  1888  the  Right  Rev- 
erend Camillus  Paul  Maes,  third  bishop  of  Covington,  Kentucky,  in  quest  of  teachers, 
visited  the  Mother  House  of  the  Congregation  of  Divine  Providence  at  St.  Jean  de 
Bassel,  Moselle,  a  flourishing  educational  institution  founded  in  France  in  1762  by  the 
Venerable  John  Martin  Moye,  the  cause  of  whose  beatification  is  now  at  Rome.  The 
request  of  Bishop  Maes  fulfilled  the  hopes  of  Reverend  Mother  Anna  (d.  1908)  that 
the  Sisters  participate  in  the  education  of  American  youth  and  form  a  province  of  the 
Congregation  in  the  United  States  of  America.  The  next  year  (1899)  accordingly, 
found  in  Covington,  Kentucky,  the  three  pioneers  of  the  American  foundation. 

By  October,  1899,  these  three,  under  the  direction  of  Bishop  Maes,  purchased 
and  were  established  in  the  historic  Colonel  Jones  mansion,  crowning  a  hill  on 
the  outskirts  of  Newport,  Kentucky.  Mt.  St.  Martin's,  as  the  house  and  hill  were  soon 
designated,  became  the  first  American  Mother  House,  convent,  and  novitate  of  the 
Congregation.  There  in  November  of  that  same  year  the  first  school,  Mt.  St.  Martin's 
Academy,  was  opened  in  what  was  originally  the  capacious  carriage  house.  In  the 
following  March  the  Sisters,  whose  number  had  been  increased  by  other  Sisters  from 
the  Mother  House  in  France,  accepted  their  first  parochial  school. 

In  August,   1903,  the  new  Academy  Notre  Dame  of  Providence,  at  East  Sixth  and 


Linden  Avenue,  Newport,  Kentucky,  was  dedicated.  Superseding  Mt.  St.  Martin's 
Academy,  it  was  an  instant  success.  It  carried  a  full  college  preparatory  course  as  well 
as  a  commercial  course,  and  specialized  in  music,  the  arts,  and  domestic  science.  In 
1934  the  Academy  closed  its  elementary  and  grammar  school  grades  to  become,  under 
the  patronage  of  His  Excellency,  the  Most  Reverend  Francis  W.  Howard,  D.D.,  Bishop 
of  Covington,  the  Central  High  School  for  Catholic  Girls  in  Campbell  County.  Acade- 
my Notre  Dame  of  Providence  was  affiliated  with  the  University  of  Kentucky  in  Oc- 
tober, 1905,  and  with  the  Catholic  University  of  America,  Washington,  D.  C,  in  1915. 

St.  Anne  Convent,  the  present  Mother  House  and  novitiate  of  the  Congregation  in 
the  United  States,  was  completed  in  1919  at  Melbourne,  Kentucky,  about  eight  miles 
from  Newport.  St.  Anne's  was  erected  on  a  splendid  piece  of  property  of  187  acres, 
the  generous  gift  of  the  late  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Peter  O'Shaugnessy  of  Newport,  Kentucky. 
The  training  school  of  the  Sisters  was  transferred  here  from  Mt.  St.  Martin's;  a  house 
for  aged  and  infirm  was  built,  and  in  1931  the  magnificent  Sacred  Heart  Chapel 
was  erected. 

Recruited  by  American  girls  and  assisted  by  additional  numbers  from  abroad,  from 
the  very  first  year  in  America  the  Sisters  of  Divine  Providence  assumed  charge  of 
parish  schools  in  Kentucky,  Ohio,  West  Virginia,  Rhode  Island,  and  Maryland.  Be- 
sides Academy  Notre  Dame  of  Providence,  they  opened  other  select  academies  and 
private  and  parochial  high  schools.  They  undertook  homes  for  the  aged  in  Baltimore, 
Maryland,  and  at  Staten  Island;  they  have  an  Infant  Asylum  at  Providence,  Rhode 
Island,  a  home  for  working  girls  at  Mt.  St.  Martin's,  Newport,  Kentucky,  and  for 
French  immigrant  girls  in  New  York  City. 

Since  1890  they  have  participated  in  the  Kentucky  Mountain  Mission  work  begun 
by  Bishop  Maes  and  zealously  promoted  by  the  Most  Reverend  Francis  W.  Howard, 
D.D.,  Bishop  of  Covington.  In  1915  the  Sisters  of  Divine  Providence  opened  a  sub- 
stantial and  beautiful  academy  and  boarding  school,  St.  Camillus  Academy,  at  Cor- 
bin,  Kentucky,  in  the  heart  of  the  mountainous  district.  In  August,  1920,  they  opened 
St.  Agatha  Academy  and  boarding  school  at  Winchester,  Kentucky. 

In  1928  under  the  auspices  of  the  Most  Reverend  Francis  W.  Howard,  the  Sisters 
of  Divine  Providence,  with  the  other  teaching  communities  of  the  Diocese  of  Coving- 
ton, founded  Villa  Madonna  College  at  Covington,  Kentucky.  The  College  is  a 
senior  liberal  arts  college,  conferring  the  A.B.  degree  and  also  having  a  department  of 
teacher  training  equipping  the  student  for  state  certification  in  elementary  or  secondary 
school  teaching. 

This  year,  September,  1943,  the  Sisters  of  Divine  Providence  are  staffing  two  paro- 
chial schools  for  negroes  in  the  Diocese  of  Covington. 


Of  the  many  Convents  of  Ursulines  in  the  United  States,  the  largest  independent 
House  is  that  which  has  its  Motherhouse  and  Novitiate  in  Louisville,  Kentucky. 

The  Ursuline  Order  was  founded  by  Saint  Angela  Merici  in  1535  in  Brescia,  Italy, 
when  it  spread  to  Milan,  Lyons,  Paris,  Wuertzburg,  Straubing,  and  thence  to  Louis- 
ville. In  1858,  the  Most  Reverend  Martin  John  Spalding,  Bishop  of  Louisville,  through 
the  agency  of  the  Reverend  Leander  Streber,  O.F.M.,  applied  for  Ursulines  at  Strau- 
bing, Bavaria,  to  take  charge  of  the  newly-established  parochial  school  of  St.  Martin. 
In  answer  to  the  call,  three  nuns  left  Straubing  on  September  13,  1858,  took  passage 
on  the  steamer  "Ariel"  (which  twice  barely  escaped  destruction — once  from  an  ex- 
plosion, and  once  from  being  struck  by  a  Turkish  man-of-war)  landing  in  New  York 
in  late  October  and  arriving  in  Louisville  on  October  31,   1858.    The  Superior  of  the 


little  band  was  Mother  Mary  Salesia  Reitmeier,  and  her  companions  were  Sister  Mary 
Pia  and  Sister  Mary  Miximilian. 

On  arriving  in  Louisville,  the  nuns  were  domiciled  in  a  small,  miserable  frame  house 
consisting  of  two  rooms  and  a  garret,  situated  near  St.  Martin  School  on  what  is  now 
Shelby  and  Chestnut  Street.  In  November  they  opened  classes  in  St.  Martin's  parish 
school  with  an  enrollment  of  fifty  pupils.  During  the  long  winter  that  followed,  the 
nuns  suffered  loneliness,  heartache,  and  even  want,  but  these  heroic  souls  never  looked 
back.  Their  days  were  filled  with  works  of  mercy  and  their  nights  recorded  long  hours 
spent  in  mastering  the  English  language. 

The  principal  end  and  aim  of  Ursulines  being  the  education  of  young  girls,  Mother 
Salesia  decided  to  enlarge  her  sphere  of  activity  by  establishing  a  boarding  school  where 
girls  might  receive  both  an  elementary  and  high  school  education.  Accordingly  a  two- 
story  brick  building  of  about  twenty  rooms  was  built  in  1859,  which  was  to  serve  as  a 
convent  for  the  Sisters  and  a  temporary  residence  for  boarders.  It  was  called  the 
"Ursuline  Convent  of  the  Immaculate  Conception."  Six  little  boarders  entered,  and 
Mother  Pia  was  named  Directress.    Three  more  nuns  came  over  from  Straubing  to  assist. 

Early  in  1860  a  novitiate  was  opened,  and  the  first  American  girl  to  enter  was  Miss 
Cecelia  Schweri,  later  known  as  Sister  Mary  Leandra.  She  was  joined  by  three  young 
ladies  from  Straubing  and  another  American  girl,  and  on  September  8th,  these  five 
young  ladies  received  the  habit  of  the  Ursulines.  The  little  Community  now  numbered 
eleven.  In  order  to  give  the  girls  who  finished  St.  Martin's  parochial  school  an  oppor- 
tunity of  higher  education,  day  pupils  were  now  admitted  to  the  Academy.  Quarters 
again   became  too  small,  and  a  dormitory  and  refectory  were  added   for  the  boarders. 

Ursuline  Academy  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  was  well  on  its  way  when  the  Civil 
War  broke  out.  In  1862,  food  was  scarce  and  expensive,  the  price  of  fuel  rose,  and  the 
Sisters  were  in  great  distress.  Then  Louisville  was  threatened  with  bombardment,  which 
caused  such  terror  that  the  parents  took  their  children  home,  and  the  boarding  school 
had  to  be  closed.  However,  after  a  few  weeks  the  danger  passed  and  the  pupils  re- 

When  classes  were  resumed  in  September,  1863,  boarders  in  great  numbers  enrolled 
in  the  Academy,  and  the  school  from  that  time  on  continued  to  flourish.  By  an  Act 
of  the  Legislature  of  the  State  of  Kentucky,  on  January  12,  1864,  the  Academy  was 
incorporated  under  the  title  of  "Ursuline  Society  and  Academy  of  Education,"  and 
was  empowered  to  confer  the  "usual  academic  degrees  of  a  literary  educational  institu- 
tion." At  the  graduation  exercises  which  took  place  in  1867,  the  first  graduate  of  Ursu- 
line Academy,  Miss  Anna  Kotter,  received  her  crown  and  diploma.  There  were  125 
pupils  in  the  Academy  during  this  year. 

In  1867  the  cornerstone  of  the  present  Chapel  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  was 
laid,  but  on  account  of  bad  weather  the  work  had  to  be  discontinued  during  the  winter. 
In  the  spring  of  1868  the  work  was  resumed.  The  walls  had  been  completed  and  the 
gable  finished,  when  the  cable  fastened  to  the  second  beam  gave  way.  The  beam  fell 
backward  and  shattered  the  gable  and  the  wall  to  a  depth  of  about  fifteen  feet  above 
the  ground;  both  side  walls  were  badly  damaged.  After  six  weeks  the  debris  was 
cleared  away  and  the  rebuilding  of  the  walls  was  begun.  The  chapel  was  completed 
and  dedicated  on  December  26,  1868.  As  a  result  of  the  shock  sustained  when  the 
walls  of  the  chapel  fell,  Mother  Salesia  became  seriously  ill  and  died  on  June  25,  1868. 
With  her  passing  a  great  and  remarkable  life  was  ended — a  life  whose  fine,  true,  and 
elevated  character  impressed  itself  upon  all  with  whom  she  came  in  contact.  At  the 
death  of  the  Foundress,  the  Community  numbered  thirty  professed  Sisters,  six  Novices 
and  five  Postulants;  and  the  nuns  were  conducting,  besides  the  Academy,  four  parochial 


schools — St.  Martin's,   St.   Mary's,  and  St.  Joseph's  in  Louisville,  and  Corpus  Christi 
School  in  Newport,  Kentucky. 

Mother  Salesia  was  succeeded  by  Mother  Martina  Nichlas,  a  woman  of  rare  ability, 
whose  administration,  covering  a  period  of  thirteen  years,  was  principally  noted  for 
the  extension  of  the  Order,  in  and  out  of  the  State,  in  parochial  school  work.  During 
this  period  St.  Peter's  School  and  St.  Vincent  dePaul's  School  in  Louisville,  Sts.  Peter 
and  Paul  School  in  Cumberland,  Maryland,  and  fifteen  other  small  schools  in  Indiana  and 
Illinois  were  placed  in  charge  of  the  Community.  Later  some  of  these  schools  were 
transferred  to  other  Orders. 

On  August  14,  1874,  at  the  invitation  of  the  Reverend  Paul  J.  Volk  of  Daviess 
County,  Kentucky,  five  nuns  were  sent  to  the  Green  River  Hills  of  Southwestern  Ken- 
tucky, fifteen  miles  from  Owensboro,  to  open  an  academy  for  girls.  On  their  arrival 
they  found  a  house  not  yet  plastered,  with  no  doors  in  the  second  floor,  and  no  furniture. 
Undismayed  by  hardship  and  the  direst  poverty,  the  nuns  set  to  work,  and  as  /soon 
as  the  house  was  completed  and  the  most  necessary  furnishings  procured,  they  an- 
nounced the  opening  of  school.  Five  pupils  enrolled  at  the  beginning  of  the  first  year; 
eleven  at  the  beginning  of  the  second  year;  and  from  year  to  year  the  number  increased. 
In  1880  the  Charter  of  Incorporation  was  obtained,  and  Mount  St.  Joseph  Ursuline 
Academy  was  beginning  an  era  of  expansion.  A  noviatiate  was  opened  in  1895,  and 
many  young  women  from  the  neighboring  counties  entered  to  swell  the  ranks  of  the 
Sisterhood;  and  in  1912  Mount  St.  Joseph  became  an  independent  Ursuline  Mother- 

In  1876  a  plot  of  about  thirty-two  acres  of  land,  beautifully  located  on  what  is  now 
Lexington  Road,  was  purchased  with  a  view  of  establishing  a  boarding  school  in  the 
country.  Four  Sisters  moved  into  the  small  brick  house  which  stood  on  the  farm,  and 
on  October  4,  1877,  they  opened  school.  Five  children  came  the  first  day;  eight  days 
later  there  were  seventeen,  and  by  Christmas  the  number  had  increased  to  seventy-two. 
This  was  the  beginning  of  Sacred  Heart  Academy.  The  first  pupils  were  day  pupils 
who  came  from  the  vicinity,  but  after  two  years  boarders  only  were  accepted.  It  func- 
tioned as  a  boarding  school  until  1916,  when  day  pupils  were  again  admitted. 

In  1887  the  Ursuline  Convent  on  Chestnut  Street  was  no  longer  spacious  enough 
to  accommodate  the  nuns,  day  pupils,  and  boarders;  hence  the  boarders  were  transferred 
to  Sacred  Heart  Academy,  and  Ursuline  Academy  became  exclusively  a  day  school. 

In  1888  the  first  Commencement  of  the  Sacred  Heart  Academy  was  held  on  June  26. 
Miss  Sabina  Orrick  of  Canton,  Mississippi  was  the  first  graduate.  In  1889,  to  accom- 
modate the  increased  number  of  boarders,  an  addition  was  built  to  the  original  struc- 

In  September,  1894,  the  novitiate  was  transferred  from  the  Motherhouse  on  Chestnut 
Street  to  Sacred  Heart  Academy,  as  living  in  the  country  was  more  conducive  to  the 
health  of  the  young  Sisters. 

On  December  28,  1897,  sixteen  nuns  took  charge  of  St.  Joseph's  Orphanage.  There 
were  122  children  to  be  cared  for  at  the  time. 

In  1900  the  old  convent  on  Chestnut  Street  was  replaced  by  a  new  building  which 
was  used  as  the  Motherhouse  until  1917.  It  was  then  given  over  to  the  exclusive  use 
of  Ursuline  Academy,  and  the  Motherhouse  transferred  to  the  present  site  on  Lexington 
Road.  Today  Ursuline  Academy  stands  as  an  historic  witness  of  Ursuline  missionary 
zeal,  the  fruitfulness  of  which  is  still  evident  in  the  educational  aims  and  methods  of 
the  institution. 

The  continuous  growth  of  Sacred  Heart  Academy  on  Lexington  Road  called  for 
new   buildings,   and   in    1903    the   cornerstone    of   a    large    three-story   edifice   was   laid, 


and  in  May,  1904  it  was  dedicated.  It  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1918.  For  a  period 
of  six  years  one  wing  of  the  new  Motherhouse  (which  had  been  completed  and  dedi- 
cated the  previous  year)  was  taken  over  by  the  Academy  and  used  until  in  May,  1926 
the  new  Academy  was  ready  for  occupancy. 

In  the  interval  another  building  was  erected,  St.  Ursula  Hall,  containing  an  audi- 
torium, gymnasium,  and  class  rooms,  and  in  1921,  the  Sacred  Heart  Junior  College 
and  Normal  School  opened,  principally  to  provide  an  opportunity  for  higher  educa- 
tion and  professional  training  for  the  young  members  of  the  Community.  Provision  was 
also  made  for  observation  and  practice  teaching  in  the  Model  School,  which  offers 
young  teachers  in  training  an  opportunity  to  prepare  for  the  work  of  the  Institute 
under  the  direct  supervision  of  critic  teachers.  The  latest  building  erected  on  the  campus 
is  Brescia  Hall,  the  science  building,  the  first  unit  of  a  college  building  project. 

In  1938  Ursuline  College,  a  Liberal  Arts  Senior  College  for  the  higher  education 
of  women,  in  which  vocational  training  is  not  disregarded,  absorbed  and  superseded  the 
Junior  College.  The  College  is  affiliated  with  the  Catholic  University  of  America,  and 
is  approved  by  or  has  membership  in  the  National  Catholic  Educational  Association, 
Kentucky  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools,  the  American  Association  of 
Colleges,  the  Association  of  Southern  Colleges  for  Women,  the  American  Association 
of  Collegiate  Registrars,  the  Catholic  Literary  Association,  and  has  filed  application 
for  membership  as  a  senior  college  in  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges,  while  re- 
taining the  Junior  college  membership  held  since  1933.  The  College  is  fully  recognized 
by  the  State  Department  of  Education  and  is  empowered  to  issue  Teachers'  Certifi- 
cates on  both  elementary  and  secondary  level. 

As  the  years  passed  and  the  Community  grew  in  numbers,  new  schools  were  opened 
in  the  various  States.  At  present  the  Community  numbers  467  professed  nuns,  15 
novices,  and  8  postulants,  and  is  in  charge  of  the  following  schools;  with  a  total  enroll- 
ment of  a  little  more  than  eleven  thousand  pupils: 

St.  Martin's  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1858;  St.  Joseph's  School,  Louis- 
ville, Kentucky,  since  1867;  St.  Peter's  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1868;  Sts. 
Peter  and  Paul  School,  Cumberland,  Maryland,  since  1870;  St.  Mary's  School,  Madison, 
Indiana,  since  1871;  St.  Vincent  de  Paul's  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1881;  St. 
Boniface  School,  Evansville,  Indiana,  since  1881;  Holy  Trinity  School,  St.  Matthews, 
Kentucky,  since  1883;  St.  Joseph's  Orphanage,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1897;  St. 
Boniface  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1898;  St.  Anthony  School,  Louisville, 
Kentucky,  since  1899;  St.  George  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1899;  St.  Helen's 
School,  Shively,  Kentucky,  since  1902;  St.  Mary's  School,  Cumberland,  Maryland,  since 
1903;  St.  Elizabeth's  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1906;  St.  Leo's  School,  Louis- 
ville, Kentucky,  since  1906;  St.  Therese  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1907;  St. 
Ann's  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1907;  St.  Peter  Claver  Colored  School, 
Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1908;  St.  Francis  Assisi  School,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since 
1911;  St.  Augustine's  School,  New  Straitsville,  Ohio,  since  1915;  St.  Francis  de  Sales 
School,  Morgantown,  West  Virginia,  since  1915;  Sacred  Heart  School,  Conemaugh, 
Pennsylvania,  since  1915;  St.  Patrick  School,  Sidney,  Nebraska,  since  1916;  St.  Patrick 
School,  North  Platte,  Nebraska,  since  1916;  Blessed  Sacrament  School,  Omaha,  Ne- 
braska, since  1920;  St.  Michael  School,  Madison,  Indiana,  since  1922;  St.  Rita  School, 
Okolona,  Kentucky,  since  1928;  St.  Peter's  School,  Columbia,  South  Carolina,  since 
1936;  St.  Joseph's  School,  O'Connor,  Nebraska,  since  1937;  School  of  the  Holy  Spirit, 
Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1937. 
High  Schools  and  Academies: 

Ursuline   Academy,    Louisville,   Kentucky,    since    1859;    Ursuline   Academy,    Cumber- 


land,  Maryland,  since  1891;  Sacred  Heart  Academy,  Louisville,  Kentucky,  since  1877; 
St.  Francis  de  Sales  High  School,  Morgantown,  West  Virginia,  since  1916;  St.  Pat- 
rick's Academy,  Sidney,  Nebraska,  since  1916;  St.  Patrick's  High  School,  North  Platte, 
Nebraska,  since  1916;  Ursuline  High  School,  Columbia,  South  Carolina,  since  1937; 
St.  Joseph's  Academy,  O'Connor,  Nebraska,  since  1937. 
Senior  College: 

Ursuline  College,  since  1938. 


Among  the  Religious  of  the  West,  the  name  of  Mother  Catherine  Spalding  must 
long  stand  pre-eminent.  She  was  endowed  with  attributes  of  mind  that  fitted  her 
beyond  others  for  leadership.  In  purpose  she  was  straightforward.  She  was  con- 
ciliatory in  speech  and  manner.  She  discovered  quickly  and  acted  promptly.  She 
sympathized  deeply  with  poverty  and  suffering  and  it  was  the  comfort  of  her  life  to 
be  able  to  relieve  the  one  and  assuage  the  other.  It  is  impossible  that  one  in  her  po- 
sition, so  qualified,  should  not  be  able  to  command  willing  support.  This  she  did  from 
the  beginning  to  the  end  of  her  career.  She  lived  to  see  the  unpromising  seedling  she 
had  helped  to  plant,  and  to  which  her  tender  care  was  given  at  every  stage  of  its 
growth,  lifting  its  branches  in  the  free  air  of  heaven  and  scattering  its  fruits  broadcast 
for  the  refreshment  of  the  multitudes. 

Catherine  Spalding  was  born  in  Maryland,  December  23,  1793.  She  and  her  sister, 
Ann,  having  early  lost  their  parents,  were  cared  for  by  their  aunt,  Mrs.  Thomas  Elder, 
of  the  Cox  Creek  settlement.  At  the  age  of  nineteen,  she  left  her  comfortable  home 
to  become  the  companion  of  the  two  young  women  who  had  preceded  her  to  Nazareth, 
with  the  avowed  purpose  of  devoting  themselves  to  the  Religious  life  and  its  unselfish 
pursuits.  By  the  suffrages  of  her  associates,  she  was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  com- 
munity for  eight  terms  of  three  years  each. 

In  April,  1823,  Mother  Catherine,  having  been  replaced  at  the  Mother  House  by 
Mother  Agnes  Higdon,  went  with  three  other  sisters  to  White  Sulphur,  Scott  County, 
to  establish  a  school  on  a  farm  given  for  that  purpose  by  Mr.  James  Gough.  This 
gift  was  made  on  condition  that  the  donor  should  receive  a  small  annuity  during  the 
remainder  of  his  life.  The  transaction  really  amounted  to  a  purchase  as  Mr.  Gough 
lived  a  long  time  and  the  annuity  was  paid  to  the  last. 

The  house  was  named  St.  Catherine's  in  honor  of  Mother  Catherine's  patroness,  St. 
Catherine  of  Siena,  in  compliance  with  the  desires  of  Bishop  Flaget  and  Bishop  David. 
By  a  coincidence  the  Nazarenes  started  for  their  new  field  of  labor  on  the  feast  of  St. 
Catherine  of  Siena.  These  sisters  carried  with  them  a  letter  from  Bishop  Flaget,  Bishop 
of  Bardstown,  to  Father  Chabrat  of  White  Sulphur. 

The  little  colony  in  Scott  County  met  with  many  hardships.  The  sisters  used  to 
tell  of  many  trying  circumstances  connected  with  this  hard  and  seemingly  fruitless 
mission.  Journeys  back  and  forth  to  Nazareth  had  to  be  made  on  horseback  or  in  a 
private  carriage.  It  took  about  three  days  to  make  this  trip;  the  nights  were  spent  in 
farmhouses  on  the  way.  They  never  failed  to  take  advantage  of  the  hospitality  of 
Mrs.  Bostows,  an  English  lady  living  at  Frankfort.  She  had  two  daughters  who  were 
educated  at  Nazareth  and  she  was  always  glad  to  harbor  the  sisters  when  they  passed 
through  Kentucky's  Capitol. 

The  school  at  White  Sulphur  was  never  very  prosperous;  the  congregation  was  scat- 
tered, the  pupils  few;  hence  it  was  decided  to  move  the  school  to  a  more  propitious  lo- 
cation. The  farm  in  Scott  County  was  sold  and  the  proceeds  helped  to  purchase  prop- 
erty on  Limestone  Street,  in  Lexington,  eighteen  miles  distant.   Thus  after  the  first  decade 


of  the  history  of  St.  Catherine's  had  been  told  at  White  Sulphur,  the  sisters,  acting 
under  the  guidance  of  Father  Reynolds,  Nazareth's  new  Ecclesiastical  Superior,  took 
up  work  in  the  new  field  November  28,  1833. 

Sister  Ann  Spalding,  the  youngest  sister  of  Mother  Catherine,  was  at  that  time  in 
charge  of  the  school.  Sisters  Seraphine,  Clementia,  Pelagia,  Christine  and  Claudia- 
labored  with  her. 

The  Lexington  property  was  conveyed  by  deed  dated  May  4,  1834,  from  James 
Logue  to  the  Rt.  Rev.  Benedict  Joseph  Flaget,  in  favor  of  Nazareth  Literary  and 
Benevolent  Institution.  It  extended  from  Limestone  Street  to  Walnut,  having  a  depth 
of  six  hundred  feet  and  frontage  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet,  and  costs  four 
thousand  dollars.  On  the  Limestone  side  there  was  a  small  frame  house  opening  on 
the  street.  Back  of  it  was  Mr.  Logue's  residence,  the  first  brick  house  in  Lexington. 
There  were  four  rooms  above  and  four  below.  The  rooms  on  the  first  floor  were 
utilized  as  parlor,  music  room,  girls'  refectory  and  sisters'  refectory;  the  last  named 
served  also  as  community  room.  On  the  second  floor  a  room  was  fitted  out  as  a 
chapel  and  used  until  Saint  Peter's  Church  was  built.  The  other  rooms  were  dormi- 
tories. Soon  after  the  sisters'  arrival,  the  frame  building  at  the  front  was  moved  to 
the  rear  and  a  brick  house  was  repaired  and  enlarged  for  the  class  rooms. 

All  the  buildings  on  the  new  property  were  in  a  delapidated  condition,  and  it  took 
time,  labor  and  expense  to  put  the  while  in  a  becoming  state.  The  sisters  thought  the 
tribulations  of  Scott  County  were  to  be  renewed,  but  their  fears  were  unfounded,  and 
their  school  was  immediately  patronized.  Lexington  was  then  growing  rapidly;  rail- 
roads and  other  improvements  were  a  means  of  greatly  increasing  the  population 
of  the  sparsely  settled  city. 

In  1837  the  sisters  allowed  St.  Peter's  Church  to  be  built  on  a  portion  of  their  lot. 
Rev.  E.  McMahon,  pastor  at  the  time,  supervised  its  erection.  Then  Father  McMahon 
bought  the  Walnut  Street  end  of  the  sisters'  property  for  one  thousand  dollars.  On  it 
was  a  two-story  brick  house  which  was  the  priest's  residence  until  St.  Paul's  Church 
was  built.  This  house  became  the  girls'  parochial  school  after  it  had  been  purchased 
back  by  Nazareth  from  Father  Becker  on  the  sixth  day  of  November,  1866.  This  old 
school  had  been  built  partly  from  the  brick  which  once  composed  of  the  old  Catholic 
Chapel  in  which  the  celebrated  Father  Baden  officiated  for  so  many  years. 

A  remarkable  incident  took  place  at  St.  Peter's  Church  on  Sunday,  August  13, 
1854.  Just  a  few  minutes  after  the  congregation  had  retired  from  the  building,  the 
entire  ceiling  fell  to  the  floor  beneath,  flattening  everything  to  its  level,  with  the  single 
exception  of  a  statue  of  Our  Lady.  This  statue  was  later  enshrined  on  the  Academy 

On  the  16th  of  August,  1845,  Nazareth  gave  permission  to  build.  Sister  Ann  Spald- 
ing was  still  in  charge  of  St.  Catherine's  and  superintended  the  work.  It  was  not  com- 
pleted when  she  died,  May  15,  1848,  and  Sister  Isabella  Drury,  who  replaced  her  the 
following  August,  saw  it  finished. 

The  death  of  Sister  Ann,  who  for  fifteen  years  had  been  the  guiding  spirit  of  St. 
Catherine's  was  tragic.  In  those  days  the  sisters  had  some  women  slaves  working  about 
the  house.  Sister  Ann  unwittingly  offended  one  of  these  slaves  and  was  poisoned  by 
her.  The  fatal  dose  was  administered  by  mixing  poison  with  some  seemingly  fine 
butter  milk.  Sister  Ann  died  very  suddenly  and  by  some  accident  it  was  discovered 
that  she  had  been  poisoned.  The  sisters  had  the  young  slave  sent  south,  but  had 
nothing  further  done  to  her. 

Sister   Ann    was   buried    in    the    old   Catholic   graveyard   on   Winchester   Street,   now 


Third  Street,  but  the  remains  were  afterward  removed  to  our  beloved  "God's  Acre" 
at  Nazareth. 

Among  the  pioneers,  Sister  Ellen  O'Connell  deserves  a  distinguished  place.  After 
holding  many  important  offices  at  Nazareth,  she  was  transferred  to  St.  Catherine's 
where  she  accomplished  much  in  a  few  years,  and  where  she  died  in  1841. 

St.  Catherine's  has  experienced  seasons  of  depression  and  of  prosperity.  Her  early 
years  were  marked  with  trials  of  various  kinds,  not  the  least  of  which  was  her  struggle 
with  prejudice;  but  Providence  took  care  of  her  and  raised  up  chivalrous  men  who 
nobly  defended  her  cause.  Their  sentiments  are  voiced  in  an  editorial  of  the  time 
which  says:  "There  is  nothing  more  calculated  to  raise  us  to  an  eminence  than  nurseries 
of  learning  of  this  kind.  Many  of  my  acquaintances  have  been  under  the  sisters'  tute- 
lage; and  I  have  found  the  sisters  affable,  agreeable,  intelligent,  polite,  though  quite 
plain,  unassuming  and  unaffected  in  their  dress  and  manner." 

The  work  begun  by  Mother  Catherine  and  Sister  Ann  was  continued  by  worthy 
successors — Mother  Frances,  Sister  Isabella,  Sister  Gabriella  and  Sister  Mary.  In  1864 
Sister  Lucy  was  placed  in  charge.  This  proved  an  event  of  importance  not  only  to  St. 
Catherine's,  but  to  the  people  of  Lexington  as  well. 

Just  before  her  arrival,  a  destructive  fire  burned  the  whole  third  story  of  the  academy 
and  damaged  much  of  the  second.  The  building  was  saved  from  utter  destruction  by 
the  bravery  of  the  fire  department  and  the  prompt  and  kind  assistance  of  the  men  of 
Lexington.  Sister  Lucy's  first  labor  at  St.  Catherine's  was  to  repair  the  damage  as 
soon  as  possible.  The  sisters  had  been  given  shelter  in  the  homes  of  kind  friends,  but 
soon  returned  to  resume  their  school  work.  This  siege  of  hardship  was  followed  by  a 
period  of  prosperity — the  number  of  students  increased  steadily  and  St.  Catherine's  soon 
reached  a  high  degree  of  efficiency. 

On  May  18,  1874,  Sister  Lucy  left  St.  Catherine's  for  the  new  Saints  Mary  and 
Elizabeth  Hospital  in  Louisville.  The  duties  of  superior  were  then  assumed  by  Sister 
Cleophas  who  had  spent  the  first  fourteen  years  of  her  religious  life  as  music  teacher 
at  St.  Catherine's.  Sister  Lucy's  absence  was  of  short  duration,  for  in  a  few  years  she 
was  again  at  St.  Catherine's. 

The  commodious  music  hall  and  auditorium,  which  stands  in  the  rear  of  the  academy, 
may  be  justly  styled  a  monument  to  the  memory  of  Sister  Lucy.  The  last  two  years 
of  her  life  were  spent  in  planning  and  erecting  this  building.  Sister  Lucy  died  sud- 
denly May  11,  1892,  before  she  saw  the  first  commencement  exercises  in  the  new  Saints 
Mary  and  Joseph  Hall. 

Many  remember  with  affectionate  gratitude  the  noble  self-sacrificing  character  of 
Sister  Lucy  and  many  owe  to  her  not  only  their  accomplishments  in  education,  but  also 
their  training  in  character  and  manners.  Sister  Lucy  did  much  for  the  moral  uplift 
and  mental  advancement  of  the  pupils  of  Catherine's.  She  was  not  only  capable  and 
accomplished,  but  pious  and  solidly  learned.  During  her  twenty-eight  years  at  St. 
Catherine's  the  institution  prospered  materially  as  well  as  intellectually,  and  even  today 
her  name  is  a  household  word  in  many  non-Catholic  as  well  as  Catholic  homes  of 
the  city. 

Mother  Cleophas  was  a  second  time  Sister  Lucy's  successor,  having  been  at  Nazareth 
in  the  meantime  filling  the  office  of  Mother  Superior.  After  five  years  she  was  re- 
called to  Nazareth  to  resume  the  duties  of  Mother  Superior.  It  is  to  good  Mother 
Cleophas  that  we  owe  the  privilege  of  having  our  dear  Lord  in  the  house  with  us. 
She  had  the  parlor  transformed  into  a  chapel,  calling  it  Saint  Lucy's  after  the  patron 
saint  of  the  late  beloved  superior. 

Reluctant  as  Religious  are  to  receive  any  publicity,  certain  ones  have,  by  long  service, 


become  ^identified  with  certain  schools.  A  sketch  of  St.  Catherine's  would  hardly  be 
complete  without  mention  of  some  individuals  who  have  given  the  best  years  of  their 
lives  to  its  upbuilding  and  maintenance.  Prominent  among  these  are  Sister  Lauretta, 
Sister  Miriam,  Sister  Johanna,  Sister  Salesia,  Sister  Wilhelmina,  Sister  Christine,  Sister 
Agnita  and  Sister  Alma.  The  last  named  has  spent  her  entire  Religious  life  in  Lex- 
ington and  her  diligence  in  the  office  of  Sacristan  has  become  almost  proverbial.  Sisters 
Francina,  Ambrosia,  and  Wilhelmina  taught  at  St.  John's  Parochial  School.  Sister 
Anita  came  to  St.  Catherine's  in  1872.  Such  a  true  mother  was  she  to  the  little  ones 
under  her  care  that  a  whole  lifetime  has  not  been  able  to  obliterate  her  memory  from 
those  whose  early  years  she  trained.  After  nearly  twenty  years  the  voice  of  obedience 
called  her  to  other  fields.  Some  one  asked  her  on  the  morning  of  her  departure, 
"Sister,  have  you  had  your  breakfast?"  "I  really  do  not  know,"  was  her  forced  reply. 
Indeed  her  bodily  needs  were  all  forgotten  in  her  deep  grief  of  heart. 

Saint  Paul's  Parochial  School,  adjoining  Saint  Paul's  Church,  was  for  the  boys  of 
the  parish  and  was  taught  by  lay  teachers.  These  except  a  professor  for  the  older  boys, 
were  replaced  in  September,  1887,  by  Sisters  Mercedes,  Hilda  and  Geraldine.  Thus 
the  number  of  Sisters  at  Catherine's  was  increased  to  fifteen,  and  in  the  year  1888,  to 
seventeen,  by  opening  a  school  on  Jefferson  Street  for  the  colored  children,  Saint  Peter 
Claver's  School.  Sister  Ambrosia  was  in  charge  of  this  school,  assisted  by  Sister  Mary 
dePazzi.  For  more  than  twenty-five  years  Sister  Ambrosia  labored  among  the  colored 
people  of  Lexington.  She  effected  much  good.  Among  those  whose  influence  at  St. 
Catherine's  will  be  felt  for  many  a  day  is  Sister  Mary  George,  who  is  still  in  charge 
of  the  primary  department,  after  thirty-five  years  of  service.  The  names  of  Sisters 
Kostka,  Susanna  and  Mechtildes  also  will  long  be  remembered.  To  the  interest  and 
activity  of  Sister  Salesia  and  Sister  Mary  Benita  is  due  the  establishment  of  the 

St.  Peter's  Parochial  School  was  opened  in  1915  with  three  Sisters  and  a  lay  teacher. 
During  its  short  existence  it  has  prospered  and  each  year  has  increased  its  attendance 
and  efficiency. 

For  the  last  quarter  of  the  century  affairs  at  St.  Catherine's  have  been  directed  by 
Sister  Ligouri,  Sister  Mary  Vincent,  Sister  Evangelista,  Sister  Teresina,  Sister  Imelda 
and  Sister  Constance.  Under  the  guidance  of  these  superiors  many  improvements  have 
been  made. 

In  1895,  Nazareth  granted  St.  Catherine's  the  privilege  of  conferring  high  school 
diplomas,  recognized  by  the  State.  In  1918  the  academy  was  affiliated  with  the  State 
University  of  Kentucky.  Standardized  methods,  up-to-date  equipment  and  carefully 
planned  school  rooms  have  enabled  St.  Catherine's  to  keep  pace  with  the  times. 

Among  her  loyal  friends  the  academy  gratefully  numbers  Major  Falconer,  who, 
during  many  years  so  generously  rendered  valuable  aid  to  the  growing  institution.  An 
honored  guest  at  the  commencements  since  '64,  he  has  lent  material  as  well  as  moral 
support  to  these  exercises  by  sending  a  decorator  each  year  to  help  to  beautify  the  hall 
and  stage  whence  St.  Catherine's  daughters  entered  Life's  school. 

St.  Catherine's  also  owes  a  deep  debt  of  gratitude  to  Dr.  R.  C.  Falconer,  who  has, 
for  over  a  quarter  of  a  century,  given  his  professional  services,  not  only  gratuitously 
but  unsparingly,  promptly  responding  to  every  call,  whether  by  day  or  night,  that  might 
be  requested. 

Since  education  is  the  battlefield  of  the  present  day,  Saint  Catherine's  Academy  con- 
tinues its  untiring  work  in  this  battlefield.  It  is  the  objective  of  this  institution  to 
turn  out  pupils  with  some  self  knowledge,  some  energy  and  some  purpose. 

The   preparation   and   development   of   the    faculty   receives   first   consideration.      Ex- 


cellent  specialized  courses  are  offered.  The  Academy  is  affiliated  with  the  State  Uni- 
versity and  is  a  member  of  the  Southern  Association  with  an  "A"  rating. 

To  perfect  discipline  of  mind  and  the  power  of  steady  application,  material  expansion 
is  now  going  on.  Improvements  in  painting,  heating,  ventilation,  lighting  have  received 
special  attention.  Large,  airy  rooms  are  being  annexed  in  the  rear  providing  a  desirable 
location  for  a  recreation  hall,  chemistry  laboratory,  class  and  music  room. 

The  Music  Deparement  is  second  to  none.  Saint  Catherine's  Orchestra  is  widely 
known;  music  students  have  received  recognition  by  partaking  in  the  McDowell  Club 
programs.  The  gratifying  results  of  the  various  musical  contests  at  the  University,  in 
violin,  harp,  piano  and  wind  instruments,  as  well  as  the  high  rating  received  in  Vocal 
and  Glee  Club  selections  assures  the  general  public  that  S.  C.  A's  success  is  an  end 
proposed  and  attained. 

In  order  to  improve  speaking  abilities,  as  well  as  to  give  poise  and  confidence,  Speech 
Classes  are  daily  conducted.  Competitions  in  Oratory  and  Debates  are  gratifying, 
besides  giving  to  the  students  something  completed  or  accomplished  in  the  best  sense. 

Saint  Catherine's  Cafeteria  is  an  asset  to  the  Institution  as  has  been  verified  by 
Government  inspectors.  Hot  dinners  are  carefully  planned  and  served  to  some  270 
pupils,  thus  affording  them  the  opportunity  of  enjoying  a  real  meal  at  a  minimum 


The  Benedictine  Sisters  of  Covington,  Kentucky,  trace  their  origin  to  the  first  foun- 
dation in  America  made  by  the  Benedictine  Sisters  of  the  Cassinese  Congregation. 
Seven  years  after  the  foundation  of  the  first  convent  of  Benedictine  Sisters  in  Ameri- 
ca, at  the  request  of  Bishop  Carroll,  the  first  Bishop  of  Covington,  four  Sisters  in- 
cluding Reverend  Mother  Alexia,  the  Superioress,  were  sent  from  Saint  Benedict  Convent 
in  Erie,  Pennsylvania,  to  open  a  school  in  Saint  Joseph  parish,  Covington.  This  was 
in  1859. 

Although  the  little  foundation  encountered  poverty,  difficulties,  and  hardships  in- 
numerable, the  sacrifices  and  sufferings  of  these  pioneer  Sisters  were  rewarded  by  the 
encouragement  and  financial  assistance  of  friends  and  benefactors  so  that,  in  1862, 
they  were  able  to  erect  a  small  convent,  which  was  subsequently  enlarged  to  meet  the 
needs  of  the  growing  commnuity.  In  the  Providence  of  God,  the  first  postulant  to 
seek  admission  to  the  Order,  Helen  Saelinger,  was  destined  to  become  the  second  Mother 
Superior,  Reverend  Mother  Walburga.  To  date  the  Order  has  been  governed  by  only 
five  Mother  Superiors,  members  now  number  one  hundred  and  ninety. 

The  small  beginning  made  in  1859  bore  such  fruit  that  from  the  Covington  Mother 
House  were  established  three  other  convents,  in  Indiana,  Louisiana,  and  Alabama,  which 
when   they  became  self-sustaining,  were  incorporated  as  independent  establishments. 

After  the  erection  of  a  convent  in  1862,  the  Sisters  opened  Saint  Walburg  Academy 
in  Covington,  which  continued  in  existence  until  1931,  when  the  need  of  the  academy 
building  for  other  purposes  necessitated  its  closing. 

The  continued  expansion  of  the  Order  enabled  the  Sisters,  in  1907,  to  erect  a  board- 
ing school,  Villa  Madonna  Academy,  on  a  large  tract  of  land  six  miles  from  Covington. 
Later  the  Mother  House  was  transferred  to  Villa  Madonna,  and  in  1937  a  separate 
Mother  House  was  erected  on  adjoining  property. 

One  of  the  early  charges  of  the  community  was  the  care  of  Saint  John  Orphanage, 
which  it  was  asked  to  undertake  in  1877,  by  the  Society  for  the  Protection  of  Orphans, 
and  which  is  still  under  its  care. 

In  1921,  the  Benedictine  Sisters  opened  Villa  Madonna  College,  which  they  conducted 


successfully  for  seven  years.  In  1928,  the  need  arising  for  a  more  central  location,  it 
was  transferred  to  Covington  and  has  since  operated  as  a  diocesan  college  under  the 
joint  direction  of  the  Sisters  of  Notre  Dame,  the  Sisters  of  Divine  Providence,  and 
the  Benedictine  Sisters. 

Besides  Villa  Madonna  Academy,  a  boarding  and  day  school,  which  the  Benedictine 
Sisters  conduct,  they  are  also  in  charge  of  the  following  parochial  schools: 

Holy  Cross  Elementary  and  High  School,  Latonia,  Kentucky;  Saint  Benedict  Elemen- 
tary and  High  School,  Covington,  Kentucky;  Saint  Henry  Elementary  and  High  School, 
Erlanger,  Kentucky;  Saint  James  Elementary  and  High  School,  Brooksville,  Kentucky; 
Blessed  Sacrament  Elementary  School,  Fort  Mitchell,  Kentucky;  Saint  Joseph  Elemen- 
tary School,  Covington,  Kentucky;  Saint  John  Orphanage  Elementary  School,  Fort 
Mitchell,  Kentucky;  Holy  Guardian  Angels  Elementary  School,  Sanfordtown,  Ken- 
tucky; Saint  Anthony  Elementary  School,  Forest  Hills,  Kentucky;  Saint  Joseph  Ele- 
mentary School,  Crescent  Springs,  Kentucky;  Saint  Paul  Elementary  School,  Florence, 
Kentucky;  Saint  Therese  Elementary  School,  Southgate,  Kentucky. 


The  Liberal  Arts  College  conducted  by  the  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Nazareth,  Ken- 
tucky, and  located  at  Fourth  and  Breckinridge  Streets  in  Louisville  has  presented  many 
changes,  even  exteriorly,  since  its  inception  on  October  4,  1920.  Then  it  was  a  fine 
old  mansion  about  fifty  years  old  with  imposing  white  stone  front  and  wrought  metal 
balustrades,  and  an  elegant  interior  of  carved  walnut,  imported  wall  coverings  and 
Venetian  etched  glass,  crystal  chandeliers  and  huge  mirrors.  In  1931  a  three-story  wing 
was  added  to  provide  additional  library  and  laboratory  facilities  and  an  assembly  hall. 
In  1933  two  adjacent  buildings  were  purchased  for  dormitories,  and  named  Catherine 
Spalding  and  Flaget  in  honor  of  the  Founder  and  the  promoter  of  the  Nazareth  Con- 
gregation of  Sisters  of  Charity.  In  1938  a  gymnasium-auditorium  was  erected.  Fire 
destroyed  Flaget  Hall  in  December,  1938,  and  necessitated  extensive  changes;  plans  for 
two  new  buildings  were  drawn  in  1940.  The  first  of  these  was  completed  in  June,  1941, 
and  includes  living  quarters  for  thirty-five  Faculty  members,  a  cafeteria,  laboratories 
and  class  rooms  for  the  home  economics  department,  and  a  central  heating  plant.  What 
is  now  the  administration  building  was  completed  in  June,  1942.  It  has  offices  for  the 
Dean,  the  Treasurer,  and  the  Registrar,  parlors  and  other  social  rooms,  ten  new  class- 
rooms, laboratories  for  biology,  physics,  and  psychology,  and  science  lecture  halls. 
Three  of  the  laboratories  vacated  have  been  renovated  and  added  to  the  chemistry 
department.  The  former  administrative  offices  have  become  part  of  the  library.  Ex- 
ternally, the  fine  old  residence  has  been  replaced  by  a  group  of  impressive  red  brick 
buildings  trimmed  in  white  sandstone;  the  style  is  Tudor-Gothic. 

Mother  Rose  Meagher  founded  Nazareth  College;  she  received  loyal  assistance  from 
a  group  of  Louisville  ladies,  among  whom  Mrs.  R.  I.  Nugent,  Mrs.  Florence  Busch- 
meyer  and  Mrs.  Eliza  Enos  were  prominent.  The  work  of  these  ladies  is  being  con- 
tinued today  by  the  Nazareth  College  Guild,  founded  in  the  fall  of  1927.  Mrs.  Louis 
J.  Hollenbach  is  President  of  the  Guild.  Mother  Mary  Catharine  Malone  was  the 
first  President  of  the  College  and  was  succeeded  in  1936  by  Sister  Mary  Anastasia 
Coady,  the  present  incumbent.  Sister  Dula  Hogan  was  Dean  for  the  first  four  years, 
Sister  Berenice  Greenwell  from  1924  to  1932,  Sister  Mary  Anastasia  Coady  from 
1932  to  1936,  and  Sister  Mary  Ramona  Mattingly  from  1936  to  1942.  Because  this 
article  deals  with  Catholic  educational  institutions  in  Kentucky,  conducted  by  the  Sisters 
of  Charity  of  Nazareth,  it  should  note  that  Sister  Berenice's  dissertation  for  her  Doctor's 
degree   was   Nazareth's  Contribution   to  Education    (1812-1933),   and   Sister  Mary  Ra- 


mona's  was  The  Catholic  Church  on  the  Kentucky  Frontier  (1785-1812).  Sister  Charles 
Mary  Morrison,  appointed  Dean  on  August  15,  1942,  had  been  since  1925  head  of  the 
mathematics  department  and  since  1926  Registrar  at  Nazareth  College.  In  both  these 
positions  she  exhibited  extraordinary  administrative  ability  and  won  a  wide  circle  of 
friends  for  herself  and  for  the  College.  She  was  born  in  Hyde  Park,  a  suburb  of 
Boston,  Massachusetts,  July  19,  1895,  entered  the  Congregation  of  the  Sisters  of 
Charity  of  Nazareth  in  1916,  received  her  A.B.  at  Fordham  University,  New  York 
in  1922,  her  M.A.  at  Fordham  University,  New  York,  in  1925,  and  her  Ph.D.  at 
Catholic  University,  Washington,  in  1931. 

The  original  Faculty  consisted  of  Sister  Mary  Eunice  Raisin,  Sister  Mary  Adeline 
O'Leary  and  Sister  Mary  Alicia  Meyer.  Early  in  the  first  year,  1920-1921,  Sister  Mary 
Edwin  Fennessey  joined  the  teaching  staff.  In  1941-1942  the  Faculty  numbered  forty- 
five,  among  whom  were  four  M.D's,  one  J.  C.  L.,  and  sixteen  Ph.D's.  In  September 
1942,  the  Faculty  was  increased  by  three  additional  Ph.D's.  Nearly  all  the  rest  of  the 
Faculty  hold  Master's  degrees. 

On  October  4,  1920,  the  enrollment  at  Nazareth  College  was  seven,  representing 
Kentucky,  Indiana,  and  Arkansas.  October  18,  1920,  afternoon  and  evening  classes  were 
begun  for  part-time  students,  and  by  the  end  of  the  year  the  enrollment  was  fifty-five. 
In  1935  six  leading  hospitals — General  Hospital,  Norton  Memorial  Infirmary,  St.  Joseph 
Infirmary,  Sts.  Mary  and  Elizabeth  Hospital,  St.  Anthony's  Hospital  and  the  Jewish 
Hospital — registered  their  student  nurses  for  courses  in  biology,  chemistry,  dietetics, 
English,  philosophy,  psychology,  sociology  and  religion.  The  total  enrollment  during 
1941-1942  was  six  hundred  and  seventy-two. 

The  first  curriculum  included  English,  French,  Latin,  Spanish,  chemistry,  mathe- 
matics, and  religion,  all  except  French  and  Spanish  obligatory.  Today  there  are  nine 
major  Departments:  Education,  Fine  Arts,  Home  Economics,  Languages,  Mathematics, 
Philosophy  and  Psychology,  Religion,  Science,  and  Social  Science,  and  twenty-seven 
distinct  branches;  the  Language  Department,  for  instance,  includes  English,  Latin, 
Greek,  French,  German,  Italian,  and  Spanish;  the  Science  Department  includes  chem- 
istry, physics,  botany,  and  zoology.  The  four-year  curriculum  now  offered  leads  to 
the  degrees:  Bachelor  of  Arts,  Bachelor  of  Science,  Bachelor  of  Science  in  Medical 
Technology,  Bachelor  of  Science  in  Home  Economics,  Bachelor  of  Science  in  Educa- 
tion, Bachelor  of  Science  in  Nursing,  and  Bachelor  of  Science  in  Nursing  Education. 
Students  of  the  College,  upon  completion  of  the  required  conditions,  are  entitled  to 
Teachers'  Certificates  from  the  Kentucky  State  Department  of  Education.  Presenta- 
tion Academy,  located  on  the  campus,  serves  as  a  laboratory  school  for  teacher  training. 

Degrees  were  granted  for  the  first  time  in  June,  1924.  The  six  graduates  almost  im- 
mediately organized  the  Nazareth  College  Alumna  which  now  has  a  membership  of 
over  five  hundred. 

Nazareth  College  was  accredited  by  the  Kentucky  State  Department  of  Education  in 
April,  1925,  and  became  a  member  of  the  Association  of  Kentucky  Colleges  and  Uni- 
versities in  December  of  the  same  year.  It  was  affiliated  with  the  Catholic  University  of 
America  in  February,  1926,  and  became  a  member  of  the  Catholic  Educational  Asso- 
ciation in  June,  1926.  The  College  has  been  a  member  of  the  Southern  Association  of 
Colleges  for  Women  since  December,  1928,  and  of  the  Association  of  American  Col- 
leges since  January,  1929.  It  was  approved  by  the  Southern  Association  of  Colleges 
and  Secondary  Schools  in  April,  1938. 



Maple  Mount,  Kentucky 

Mount  St.  Joseph  Ursuline  College  and  Academy,  Maple  Mount,  Kentucky,  situated 
fifteen  miles  southwest  of  Owensboro,  the  metropolis  of  Daviess  County,  is  under  the 
direction  of  the  Ursuline  Nuns  who  bear  the  same  standards  of  Christian  education* 
today  as  their  great  patroness  St.  Ursula  bore  centuries  ago.  St.  Ursula  was  teacher 
of  innumerable  young  women  of  the  sixth  century,  who  with  her  young  followers  sur- 
rendered her  life  in  defense  of  Christian  principles.  The  Ursulines  who  have  been  re- 
nowned as  educators  of  youth  for  more  than  four  hundred  years,  trace  their  lineage 
back  to  the  Society  of  St.  Angela  in  1535.  In  her  admiration  and  devotion  to  St. 
Ursula,  St.  Angela  chose  St.  Ursula  as  the  patroness  of  her  Order,  thus  calling  her 
band  Ursulines. 

The  history  of  Mount  St.  Joseph  College  and  Academy  goes  back  to  its  lowly 
origin  in  1862,  when  a  school  was  opened  on  the  Feast  of  the  Annunciation,  March  25, 
by  the  Rev.  Ivo  Schacht,  first  resident  pastor  of  St.  Alphonsus  Church.  Father  Schacht 
and  his  parishioners  constructed  a  log  house,  50x20,  to  serve  as  the  school  building. 
Two  lay  teachers  were  employed  for  the  first  year.  The  following  September  four 
Sisters  from  the  Motherhouse  of  Loretto,  Nerincks,  Kentucky,  came  in  response  to 
Father  Schacht's  appeal  for  teachers  who  consecrate  their  lives  to  the  Catholic  training 
of  youth.  They  named  their  home  St.  Joseph  Academy,  and  in  October  began  their 
mission  of  labor  and  love  with  an  encouraging  number  of  pupils.  Records  of  the  year 
1870  show  an  enrollment  of  thirty-seven.  About  three  o'clock  on  a  severe  winter  morn- 
ing of  December,  1870,  the  Academy  burned.  For  four  years  the  mount  on  which  the 
Academy  stood  lay  desolate  in  a  veritable  forest  of  the  Green  River  hills  and  valleys 
in  Western  Kentucky. 

Mount  St.  Joseph  Ursuline  Motherhouse,  College  and  Academy  had  its  beginning 
in  1874  when  the  third  pastor  of  St.  Alphonsus  Church,  the  Rev.  Paul  Joseph  Volk 
laid  the  foundation  of  another  Academy  just  in  front  of  the  ruins  of  "old  St.  Joseph's." 
Unlike  the  log  structure  of  1862,  Father  Volk  and  his  co-workers  erected  a  three-story 
brick  building  at  the  cost  of  charity  and  sacrifice,  in  a  location  destined  to  become  a 
"place  for  prayer,  a  place  for  study,  and  a  place  for  happiness,"  as  described  by  Bishop 
McCloskey.  Father  Volk  applied  to  the  Bishop  of  Louisville  for  Sisters  to  open  the 
school  which  was  also  to  serve  as  a  boarding  school  for  young  women.  The  Right  Rev. 
William  George  McCloskey  proposed  the  Ursulines  of  Louisville. 

On  August  12,  1874,  five  Ursuline  Nuns,  Mother  Pia,  Sister  Johanna,  Sister  Xavier, 
Sister  Margaret  and  Sister  Martina  of  the  Ursuline  Convent,  Chestnut  and  Shelby 
Streets,  Louisville,  responded  to  the  proposal.  After  a  voyage  down  the  Ohio,  they 
landed  in  Owensboro;  the  fifteen  mile  ride  in  a  spring  wagon  which  followed  was  a 
new  experience  for  the  pioneers  who  thought  their  journey  would  never  end  and  prob- 
ably lead  into  an  impenetrable  forest  of  wild  beasts.  The  delayed  announcement  of 
their  coming  made  their  unexpected  arrival  on  the  evening  of  August  14th  a  surprise 
and  a  pleasure  for  Father  Volk.  They  had  expected  the  building  to  be  completed, 
but  not  one  habitable  room  was  to  be  found  in  the  house;  only  the  bare  walls  with 
roof  and  a  floor  stood  before  them.  Thus  began  the  career  of  the  Ursulines  of  Mount 
St.  Joseph.  Though  they  were  without  an  article  of  furniture,  without  provisions  and 
without  pecuniary  means,  they  had  a  rich  fund  of  determination  and  unwavering  trust 
in  God  to  promote  the  Christian  education  of  youth.  In  September,  the  new  Academy 
was  ready  for  the   formal  opening  of  the  scholastic  year.     Five  girls,  constituting  the 

712  A     S  E  S  Q   U  I-C  ENTENNIAL 

first   boarders   of   the   Academy,   matriculated   to    learn    the   truths    of   religion,    music, 
art,  and  the  secular  subjects,  not  excluding  the  domestic  arts. 

In  the  summer  of  1875,  Father  Voile  planted  the  maple  grove  which  became  re- 
nowned for  its  beauty  and  gave  Mount  St.  Joseph  its  popular  title,  "Maple  Mount." 

The  second  and  third  years  were  for  the  Nuns  a  repetition  of  the  first  in  hardships, 
suffering,  and  a  real  struggle  for  existence.  In  the  fall  of  1877,  an  increase  of  stu- 
dents gave  new  courage  and  vigor  to  their  efforts. 

The  summer  of  1878  marks  the  beginning  of  a  new  epoch  for  Mount  St.  Joseph, 
financially  and  educationally,  when  Sister  Augustine  Bloemer  was  appointed  by  her 
Superior  of  the  Ursuline  Convent,  Louisville,  to  labor  at  Mount  St.  Joseph.  In  the 
glow  of  health  and  zeal  Sister  Augustine  was  a  person  capable  in  every  way  of  build- 
ing up  the  new  Academy.  Mother  Augustine  succeeded  Mother  Leandera  as  the  third 
Superior  of  Mount  St.  Joseph,  and  during  her  tenure  of  eight  years  1882-1890, 
Mother  Augustine's  name  became  synonymous  with  the  growth  of  the  institution. 
However,  the  phenomenal  success  of  Mother  Augustine's  arduous  zeal  and  labor  could 
never  have  been  accomplished  without  the  financial  aid  of  her  father,  Henry  Bernard 
Bloemer  of  Louisville,  and  the  educational  ability  of  her  pupil,  Leona  Willett  who 
received  the  name  Sister  Aloysius  when  becoming  a  Nun  in  the  Ursuline  Convent, 
Louisville.  In  the  fall  of  1882,  Sister  Aloysius  Willett  was  appointed  by  her  Mother 
General  of  the  Ursuline  Motherhouse,  Louisville,  to  take  charge  of  the  senior  depart- 
ment of  Mount  St.  Joseph  Academy.  In  cooperation  with  Father  Volk,  Mother  Augus- 
tine made  plans  for  another  building.  During  the  year  of  1882,  Mother  Augustine's 
father  was  architect,  artisan,  and  financial  security  in  the  erection  of  the  three-story 
brick  building  adjoining  the  first  structure,  and  later  in  1883,  he  purchased  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Institution,  the  adjoining  farm  of  two  hundred  and  fifty-seven  acres 
which  supplied  the  fruit,  vegetables  and  meat  for  the  Academy.  In  1884  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Henry  B.  Bloemer  moved  from  their  Louisville  home  to  a  residence  on  Mount 
St.  Joseph  farm  where  they  remained  until  1890  when  Mother  Augustine  was  transferred 
back  to  Louisville.  At  Mount  St.  Joseph,  Mr.  Bloemer  was  a  constant  benefactor,  a 
generous  kind  father  who  not  only  kept  the  buildings  but  also  the  farm  in  splendid 
condition.  A  short  time  after  returning  to  his  Louisville  home,  Mr.  Bloemer  died. 
When  Mother  Augustine  was  appointed  Superior  at  Mount  St.  Joseph  for  a  second 
term,  1897,  Mrs.  Bloemer,  through  devotion  to  her  only  child,  returned  to  Mount  St. 
Joseph.  Like  her  husband,  Mrs.  Bloemer's  zeal  for  souls  and  the  Catholic  training  of 
youth  continued.  Before  her  death,  December  14,  1898,  Mrs.  Bloemer  deeded  the  farm 
of  two  hundred  and  fifty-seven  acres  to  the  Institution  and  erected  another  three-story 
brick  building  now  known  as  the  Chaplain's  residence. 

Lives  of  hundreds  of  Christian  mothers  in  happy  family  homes  and  Sisters  in  various 
religious  orders  serving  in  the  capacity  of  teacher,  nurse,  and  care  for  the  poor,  etc., 
bear  testimony  to  the  fruit  of  the  instructions  given  by  Mother  Augustine  and  her  co- 
workers at  Mount  St.  Joseph.  At  the  time  of  Mother  Augustine's  death  in  1906,  the 
records  show  there  was  an  average  enrollment  of  more  than  one  hundred  students  in 
the  Academy.  Under  the  wise  leadership  and  tutelage  of  Mother  Augustine  the  aca- 
demic course  was  organized  in  three  divisions,  primary,  junior  and  senior.  Annie  John 
son,  daughter  of  Ben  Johnson,  Calhoun,  Kentucky,  was  the  first  to  complete  the  aca- 
demic course,  receiving  graduation  honors  in  1880.  During  this  year  Mount  St.  Joseph 
was  incorporated  by  the  State  Legislature  of  Kentucky,  and  under  the  charter  granted 
was  empowered  "to  confer  academic  diplomas  and  degrees  as  are  conferred  by  the 
Colleges  of  the  United  States."  Though  modest  in  its  claims  as  an  Academy  which 
today  is  classified  as  a  four-year  high  school,  the  senior  division  of  the  Academy  was, 


in  reality  offering  the  lower  division  of  a  college  curriculum  because  its  courses  em- 
braced branches  in  science,  philosophy  and  literature  which  today  are  considered  be- 
longing only  to  a  college  curricula.  The  senior  division  also  provided  the  teacher  train- 
ing curriculum  which  prepared  the  students  to  secure  first  class  certificates  to  teach  in 
the  public  schools.  Among  those  students  was  Leona  Willett,  one  of  the  first  pupils 
from  Union  County,  Kentucky  to  be  enrolled  in  the  Academy.  After  her  graduation 
in  1881,  Miss  Willett  secured  a  first  class  State  teacher's  certificate  to  teach  in  her 
home  county.  But  the  position  of  a  public  school  teacher  was  not  her  ideal.  On  the 
feast  of  Our  Lady  of  Mount  Carmel,  1882,  in  the  Ursuline  Novitiate,  Louisville,  Leona 
Willett  invested  in  the  holy  habit  of  religion  and  receiving  the  name  Sister  Aloysius, 
consecrated  her  life  and  extraordinary  talents  to  the  service  of  religion  and  the  instruc- 
tion of  youth.  The  following  November,  Sister  Aloysius  Willett,  pupil  of  Mother 
Augustine,  was  appointed  to  teach  and  serve  as  Directress  of  education  at  her  Alma 
Mater  with  Mother  Augustine  Bloemer,  Superior.  Thus  began  the  life  of  Sister  Aloy- 
sius Willett  at  Mount  St.  Joseph  in  the  cause  of  Christian  education  for  which  she 
labored  approximately  forty  years.  Of  the  pioneer  Ursulines,  Sister  Aloysius  receives 
special  mention  because  she  was  destined  by  Divine  Providence  to  become  the  foundress 
of  Mount  St.  Joseph  Ursuline  Motherhouse. 

From  its  very  foundation  in  1874  to  the  year  1895,  under  the  leadership  of  such 
superiors  as  Mother  Pia  Schonhofer,  Mother  Leandera  Schweri,  Mother  Augustine 
Bloemer  and  Mother  Aloysius  Willett,  Mount  St.  Joseph  Academy  gradually  prepared 
essentials  which  made  possible  the  establishment  of  an  Ursuline  Novitiate  at  Maple 
Mount.  At  the  time  few  besides  Bishop  McCloskey  and  Father  Volk  realized  that  in 
the  workings  of  Divine  Providence  Mount  St.  Joseph  was  educating  her  future  Ursu- 
line autonomous  Community.  In  July,  1895,  Rt.  Rev.  William  G.  McCloskey,  D.D., 
as  Bishop  of  Louisville  Diocese,  convinced  of  the  necessity  of  a  Novitiate  to  perpetuate 
and  vitalize  the  work  of  religion  and  religious  education  in  southwestern  Kentucky, 
opened  the  Novitiate.  The  first  five  young  women  to  become  Novices  in  Mount  St. 
Joseph  Ursuline  Novitiate  were:  Mary  Agnes  O'Flynn  of  Owensboro,  Sister  Mary 
Agnes;  Teresa  Jenkins  of  Union  County,  Sister  Mary  Ursula;  Lelia  Kohl  of  Sebree, 
Kentucky,  Sister  Mary  Angela;  Mary  Winters,  Sister  Mary  Joseph;  and  Elizabeth 
Harvey  of  Maryland,  Sister  Mary  Clodilde.  The  first  three  mentioned  received  not 
only  their  Catholic  education  at  Mount  St.  Joseph,  but  also  their  novitiate  training 
under  Mother  Aloysius  Willett,  the  first  Mistress  of  Novices.  Until  her  death  in 
1920,  Mother  Aloysius  continued  without  intermission  in  the  various  offices  of  Direc- 
tress of  the  Academy,  Mistress  of  Novices  and  first  Mother  General  of  Mount  St. 
Joseph  Ursuline  Community. 

The  present  prosperity  and  far  reaching  influence  of  Mount  St.  Joseph  is  to  a  great 
extent  due  to  the  zeal  and  wisdom  of  Father  Volk  and  Mother  Aloysius  who  built 
firmly  the  foundation  of  Mount  St.  Joseph  Ursuline  Community  as  well  as  that  of 
the  College  and  the  Academy.  With  Mother  Aloysius,  Mother  Agnes  O'Flynn  served 
as  first  Mother-Assistant,  and  Mother  Angela  Kohl,  second  Mother-Assistant. 

Mother  Agnes  succeeded  Mother  Aloysius  as  Mother  General  of  the  Ursuline 
Community  in  1920.  Under  the  leadership  of  Mother  Agnes  and  her  successors, 
Mother  Teresita  Thompson,  Mother  Gonzaga  Cotter,  and  Mother  Teresita  Thompson, 
the  present  Mother  General,  Mount  St.  Joseph  continued  to  grow  and  expand.  With 
Mother  Teresita  Thompson  who  is  completing  her  fourth  term  of  office — twelve  years 
as  Mother  General,  the  membership  of  the  Community  numbers  approximately  four 
hundred  Nuns  caring  for  more  than  seven  thousand  youth  in  Mount  St.  Joseph  Junior 
College   and   Academy,   and   in   fifty-two   parochial   schools,   elementary   and   secondary. 

11— Vol.    II 


Forty- two  of  these  schools  are  conducted  in  Kentucky;  the  others  in  Missouri,  Nebraska 
and  New  Mexico.  Sacred  Heart  Academy,  Waterflow,  New  Mexico,  and  St.  Bernard 
Academy,  Nebraska  City,  Nebraska,  are  boarding  schools  for  young  women.  This 
does  not  include  the  Summer  schools  of  catechetical  instruction,  began  in  1923  and 
continued  annually  after  the  regular  school  year,  for  children  in  the  rural  districts 
of  Kentucky  and  the  other  states. 

For  nearly  seventy  years,  Mount  St.  Joseph  has  served  as  an  educational  institution. 
Each  year  as  accrediting  agencies  developed,  the  Academy  was  duly  accredited  as 
Class  A  by  the  State  Board  of  Education,  the  University  of  Kentucky,  and  by  the 
Southern  Association  of  Colleges  and  Secondary  Schools,  as  well  as  being  affiliated 
with  the  Catholic  University  of  America.  The  Academy  continues  to  enroll  annuallv 
more  than  one  hundred  students,  offering  the  college  preparatory  or  four-year  high 
school  curriculum  including  music,  art,  and  the  commercial  subjects. 

To  meet  the  modern  demands  of  a  Catholic  college  education  for  women,  the  Junior 
College  curricula  was  added  September,  1925,  with  an  enrollment  of  sixty-two  students. 
During  this  scholastic  year,  the  State  Department  of  Education  and  the  Committee  on 
Accredited  Relations  of  the  University  of  Kentucky  fully  accredited  and  admitted  Mount 
St.  Joseph  College  with  highest  classification  to  the  Class  A  Accredited  Private  Junior 
College  Institutions.  In  1926  the  College  was  admitted  as  member  of  the  American 
Association  of  Junior  Colleges,  and  in  1932  as  a  member  of  the  Southern  Association 
of  Colleges  for  Women;  and  in  the  same  year  when  the  Kentucky  Association  of  Col- 
leges and  Universities  provided  for  junior  college  admission,  Mount  St.  Joseph  College 
was  admitted  to  membership  in  the  association.  Adjoining  the  campus  is  St.  Alphonsus 
School  which  serves  as  an  elementary  laboratory  school  in  which  the  college  students 
pursuing  the  teacher  training  curriculum  do  their  laboratory  work  in  the  various  sub- 
jects of  the  grades  from  the  first  to  the  eighth  inclusive,  under  experienced  Ursuline 
Teachers  with  broad  training  and  legally  certified  by  the  State  Board  of  Education. 
The  official  approval  of  the  College  by  the  accrediting  agencies  is  a  guaranteed  recog- 
nition of  the  high  scholastic  standards  of  the  Institution  enabling  students  to  transfer 
their  sequence  with  advanced  standing  to  the  junior  class  in  a  leading  senior  college  or 
university,  or  technical  school.  Through  reciprocal  recognition  accorded  accredited  in- 
stitutions the  teacher  training  curricular  also  meets  the  requirements  of  the  Department 
of  Education  of  the  various  States.  Teachers'  Certificates  are  issued  by  the  Department 
of  Education  of  the  various  States  on  a  basis  of  transcripts  from  Mount  St.  Joseph 
Junior  College  showing  the  completion  of  a  two-year  curriculum  including  courses  speci- 
fied by  the  regulations  of  the  respective  States. 

Since  1928  the  annual  enrollment  in  the  college  including  the  six  to  twelve  weeks 
summer  sessions  averages  from  one  hundred  fifty  to  two  hundred  students  from  various 
parts  of  the  United  States  and  Puerto  Rico.  The  great  majority  of  students  completing 
the  required  curriculum  are  now  successfully  laboring  as  homemakers,  teachers,  nurses, 
social  service  workers,  librarians,  laboratory  technicians,  secretaries  and  accountants, 
public  health  workers  in  various  parts  of  the  world. 

Mount  St.  Joseph,  no  longer  isolated  as  in  its  lowly  beginning,  is  situated  on  paved 
highways  54  and  56,  only  a  twenty  minute  drive  from  Owensboro,  and  one  hour  from 
Evansville,  Indiana.  The  Owensboro-Princeton  Bus  Line  passes  Mount  St.  Joseph 
daily  in  its  two  round  trips  between  Owensboro  and  Princeton;  to  this  bus  line  con- 
nections may  be  made  with  the  Louisville-Nashville  and  the  Illinois  Central  Railroads 
enroute  to  distant  places.  Mail  facilities  were  through  the  first  U.  S.  Post  Office,  St. 
Joseph,  established  in  1886,  adjoining  the  campus,  until  mail  circulation  was  sufficient 
to  secure  the  establishment  of  a  U.  S.  Post  Office  on  the  campus  in  1934,  bearing  the 


title  "Maple  Mount."  In  a  delightful  room  centrally  located  on  the  campus,  Maple 
Mount  U.  S.  Post  Office  now  serves  two  daily  mails  coming  through  Owensboro  from 
all  parts  of  the  world. 

Through  the  facilities  of  modern  communication  material  growth  rapidly  developed. 
The  three-story  structure  of  1874,  the  nucleus  from  which  the  surrounding  buildings 
grew,  and  fronted  by  the  historic  grove  of  1875,  is  now  the  Main  Building.  This  brick 
edifice  contains  reception  rooms,  the  music  and  art  studios.  In  the  music  studio  is 
the  Gallery  of  Living  Catholic  Musicians  began  by  the  Music  Department,  October, 
1938;  the  Gallery  numbers  sixty-five  living  Catholic  musicians  who  have  made  worth- 
while achievements  in  the  field  of  music;  besides  the  gallery  of  portraits,  the  music 
library  contains  manuscripts  of  their  compositions.  From  the  belfry  and  observation 
tower  of  this  building  one  may  view  the  surrounding  country  or  study  the  constella- 
tions. The  Museum,  located  on  the  ground  floor,  contains  valuable  historic  collections 
and  a  variety  of  specimens  for  the  study  of  the  sciences.  Adjoining  the  Main  Build- 
ing to  the  south,  is  another  three-story  brick  structure  erected  in  1882,  which  houses 
the  Mount  St.  Joseph  Library  of  thousands  of  books  in  common  demand,  and  priceless 
historic  volumes,  current  magazines  and  bound  volumes  of  periodicals  to  supplement 
the  book  material  in  the  various  fields  of  instruction.  To  the  north  of  the  Main 
Building  and  facing  the  terraced  campus  in  evergreens,  including  the  majestic  oaks 
which  sheltered  the  arrival  of  the  first  Ursulines  in  1874,  and  the  Norwegian  Spruce 
Avenue  planted  by  the  hands  of  Father  Volk  in  1890,  is  the  present  Academy;  this 
four-story  brick  edifice  of  colonial  architecture,  erected  in  1904,  is  equipped  with  needs 
for  the  Academy  boarders  and  day  students.  The  Mount  St.  Joseph  Auditorium  on 
the  first  floor  is  supplied  with  modern  picture  and  stereopticon  machines  affording 
educational  pictures  and  illustrated  lectures;  the  stage  with  its  lighting  fixtures,  velour 
drapes,  and  scenes  make  fitting  setting  for  recitals,  concerts,  and  plays  produced  by 
the  students'  dramatic  classes,  and  visiting  artists.  East  of  the  Main  Building  and 
facing  the  terraced  campus  is  the  Students'  Infirmary,  a  two-story  brick  structure 
erected  in  1882.  Facing  the  east  balconies  of  the  Main  Building  is  the  two-story 
brick  structure  known  as  the  Bloemer  Building  erected  in  1886,  equipped  for  the  com- 
mercial department.  St.  Angela  Hall,  a  four-story  brick  edifice  erected  in  1913,  is 
the  college  residence  for  lay  students,  and  contains  the  administration  offices  of  the 
Dean  and  Registrar,  lecture  and  social  rooms.  Directly  west  of  St.  Angela  Hall,  St, 
Michael  Hall  was  erected  in  1922  and  equipped  with  laboratories,  lecture  rooms,  etc., 
for  the  natural  sciences.  The  Chapel  which  was  originally  in  the  building  of  1874, 
became  more  centrally  located  when  the  new  Chapel  of  brick  and  stone  construction, 
Tudor-Gothic  design,  was  dedicated  in  1929;  the  stained  glass  windows  are  the  work 
of  Munich  artists,  the  choir  is  equipped  with  a  splendid  pipe  organ.  East  and  west 
wings  of  the  Chapel  are  the  Ursuline  Halls  of  1929,  containing  reception  rooms,  lec- 
ture and  assembly  rooms,  and  residence  for  the  Nuns.  The  dining  halls,  culinary  de- 
partment and  the  refrigeration  plant  occupy  the  ground  floor  of  the  Chapel  and  Ursu- 
line Halls. 

The  grounds  which  surround  Mount  St.  Joseph  comprise  five  hundred  acres,  includ- 
ing parks,  campuses,  gardens,  orchards,  fields  and  woodlands.  From  the  dairy  farm 
of  modern  equipment  and  well-selected  livestock  are  derived  milk,  butter,  cheese,  and 
a  large  part  of  the  meat  consumed  at  Mount  St.  Joseph.  The  water  supply  comes 
from  two  wells  of  more  than  two  hundred  and  five  hundred  feet  deep  respectively, 
operated  by  a  Meyers  Self-Oiling  pump  run  with  a  five-horse  power  direct  current 
generated  by  the  Institution's  Power  Plant;  the  steam  laundry  is  also  connected  with 
this  plant  which  supplies  heat  and  electric  light  for  the  campus. 


Thus,  Mount  St.  Joseph  enjoys  the  quiet  seclusion  and  atmosphere  conducive  "to 
prayer,  to  study,  and  to  happiness."  Its  organization  and  enrollment  gives  ample 
opportunities  to  cultivate  that  home-like  spirit  for  which  the  Ursulines  are  noted  pre- 
paring young  girls  for  the  responsibilities  of  Christian  motherhood,  in  accord  with 
the  ideals  of  St.  Angela,  Foundress  of  the  Ursuline  Order.  Designed  not  for  antago- 
nistic competition  but  for  sympathetic  cooperation  to  provide  a  needed  unit  in  the 
educational  work  of  the  diocese  and  the  State.  Mount  St.  Joseph,  as  an  educational 
institution  under  the  inspiration  of  Faith,  stands  for  the  best,  both  in  the  natural  and 
supernatural  order;  it  is  guided  by  the  spirit  and  traditions  of  the  Catholic  Church  in 
education  and  culture,  combined  with  American  principles  and  ideals.  While  it  wel- 
comes non-Catholic  students  and  subjects  them  to  no  undue  influence  in  regard  to 
religious  beliefs,  it  aims  to  train  young  women  in  whose  leadership  others  will  find 
direction  in  the  attainment  of  the  ideals  of  the  Catholic  Church  for  the  service  of  God 
and  society. 


Conducted  by  the  Sisters  of  Loretto.     Founded  in  1812.     Incorporated  in  1829 

The  Sisters  of  Loretto,  a  teaching  body  of  religious  women,  is  an.  American  founda- 
tion, having  been  established  in  Marion  County,  Kentucky,  by  a  zealous  missionary 
priest  from  Flanders.  Rev.  Charles  Nerinckx,  with  the  consent  of  the  first  Bishop  of 
Kentucky,  Right  Rev.  Benedict  Joseph  Flaget,  accepted  the  offer  of  Mary  Rhodes,  who 
had  been  educated  in  a  convent  school  in  Baltimore,  to  teach  the  children  of  the 
neighborhood.  She  succeeded  so  well,  that  she  was  glad  to  accept  the  proffered  help 
of  Christina  Stuart,  Anne  Havern,  Anna  Rhodes,  Sarah  Havern  and  Nellie  Morgan, 
who  were  willing  to  share  the  poor  log-cabin  home,  which  Miss  Rhodes  was  having 
prepared  for  herself  adjoining  the  equally  poor  cabin  wherein  she  conducted  her  classes. 
Before  many  months,  the  young  teachers  found  their  school  work  so  much  to  their  taste, 
they  decided  to  band  themselves  into  a  body  of  religious  instructors,  and  devote  their 
lives  to  the  cause  of  Christian  education.  This  was  in  1812.  The  location  was  near 
Hardin's  Creek,  in  Washington  County,  now  Marion,  St.  Charles's  parish.  Moved  to 
the  present  location  in  1824,  beginning  there  also  with  log  cabins,  though  of  more 
ample  proportions  and  better  quality,  the  Teaching  Order  began  to  grow  apace.  In 
1829,  December  18,  the  House  of  Representatives,  and  December  21  the  Senate,  at 
Frankfort,  Kentucky,  discussed  the  desirability  of  passing  a  bill  to  incorporate  Loretto. 
Mr.  Hardin  of  Nelson,  in  his  eloquent  speech  on  that  occasion,  said: 

"Is  it  generous  to  refuse  Legislative  aid  to  the  efforts  of  these  helpless  females,  who 
have  already  done  a  great  deal  for  virtue,  a  great  deal  for  piety,  a  great  deal  for 
charity,  a  great  deal  for  literature?"  "Dr.  Rudd,"  the  records  continue,  "rose  to  sup- 
port the  motion  of  the  gentleman  from  Nelson  .  .  .  the  bill  carried  by  a  majority  of 
31  to  4,"  and  Loretto  was  incorporated  under  the  title  of  Loretto  Literary  and  Benevo- 
lent Institution. 

Loretto's  first  branch  establishment  was  at  Calvary,  on  the  Rolling  Fork,  Kentucky, 
where  for  eighty-four  years  the  Sisters  conducted  a  prosperous  school,  and  Calvary 
Academy  could  claim  many  a  wise  and  holy  woman  among  the  mothers  of  Christian 
households  of  Kentucky  and  neighboring  States.  Two  other  foundations  that  have 
done  incalculable  good  and  continue  in  unbroken  success  in  the  line  of  education  are 
Bethlehem  Academy,  St.  John,  Kentucky,  founded  in  1830,  and  St.  Benedict's  Academy, 
Louisville,  founded  in  1842.  Of  the  one  hundred  twenty-five  schools  founded  by  the 
Lorettines  since  1812,  five  were  opened  in  their  Centennial  year,  1912,  the  most  promis- 


ing  of  which  is  perhaps  that  in  Rockford,  Illinois.  The  Sisters  of  Loretto  are  now 
presiding  over  schools  in  ten  states — Colorado,  Arizona,  New  Mexico,  Texas,  Alabama, 
Nebraska,  Missouri,  Illinois,  Ohio,  and  Kentucky,  and  conducting  day  schools  in  the 
large  cities.  The  Institution  numbers  at  present  approximately  one  thousand  members. 
Candidates  enter  upon  their  training  as  soon  as  they  join  the  sisterhood  and  pass  later 
to  the  Normal  school  of  the  Society  to  prepare  for  the  career  of  teachers.  The  Aca- 
demic course  is  taught  in  the  larger  boarding  schools,  with  such  accomplishments  as 
young  ladies  desire;  grammar  grades  in  the  parochial  schools  including  kindergarten 
work  in  some  localities. 

Negroes  and  Indians  likewise  claim  the  attention  of  the  Loretto  Sisters,  but  in 
separate  schools. 

The  Sisterhood  is  a  Catholic  organization,  but  non-Catholic  pupils  are  admitted 
without  question  as  to  belief,  outward  respect  only  being  expected  of  them  during 
religious  services. 


Conducted  by  Sisters  of  Loretto,  1842-1925 

In  the  spring  of  1842  Coadjutor  Bishop  Chabrat  purchased  the  property  in  Port- 
land, then  a  suburb  of  Louisville,  better  known  as  Cedar  Grove,  paying  $1,200  of  the 
Sisters'  money  for  the  lot  which  was  deeded  to  them  in  1856  by  the  Right  Reverend 
M.  J.  Spalding  for  a  consideration  of  $4,000  on  which  was  erected  the  Academy 
buildings.    It  was  first  known  as  St.  Michael's. 

The  first  community  consisting  of  four  members  left  Loretto  on  August  sixteenth, 
accompanied  by  Mother  Superior  Generose  Mattingly.  Those  destined  to  commence 
the  establishment  were  Sisters  Thecla  Myres,  Bridget  Spalding,  Angela  Green,  and 
Eulalia  Flaget  (niece  of  Bishop  Flaget) . 

They  reached  their  destination  about  four  o'clock  p.m.  on  the  seventeenth.  On 
the  25th  of  the  same  month,  Sister  Angela  Green  was  appointed  Local  Superior  with 
Sister  Eulalia  Flaget  as  Treasurer.  Sister  Angelica  Hayden  arrived  to  assist  in  the 
school  which  opened  September  third. 

On  August  eighteenth  they  received  the  congratulatory  visit  of  Right  Reverend  Dr. 
Flaget,  Bishop  of  Louisville,  together  with  many  others,  from  the  most  respectable  in- 
habitants of  Louisville.  The  Bishop  blessed  the  house  and  offered  up  the  Holy  Sacri- 
fice in  a  small  room  fitted  up  as  a  temporary  chapel. 

By  December  first  the  Sisters  were  able  to  give  hospitality  to  five  Sisters  of  Good 
Shepherd  who  had  come  from  France  to  open  a  house  of  their  Order  in  Louisville,  their 
first  in  the  United  States.  While  here,  the  Good  Shepherd  Sisters  applied  themselves 
to  the  study  of  English.  Their  own  convent  was  ready  for  their  occupancy  the  following 
September.    (See  Below) . 

On  July  2,  1844,  the  scholastic  year  terminated  with  25  boarders.  The  examinations 
were  conducted  by  the  Reverend  Father  Larkin,  S.J.,  and  the  Reverend  J.  McGill,  later 
Bishop  of  Richmond.  Two  pupils  Misses  Anna  Carrell  and  Terese  Langhorne  finished 
their  course  of  studies,  and  were  crowned.  To  Misses  Louisa  Barbaroux  and  Mary 
Elizabeth  Wathen  were  awarded  the  gold  medal  of  superior  merit. 

On  July   2,    1846,   at   the   annual   examination,   Miss   Isabel   Churchill   was   crowned. 

In  August  of  1866,  Bishop  Lavialle  changed  the  name  of  the  Academy  to  Benedict's 
in  honor  of  Bishop  Benedict  Joseph  Flaget,  but  it  continued  to  be  more  generally  known 
as  Cedar  Grove.  This  name  we  believe  was  derived  from  the  fact  of  the  number  of 
cedar  trees  there. 


NOTE:  From  the  Annals  of  the  Good  Shepherd  Order  in  Louisville,  1853-93,  "The 
Sisters  of  Good  Shepherd  arriving  in  Louisville  on  December   1,   1842." 


St.  Camillus  Academy,  erected  in  1915  under  the  direction  of  the  Sisters  of  Divine 
Providence  of  Kentucky,  is  situated  in  Corbin,  Kentucky,  one  of  the  most  pleasant  and 
picturesque  localities  of  the  cliff  regions  of  southeastern  Kentucky.  The  site  of  the 
institution  is  ideal,  combining  the  climatic  advantages  of  a  height  of  some  hundred  feet 
with  beautiful,  healthful  environment.     Excellent  train  service  renders  it  easy  of  access. 

The  architecture  of  St.  Camillus  Academy,  modeled  after  the  old  French  Chateua 
style  is  most  pleasing;  the  grounds  are  spacious,  offering  ample  opportunities  for  recre- 

The  purpose  of  its  foundation  is  to  provide  for  girls  and  young  women  a  solid, 
practical,  Christian  education,  and  to  develop  in  them  that  delicacy  of  feeling  charac- 
teristic of  noble  Christian  womanhood. 

The  school  is  approved  by  the  State  Department  of  Education  and  is  affiliated  to 
the  University  of  Kentucky.  The  regular  courses  of  study  of  the  Academy  include 
the  Elementary  and  High  School  grades.  There  are  also  courses  in  Dramatics  and 
Music,  and  a  special  Commercial  Course  for  Post  Graduates. 


Rev.  Martin  Spalding,  Sketches  of  Early  Catholic  Missions  in  Kentucky,  Vol.  V, 
p.  486. 

"Alvin  Fayette  Lewis,  History  of  Higher  Education  in  Kentucky,  (Washington: 
Government  Printing  Office,  1899) ,  p.  12. 

Collins,  History  of  Kentucky,  Vol.  II,  p.  570. 

Lewis,  op.cit.,  32. 

Ibid.,  p.  32.     "Ibid.,  p.  12.     'Ibid.,  p.  30.      "Ibid.,  p.  31.      "Ibid.,  p.  32.     "Ibid.,  p.  13. 

Marshall,  History  of  Kentucky,  Vol  I,  p.  443. 
"Lewis,  op.cit.,  p.  28. 

Lewis,  op.cit.,  p.  22. 
"Ibid.,  p.  23.         "Ibid.,  p.  25.         "Ibid.,  p.  28.         "Ibid.,  p.  33. 

KRev.  W.  J.  Howlett,  Life  of  Rev.  Charles  Nerinckx,  (Techny,  Illinois:  The  Mis- 
sion Press  S.V.D.,  1915),  p.  86. 

"Ibid.,  p.  87.  "Ibid.,  p.  251.  "Ibid.,  pp.  255,  256. 

"Ibid.,  pp.  120-123.        "Ibid.,  p.  254. 

Lewis,  op.cit.,  p.  36. 
Ibid.,  p.  37.         "Ibid.,  p.  40. 


"Ibid.,  p.  43.         "Ibid.,  p.  46.         "Ibid.,  p.  51.         "Ibid.,  p.  60. 
"Ibid.,  p.  45.  Ibid.,  p.  47.         "Ibid.,  p.  58.         "Ibid.,  pp.  58-64. 

'"'Hamlett,  op.cit.,  pp.  292-295. 
"Ibid.,  pp.  5,  6.  "Ibid.,  p.  7.  sIbid.,  p.  8. 

Frankfort  Commonwealth,  November  5,  1850. 
wIbid.,  p.  50. 

Legislative  Documents  of  1850,  pp.  616-619. 

4"The  copy  of  the  Third  Constitution  of  the  State  of  Kentucky,   in  Carroll's  Ken- 
tucky Statutes  (1909),  p.  80. 


See  Appendix — for  debate  upon  public  education  in  constitutional  convention  of 

"Hamlett,  op.cit.,  p.  106. 

"Ibid.,  p.  162.      "Ibid.,  p.  200.       "Ibid.,  p.  205. 

''History  of  Education  in  Kentucky  1915-1940,  compiled  under  direction  of  H.  W. 
Peters,  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction    (Frankfort,   1940) ,  pp.  30-45. 

"Ibid.,  pp.  85-108. 

4'H.  L.  Donovan,  A  State  s  Elementary  Teacher  Training  Problem,  p.  13.  (Disser- 
tation in  partial  fulfillment  of  doctrate  at  Peabody  College,  192) . 

"°  I  bid.,  p.  16.         "Ibid.,  p.  16.         "Ibid.,  p.  17. 

"'Alfred  Leland  Crabb,  "an  Estimate  in  Strong  Colors."  (In  Teachers  College 
Heights,  December,  1937) . 

'Ibid.,  pp.  3,  4.  "Ibid.,  p.  4. 

"J.  T.  Dorris  Three  Decades  of  Progress,  (history  of  Eastern  Kentucky  State  Teach- 
ers College,  Richmond) ,  p.  26. 

"Ibid.,  p.  27. 

"  Hamlett,  op.cit.,  p.  278. 

"Moses  E.  Ligon,  A  History  of  Public  Education  in  Kentucky,  pp.  337-357.  (Bulle- 
tin of  the  Bureau  of  School  Service,  College  of  Education,  University  of  Kentucky, 
June,  1942). 

'Senate  Bill,  No.  14,  as  follows: 

"An  Act  for  the  establishment  of  two  normal  schools  for  the  training  of  white 
elementary  teachers,  and  appropriating  moneys  for  the  maintenance  and  operation 

"Whereas;  the  state  normal  schools  already  established  can  neither  reach  nor  train 
all  elementary  teachers  needed  for  the  common  schools; 

"Therefore,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Commonwealth  of  Kentucky: 

Section  I 

"That  the  State  Board  of  Education  is  hereby  authorized  and  empowered  to  es- 
tablish two  new  normal  schools  for  the  training  of  white  elementary  teachers,  one  to  be 
located  in  the  western  part  of  the  state  and  one  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  state. 

"The  State  Board  of  Education  is  hereby  authorized  to  receive  gifts — of  land, 
buildings,  or  money  for  the  establishment  of  these  two  normal  schools  for  white  ele- 
mentary teachers. 

Section  II 

"The  management  and  control  of  these  two  normal  schools,  when  established,  shall 
be  and  is  hereby  vested  in  the  State  Board  of  Education. 

Section  III 

"There  is  hereby  appropriated  out  of  the  General  funds  of  the  state,  to  each  of 
these  normal  schools,  for  the  maintenance  and  operation,  the  sum  of  thirty  thousand 
dollars  annually.  The  Auditor  of  the  Commonwealth  is  directed  to  draw  his  warrant 
for  said  sums  above  appropriated,  upon  requisition  signed  by  the  chairman  and  secretary 
of  the  State  Board  of  Education.  Provided,  that  the  above  for  the  maintenance  and 
operation  shall  not  become  available  for  said  normal  schools  until  the  State  Board  of 
Education  has  received  for  each  of  the  said  schools  gifts  of  land  suitable  for  the  pur- 
poses of  each  school,  and  also,  gifts  of  buildings  or  money,  or  both  equivalent  in  value 
to  at  least  one  hundred  thousand  dollars.     Provided  further,  that  if  gifts  and  donations 


are  made,  sufficient  to  establish  one  of  said  schools,  then  the  sum  of  thirty  thousand 
dollars  shall  be  available  for  the  operation  of  said  school." 
Paducah  Evening  Sun,  September  2,  1922. 

'"An  Associated  Press  dispatch  from  Mayfield  printed  in  the  Paducah  Evening  Sun, 
September  4,  1922. 

"  Sketch  quoted  from  Louisville  Courier-Journal,  December  28,  1871. 

(,4Hamlett,  op.cit.,  pp.  41,  42. 

"Ibid.,  p.  75. 

"Ibid.,  p.  76. 

"Ibid.,  p.  77. 

GSIbid.,  p.  77. 

mIbid.,  p.  78. 
Quoted  from  Courier-Journal,  July  5,  1911. 

''Hamlett,  op.cit.,  pp.  106-109. 

"Collins,  History  of  Kentucky,  II,  340. 
Hamlett,  History  of  Education  in  Kentucky,  pp.  193,  194. 

''Hamlett,  op.cit.,  p.  198. 

"Ibid.,  p.  198. 

"Ibid.,  p.  202. 

"Ibid.,  p.  205. 
Quoted  from  The  Courier- Journal,  July  23,  1928. 

"Ligon,  History  of  Public  Education  in  Kentucky,  pp.  170,  171. 

Bulletin  of  the  Bureau  of  School  Service,  College  of  Education,  University  of  Ken- 
tucky, Vol.  XVI,  No.  3,  Lexington,  March,  1944  (Kitty  Conroy,  "George  Colvin, 
Kentucky  Statesman  and  Educator") ,  pp.  18,  19. 

"Ibid.,  pp.  20,  21. 

"Ibid.,  p.  22. 




By  Colonel  Lucien  Beckner 

Ihe  closing  years  of  the  century  saw  a  number  of  progressive  political 
steps  taken.  The  recent  invention  of  gasoline-driven  vehicles  and  the  increasing  wealth 
and  culture  of  the  farm  people  brought  on  an  agitation  for  dismantling  the  toll-gates, 
putting  the  upkeep  of  the  roads  on  the  county  governments,  and  freeing  them  to  the 
use  of  all. 

The  most  thickly  settled  parts  of  the  State  had  what  was  then  thought  to  be  an 
excellent  system  of  graded  and  macadamized  roads.  These  had  been  built  by  private 
companies  and  were  maintained  by  tolls  collected  from  all  who  traveled  them.  Many 
of  these  companies  paid  dividends  on  stock  and  all  of  the  roads  gave  their  communities 
invaluable  services.  On  account  of  these  the  managements  and  many  of  the  best  citizens 
were  loath  to  have  changes  made  in  the  system,  fearing  inefficiency  in  county  management. 


Noting  the  reluctance  of  the  managements  and  fearing  the  political  power  of  the 
others  who  were  opposing  change,  certain  other  elements  of  the  population,  particularly 
country  residents,  in  many  places  took  the  law  in  their  own  hands  and  proceeded  to 
pull  down  the  toll-poles  at  night,  threatening  those  who  would  collect  tolls,  and  even 
burnt  the  houses  of  gate-keepers.  So  many  of  these  night  raids  took  place  at  about 
the  same  time  that  it  looked  like  a  wide-spread  organization  was  behind  them;  but  the 
facts  were  that  after  the  first  raid  the  others  were  merely  copying  an  action  that 
appealed  to  them  as  effective. 

The  Legislature  of  1897  placed  severe  penalties  upon  anyone  injuring  property,  real 
and  personal,  particularly  that  of  roads  and  railroads;  and  empowered  any  officer  from 
Circuit  Judge  to  Constable  to  select  a  posse,  arm  it  "with  guns  and  ammunition," 
and  protect  threatened  property  and  apprehend  the  criminals  if  the  property  was  injured. 

While  the  toll-gate  "night  riders"  got  the  largest  headlines  at  the  time,  there  were 
other  important  things  done  by  the  1897  Legislature.  One  of  these  was  a  law  to 
prevent  the  spread  of  glanders;  all  important  in  a  State  so  much  of  whose  wealth  was 
in  live  stock.  Another  was  the  organizing  of  the  State's  cities  into  classes  as  con- 
templated by  the  new  Constitution  of  1899.  Others  were  acts  against  riotous  assem- 
blages; against  sending  or  circulating  threatening  letters;  and  the  appointment  of  a 
committee  to  investigate  conditions  at  the  Eddyville  Penitentiary,  the  management  of 
which  had  received  state-wide  criticism;  and  to  determine  "whether  or  not  it  is  best 
to  place  the  State's  prisons  under  a  commission  of  business  men  with  power  to  remove 
officers  at  its  pleasure." 

Upon  the  report  of  this  committee  the  Legislature  of  1898  enacted  laws  setting  up 
such  a  commission  and  giving  it  complete  powers  to  manage  the  prisons  and  care  for 
the  prisoners.  The  commissioners  were  also  empowered  to  hire  to  the  highest  bidders, 
all  the  able-bodied  convicts;  and  to  permit  parties  so  securing  prison  labor  to  set  up 
maachinery  and  equipment  inside  the  prison.  On  March  1st,  the  Republican  Governor, 
William  O.  Bradley  vetoed  this  bill,  but  five  days  later  the  Legislature  passed  it  over 
his  veto,  thus  continuing  in  Kentucky  the  vicious  crime  of  selling  helpless  human  beings 
to  labor.     The  Legislature  also  appropriated  $30,000.   for  installing  plumbing,  electric 


lighting,   cold-storage  and  better  fire  protection,  and  repairing  and  renovating  the  old 


This  Legislature  also  enacted  what  was  known  as  the  Goebel  Election  Law.  Under  it 
the  Legislature  was  to  elect  three  commissioners,  who  were  to  hold  office  for  four 
years,  a  majority  of  whom  would  constitute  a  quorum.  Vacancies  in  this  commission 
were  to  be  filled  by  the  Legislature,  if  in  session,  and,  if  not,  by  the  remaining 

This  commission  was  given  power  to  appoint  three  commissioners  for  each  county 
annually — possibly  all  of  the  same  party.  A  county  commissioner  could  be  removed  at 
any  time  by  the  State  Commission  which  could  also  fill  the  vacancy  thus  created. 
These  county  election  commissions  appointed  all  local  election  officers  and  could  also 
remove  them  at  pleasure.  The  county  commissioners  were  to  act  as  canvassing  boards 
of  the  election  returns  and  to  award  certificates  of  election.  Any  two  of  the  board 
constituted  the  board. 

In  case  of  a  contest  over  the  offices  of  Governor  or  Lieutenant  Governor  the  General 
Assembly  was  to  elect  by  lot  a  Contest  Board  consisting  of  eight  House  members  and 
three  Senators,  any  seven  of  whom  could  act.  In  other  contests  the  State  Canvassing 
Board,  consisting  of  a  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals,  the  Clerk  of  the  same  court, 
a  Circuit  Judge  and  a  commonwealth  attorney,  was  to  judge  the  returns.  The  county 
boards  were  to  have  like  powers  in  their  jurisdictions. 

The  bill  stated  that  "the  election  frauds  now  perpetrated  in  the  State"  were  the 
reason  for  its  going  into  effect  at  once.  As  the  bill  was  plainly  a  "ripper,"  designed  in 
passing  to  take  from  the  newly  elected  Republican  governor  all  power  to  influence 
election  machinery  and  place  it  in  the  hands  of  assured  Democratic  partisans,  Governor 
Bradley  vetoed  it  on  March  10th,  but  the  Legislature  passed  it  over  his  veto  the  next  day. 

The  same  legislature  prohibited  the  sale  of  liquor  in  any  local  option  district  in 
Kentucky,  an  act  considered  necessary  because  of  the  over-riding  the  expressed  will  of 
the  voters  in  so  many  places  and  ways.  This  was  a  faint  rumble  in  what  was  later  to 
become  a  national  thunder  storm.  Laws  were  also  passed  to  melt  the  casting  upon  the 
County  governments  of  the  public  roads  by  the  turnpike  troubles. 

The  Geological  Survey  which  has  been  such  a  stimulus  in  the  mineral  and  soil 
development  of  the  State,  suffered  one  of  its  periodic  removals  to  the  State  University. 
Non-technical  legislators,  not  realizing  the  wealth  which  accurate  knowledge  and  publi- 
cation of  mineral  resources  produce  think  to  save  expense  by  amalgamating  the  Survey 
in  whole  or  part  with  the  University.  Those  who  engage  in  mineral  development  too 
often  find  that  this  removal  is  but  an  eclipse  of  the  Survey's  largest  usefulness.  This 
removal,  however,  was  of  benefit  in  that  it  assisted  in  creating  a  mining  school  at  the 


The  last  years  of  the  century  were  marked  by  initial  steps  of  one  of  the  most 
profound  political  revolutions  in  Kentucky's  history.  Until  the  election  of  Governor 
Bradley,  Kentucky  had  been  electing  Democratic  governors  ever  since  the  Civil  War. 
During  Bradley's  regime,  Democratic  leaders  began  actions  to  recapture  the  State 
government.  There  was  much  difference  of  opinion  as  to  method,  but  the  most  elaborate, 
determined,  and  to  many  seemingly  the  most  efficient  method  was  expressed  by  the 
Goebel  law  which  would  "rip"  from  the  Republican  governor  and  his  party  the  influence 
his  position  gave  him. 















The  Democratic  convention,  meeting  in  Louisville  in  June,  1899,  became  known  as 
the  "Music  Hall  Convention,"  from  the  place  of  its  meeting.  The  candidates  whom 
the  county  conventions  sent  to  it  were  William  Goebel,  Parker  Watt  Hardin,  and 
William  Johnson  Stone.  Yet  the  anti-Goebel  sentiment,  which  was  very  strong,  centered 
about  Mr.  Hardin,  making  him  very  strong.  Goebel  had  168 j4  votes  out  of  1092 
which  made  Stone  so  confident  of  the  nomination  that  he  gave  Goebel  the  organization 
of  the  Convention.  The  Stone-Goebel  coalition  beat  Hardin.  Then  the  Goebel  man- 
agers managed  to  throw  out  enough  Stone  delegates  to  nominate  Goebel.  Seeing  the 
trend  of  this  agreement  early,  together  with  their  dislike  of  the  actions  of  the  permanent 
chairman,  Judge  D.  B.  Redwine,  of  Jackson,  some  delegates  who  had  not  been  unseated 
left  without  voting,  intending  thereby  to  void  all  obligations  to  support  the  nominee. 
These  balking  delegates  later  had  much  influence  in  the  defeat  of  Senator  Goebel  at  the 
polls.  The  conduct  of  the  Convention  was  one  of  the  points  of  heated  debate  throughout 
the  campaign,  many  voters  holding  that  the  Convention  did  not  have  the  right  to  overturn 
the  actions  of  the  county  conventions  which  had  given  Goebel  only  one  delegate  in  six. 

This  was  the  last  election  in  which  the  Civil  War  was  influential.  The  Confederate 
veterans  were  now  on  the  decline  from  the  apex  of  their  power,  not  having  enough  votes 
to  hold  their  control  of  the  Democratic  party,  but  enough  to  affect  the  final  result. 
William  J.  Stone  had  lost  a  leg  while  captain  in  the  Confederate  Army  and  most  of 
the  prominent  Confederate  veterans  had  loyally  championed  his  candidacy.  Not  only 
were  the  old  veterans  for  Stone,  they  were  determinedly  against  Goebel. 

In  April,  1895,  Senator  Goebel  had  shot  and  killed  Gen.  John  L.  Sandford  in  an 
altercation  that  was  the  culmination  of  many  years  of  political  contention.  Gen. 
Sandford  had  served  throughout  the  Civil  War  in  important  positions  and  particularly 
as  Adjutant  General  under  Gen.  John  H.  Morgan.  At  that  time  in  Kentucky  there 
were  many  members  of  Morgan's  Brigade  still  living  and,  although  Goebel  was  acquitted, 
the  Morgan  veterans  and  many  other  Confederates  were  very  angry  at  the  killing  as  the 
proof  showed  that  Goebel  immediately  before  the  shooting  had  published  in  his  paper 
a  defamatory  article  about  Sandford,  containing  "fighting  words"  in  Kentucky.  As 
a  body  the  Confederate  veterans  threw  their  influence  against  Mr.  Goebel. 

Amongst  other  features  in  this  complicated  political  picture  was  the  fact  that, 
although  Senator  Goebel  had  inclined  towards  the  "Sound  Money,"  or  gold  standard, 
policy  at  first,  he  had  remained  loyal  to  the  regular   ("Free  Silver")    wing  of  his  party. 

Those  who  had  left  the  Music  Hall  Convention  in  disapprobation  and  their  followers 
throughout  the  State,  not  wishing  to  vote  the  Republican  ticket,  met  in  convention  in 
August,  under  the  name  of  "Honest  Election  Democrats"  and  nominated  a  full  State 
ticket  headed  by  Ex-Governor  John  Young  Brown. 

To  all  of  these  troubles  in  the  Democratic  Party  must  be  added  the  opposition  of 
the  Republican  Party  which  had  been  ruling  the  State  for  four  years  under  a  vigorous 
and  astute  politician,  Governor  William  O.  Bradley,  and  had  an  organization  stimulated 
to  its  best  efforts  by  the  opportunity  presented  in  their  opponents'  confusion. 

The  Republican  nomination  had  been  contested  between  Samuel  H.  Stone,  a  leading 
business  man  and  Auditor  in  the  retiring  administration,  and  William  S.  Taylor,  the 
retiring  Attorney-General.  Although  Stone's  social  and  business  connections  were  the 
stronger,  Taylor  proved  the  better  politician.  In  this  contest  feelings  were  not 
inflamed  and  in  the  election  the  Republicans  were  solidly  behind  their  nominee. 

The  regular  Democrats  made  the  campaign  emotionally  bitter  rather  than  sanely 
constructive;  and  by  election  day  overly-ardent  followers  were  ready  to  go  the  limit 
for  their  champions. 


Although  the  Democratic  party  was  the  stronger  normally  and  carried  the  Legislature, 
it  was  not  able  to  control  its  anti-Goebel  members;  and  Taylor  and  the  whole  Re- 
publican ticket  were  declared  elected  by  the  Election  Commission  appointed  under  the 
Goebel  Law,  consisting  of  two  Democrats  and  one  Republican.  This  Commission 
declared  the  result  to  be,  for  Taylor  193,714;  for  Goebel,  191,331;  and  for  Brown 
12,140,  a  plurality  for  Taylor  of  only  2,383  votes  out  of  400,000  votes  cast.  Taylor 
was  sworn  in  December  1,  1899,  and  the  rest  of  the  Republican  ticket  on  January  1, 
as  the  Kentucky  Constitution  directs.  Goebel  at  once  contested  before  the  Legislature 
the  decision  of  the  Election  Commission  and  the  feeling  in  the  State  became  electric. 
His  contest  was  based  on  alleged  frauds  in  the  counties  where  the  Republicans  were  in 
power,  mostly  in  Eastern  Kentucky. 

In  Frankfort  inflamatory  speeches  were  made  containing  expressions  such  as  "Wading 
through  blood  up  to  the  saddle-girths"  and  "Goebel  must  be  stopped  at  whatever  cost." 
Republican  voters  from  the  counties  contested  had  been  pouring  into  Frankfort  allegedly 
to  assert  their  right  of  personal  petition.  They  were  too  many  to  be  accommodated  by 
the  hotels  and  consequently  had  to  camp  in  the  Capitol  grounds,  finding  shelter  in  the 
halls  and  basements  of  the  public  buildings. 

This  mob  of  men  was  not  organized  for  revolution  or  any  extra  legal  action.  Its 
members  were  present  as  individuals  and  their  petition  to  the  Legislature,  while  fervid, 
was  a  well  worded  appeal  for  justice  under  the  law.  But  in  the  back  of  each  individual's 
head  was  the  idea  that  personal  appearance  was  more  terrifying  to  the  Goebelites  than 
a  mere  paper  petition.  These  men  arrived  in  a  highly  emotional  mood  and  the  speeches 
made  to  them  by  Democratic  anti-Goebel  orators  increased  the  high  tension. 

Governor  Taylor  called  out  the  militia  and  had  it  patrol  the  Capitol  and  grounds. 
All  this  was  proclaimed  by  the  Goebel  members  of  the  Legislature  an  effort  to  intimidate 
them.  Objecting  to  pass  through  files  of  soldiers  to  reach  their  seats  in  the  legislative 
halls,  the  Goebel  majority  adjourned  the  meeting  to  the  Frankfort  Opera  House  and 
later  to  Louisville.  Governor  Taylor,  by  proclamation  declared  a  state  of  revolution 
and  adjourned  the  Legislature  to  meet  in  London,  a  Republican  stronghold,  which  only 
the  Republican  members  proceeded  to  do. 

On  January  30,  in  the  midst  of  this  confusion  Goebel  was  shot  as  he  was  proceeding 
through  the  Capitol  grounds  to  the  Capitol;  the  rifle  being  fired  from  the  window 
of  the  office  of  Caleb  Powers,  the  newly  installed  Republican  Secretary  of  State.  He 
was  carried  to  his  room  in  the  Capital  Hotel  where  he  lingered  until  the  Legislature 
declared  him  Governor  and  he  was  sworn  in.  His  opponents  denied  that  he  was  alive 
when  sworn  in;  but  the  horror  of  the  assassination,  and  the  fact  that  it  must  have  been 
the  work  of  one  or  more  of  his  opponents,  quickly  turned  the  State  against  the 
Republicans.  In  the  hunt  for  the  criminal,  emotions  and  political  opportunism  were  too 
fierce  and  eager  to  permit  calm  judicial  procedures.  Arrests  were  numerous,  the  trials 
which  dragged  on  for  months  and  even  years  were  tainted  at  times  with  perjury,  and 
a  number  of  men  were  convicted. 

The  trials  were  held  before  Ex-Lieutenant  Governor  James  Cantrill,  then  the  regular 
judge  of  the  circuit  in  which  lies  the  county  of  Franklin.  Robert  B.  Franklin,  the 
Commonwealth  Attorney,  led  the  prosecutions  but  many  of  the  ablest  lawyers  and 
orators  in  the  state  appeared  on  one  side  or  the  other. 

These  trials  were  confusing  to  the  people  at  large,  little  testimony  being  so  clear  and 
free  from  political  suspicions  as  to  completely  convince.  A  few  objective  facts  were 
established.  Henry  Youtsey  possessed  the  rifle,  purchased  the  shells,  had  been  guilty 
of  wild  talking,   was  in  the  building  from  which  the  shot  was  fired  at  the  time,  and 


borrowed  from  Caleb  Powers,  a  short  time  before,  the  key  to  his  office  from  whence 
the  shot  came.    He  made  several  confessions,  differing  in  details. 

Governor  Taylor  and  several  of  the  Republican  officials  were  indicted  on  the  theory 
that  it  was  a  Republican  plot  to  which  he  was  accessory.  The  proof  about  a  general 
Republican  plot  had  little  more  than  the  march  of  the  petitioners  on  Frankfort  and  the 
fact  that  the  Republicans  only  would  profit.  Governor  Taylor  and  others  finally  fled 
to  Indiana  whose  governor  refused  to  extradite  them  on  the  grounds  that  no  evidence 
of  their  guilt  was  produced.  This  theory  of  a  conspiracy  was  finally  given  up  and 
all  those  indicted,  indicted  and  tried,  or  merely  suspected  were  finally  granted  executive 
pardons.  Youtsey  was  the  last  one  pardoned.  Powers  was  elected  to  Congress  after 
his  pardon. 

The  Goebel  Election  Law  was  revised  and  its  objectionable  features  amended  or 
repealed  in  1900,  at  a  special  session  of  the  Legislature  called  by  Governor  Beckham 
for  that  purpose. 


During  the  height  of  the  excitement  of  the  Goebel  contest  there  occurred  in 
Frankfort  an  event  that  added  much  fuel  to  the  conflagration.  Col.  David  G.  Colson, 
on  January  17,  shot  and  killed  Ethelbert  Scott  in  the  crowded  lobby  of  the  Capital 
Hotel,  as  the  result  of  a  feud  originating  when  they  were  officers  in  a  Kentucky  regiment 
during  the  Spanish  War.  Both  drew  weapons  and  shot  it  out.  Two  bystanders  were 
killed,  one  wounded,  and  another  broke  his  leg  in  jumping  down  a  stairway  to  get  out 
of  range.  Colson  had  been  a  member  of  Congress  and  Scott  was  a  nephew  of  the 
retiring  Republican  Governor,  William  O.  Bradley. 

J.  Cripps  Wickliffe  Beckham,  having  been  elected  lieutenant-governor  on  the  Goebel 
ticket,  succeeded  at  the  latter's  death  on  February  3,  filled  cut  the  unexpired  term 
and  was  then  elected  by  a  plurality  of  4,100,  and  for  the  next  term  reelected  to  succeed 
himself  by  about  27,000.  In  his  first  election  Governor  Beckham  was  opposed  by 
John  W.  Yerkes  of  Danville,  an  accomplished  and  well-known  lawyer. 

The  year  1901  saw  an  unusual  outbreak  of  mob  violence.  On  January  11,  a  negro 
was  hanged  at  Springfield  for  raping  a  white  girl;  on  February  6  another  was  hanged 
at  Nicholasville  for  the  same  cause;  on  July  17  a  white  man  was  hanged  at  Owensboro 
charged  with  murdering  his  wife;  and  in  August  another  white  man  was  lynched  at 
Russellville  for  assault  upon  and  murdering  a  sixteen-year-old  white  girl.  These  lynch- 
ings,  so  deplorable  at  the  time,  probably  had  a  salutary  effect  upon  the  thinking  of 
those  who  had  not  been  accustomed  to  consider  themselves  responsible  for  such  un- 
judicial punishments.  Certainly  lynchings  have  become  fewer  since  the  opening  of  the 
new  century  and  have  practically  died  out  by  its  middle. 

Judge  Clifton  J.  Pratt,  who  was  the  candidate  for  Attorney-General  on  the  Taylor 
ticket,  took  his  appeal  against  the  action  of  the  Legislature  to  the  courts,  who  unseated 
his  opponent,  R.  J.  Breckinridge,  of  Danville,  and  declared  Pratt  legally  elected, 
whereupon  he  took  over  the  office,  Judge  Breckinridge  bowing  gracefully  to  the 
Courts'  decision.  The  Legislature  of  1902,  however,  took  from  General  Pratt  the  right 
to  appoint  the  legal  assistants  in  his  office  and  gave  it  to  the  Auditor,  showing  that 
partisan  resentment  was  still  strong. 

This  Legislature  provided  for  the  present  public  library  system  in  Louisville  by 
enabling  the  city  to  accept  the  Carnegie  offer  of  $200,000.  It  also  provided  for 
libraries  in  cities  of  the  second  class.  It  also  authorized  the  voters  of  a  county  to  vote 
a  tax  for  extension  of  the  common-school  term. 


At  the  congressional  elections  in  1902  the  Democrats  elected  all  their  candidates 
except  in  the  11th  District;  and  two  Republican  members  of  the  Court  of  Appeals, 
Judges  George  DuRelle  and  B.  L.  D.  Guffy,  were  defeated  for  reelection. 

An  interesting  and,  it  might  be  said,  unique  figure  that  appeared  in  the  political 
scene  in  Kentucky  at  the  beginning  of  the  century  was  Percy  Haley  of  Frankfort. 
He  was  of  Irish  extraction  and  not  of  the  social  type  from  which  Kentucky  was 
accustomed  to  draw  her  leaders.  His  education  had  been  restricted  to  the  grade 
schools  but  his  mind  was  excellent,  his  ability  to  educate  himself  far  above  the  ordinary, 
and  he  had  an  Irishman's  love  of  and  genius  for  politics. 

His  entry  into  politics  is  said  to  have  arisen  at  a  session  of  the  Legislature,  when 
he  furnished  the  Democrats  every  morning  with  a  report  of  the  meeting  of  the 
Republican  canons  of  the  evening  before.  The  Republicans  were  appalled  with  the 
accuracy  of  the  Democrats'  knowledge  and  the  consequent  efficiency  of  their  counter 
actions.  The  Republicans'  solons  had  been  meeting  in  the  library  room  at  the  State 
Capitol  which  had  very  deep  shelves  from  the  floor  to  the  high  ceiling.  Hearing  a 
slight  noise  from  one  of  the  upper  shelves  one  evening,  the  Republicans  investigated  and 
found  Haley  hidden  behind  the  row  of  books.  He  had  ensconced  himself  there  each 
evening  before  the  members  arrived  and  was  rescued  by  the  janitor  after  their  departure. 
With  the  fame  this  gave  him  he  continued  to  mount  the  political  ladder  until  in 
the  Beckham  administrations  he  became  a  power.  He  never  ran  for  office  but  Governor 
Beckham  made  him  Adjutant  General  in  charge  of  the  State  Militia.  Practically  the 
whole  of  his  political  life  was  devoted  to  Governor  Beckham;  for,  although  his 
political  acumen  was  always  respected,  he  practically  retired  after  Beckham's  Senatorial 
defeat.  He  was  not  only  a  shrewd  politician  but  ofttimes  showed  statesmanship.  In  the 
rather  shady  political  machines  of  the  early  Twentieth  Century  he  played  a  conventional 
role;  but  in  curing  the  wounds  of  the  Goebel  era,  for  which  Governor  Beckham's 
administrations  will  always  be  thanked,  his  influence  was  always  on  the  side  of  forgetful- 
ness  and  for  the  rebuilding  of  confidence  in  the  government  and  its  leaders.  As  he  was 
Governor  Beckham's  chief  political  advisor  throughout,  he  must  be  given  much  credit 
for  that  happy  advancement  in  the  State's  political  sanity  which  caused  the  emotional 
hurricane  of  the  Goebel  affair  to  leave  few  scars  and  little  rancor. 

As  J.  C.  W.  Beckham,  being  Lieutenant  Governor  on  the  Goebel  ticket,  at  the 
latter's  death  assumed  the  duties  of  governor,  the  Democrats  in  the  Senate  at  once 
elected  Senator  Lillard  Carter  to  preside.  Lieutenant  Governor  John  Marshall,  who 
had  been  elected  on  the  Taylor  ticket  and  had  presided  up  to  the  time  of  Legislative 
decision  in  favor  of  the  Democrats,  in  conformity  with  Governor  Taylor  and  the 
rest  of  the  Republican  officials,  refused  to  step  aside.  This  led  to  a  rather  laughable 
situation  in  the  Senate.  The  Evening  Post  of  Louisville  on  February  19th,  tells  it 
as  follows: 

"Shortly  before  10:30  Carter  stepped  rapidly  into  the  Speaker's  chair.  A  moment 
later  Marshall,  smiling  broadly,  took  the  seat  alongside  of  Carter.  Both  shook  hands 
pleasantly  and  Carter  moved  over  to  make  room,  causing  applause  and  laughter. 
Promptly  at  10:30  Marshall  and  Carter  rapped  for  order,  Carter  with  his  penknife  and 
Marshall  with  the  gavel.  Then,  in  chorus  both  said,  amid  laughter,  'The  Senate  will 
now  come  to  order.'  " 

Before  Carter  could  call  for  petitions,  Marshall  called  in  Rev.  Darsie  to  pray.  He 
made  a  strong  plea  for  peace  and  harmony  during  which  the  Republican  senators  arose, 
as  the  custom  was,  but  the  Democratic  senators  kept  their  seats.     This  double-headed 


"control"  continued  good  naturedly  until  the  courts  of  State  and  Nation  had  declined 
jurisdiction,  after  which  the  Republicans  gave  up. 

Many  other  difficult  situations  arose  during  this  double-headed  government,  one  of 
them  being  the  refusal  of  the  banks  to  honor  the  State's  checks  no  matter  by  whom 
issued;  and  Republican  Auditor  Sweeney,  who  occupied  the  office,  refused  to  issue  any 

Everywhere  wild  rumors  were  flying,  coming  from  no  one  knew  where.  In  every 
county  mass  meetings  were  held,  addresses  made,  resolutions  adopted.  Everyone's 
nerves  were  "as  tense  as  fiddle-strings"  as  one  editor  expressed  it,  expecting  each  hour 
to  hear  that  "all  hell  had  broken  loose  in  Frankfort,"  that  actual  fighting  had  begun. 
The  situation  was  a  near  violent  revolution  as  English-speaking  people  can  come;  it 
was  as  far  from  revolution  as  innate  sanity  and  respect  for  law  could  keep  it. 

Henry  E.  Youtsey  was  stenographic  secretary  to  the  retiring  Auditor,  Samuel  H. 
Stone,  and  had  been  recommended  by  Mr.  Stone  as  a  good  one  to  his  Republican 
successor.  The  attorneys  for  the  prosecution  claimed  to  have  a  statement  from  him 
that  he  offered  the  mulatto  barber,  "Taller  Dick"  Combs,  who  had  been  a  deputy- 
sheriff  in  an  Eastern  Kentucky  county,  and  a  Negro  named  Hockersmith  $1,200  to 
kill  Goebel  but  that  they  held  out  for  $1,500;  and  that  Governor  Taylor  was  behind 
his  effort  to  have  Goebel  killed  but  refused  to  have  anything  to  do  with  the  colored 
men.  But  this  was  doubted  by  many  because  it  fitted  in  too  patly  with  the  intention 
alleged  to  have  been  voiced  by  a  leading  Democratic  atatorney  that  the  assassination 
would  be  used  "to  hang  Taylor  and  damn  the  Republican  Party."  This  political 
ambition  undoubtedly  existed  in  the  minds  of  many  and  clouded  the  waters  of  the 

Another  distracting  influence  was  the  $50,000  reward  voted  by  the  Legislature. 
However,  good  its  purpose,  it  attracted  vultures  and  was  undoubtedly  the  incitement 
to  the  perjured  testimony  that  crept  into  some  of  the  trials. 

While  much  of  strength  of  the  Beckham  administrations  was  due  to  the  sympathy 
of  the  plebiscite  for  the  Democrats  over  the  loss  of  their  leader,  and  to  anger  at  the 
Republicans  who  were  at  first  held  responsible,  and  to  the  desire  of  many  to  get 
on  to  the  "band-wagon"  of  the  Democratic  parade,  much  more  of  it  was  due  to  the 
course  of  Governor  Beckham  in  such  nervous  times.  With  calming  courtesy  towards 
all  and  by  leading  the  public  mind  into  more  fruitful  fields  than  strife,  he  in  time 
brought  the  State  out  of  the  excitement. 


His  administration  was  not  all  easy  going.  Tobacco  was  the  money  crop  throughout 
the  best  farming  lands  in  the  State.  For  sometime  its  falling  price  had  been  producing 
economic  tensions  and  even  destitution.  The  growers  charged  the  buyers  with  the 
troubles  and  organized  into  cooperative  societies  for  selling.  Their  method  was  to 
form  a  "pool"  of  the  crop  by  pledging  its  individual  growers  to  a  corporate  Society. 
When  this  was  done  the  Society,  acting  as  agent,  notified  the  buyers  that  they  could 
buy  only  from  the  "pool,"  and  would  have  to  give  the  "pool"  price.  This  the  buyers 
at  first  refused  which  led  to  some  financial  troubles  as  few  of  the  planters  were 
financially  able  to  hold  their  crops  over. 

By  1904  the  price  was  below  the  cost  of  production,  even  as  estimated  by  the 
grower  who  did  not  always  deem  his  wife's  and  children's  help  as  part  of  his  expense. 
In  Western  Kentucky  where  the  tobacco  had  never  brought  the  prices  paid  in  the  Central 












12— Vol.    II 


counties,  the  distress  grew  so  great  that  the  growers  took  the  law  into  their  own 
hands,  formed  sub-rosa  "night-rider"  societies,  taking  their  popular  name  from  the  toll- 
gate  raiders  of  the  recent  past,  and  threatened  the  non-poolers  and  the  purchasing 
agents  and  even  wrought  violence  upon  them,  whipping  the  first,  scraping  their  plant- 
beds  and  even  burning  their  barns  and  threatening  the  agents  and  even  burning  their 
great  factories  or  collecting  plants  in  the  local  market  towns.     A  few  men  were  killed. 

While  most  of  these  crimes  were  committed  in  Western  Kentucky,  some  of  the 
lighter  methods  were  practiced  in  the  Central  counties  or  Bluegrass,  known  to  the 
tobacco  trade  as  the  "Burley-patch."  The  night-rider  organization  gained  slight  hold 
in  this  "patch."  In  December,  1905,  the  night-riders  burned  the  tobacco  factory  at 
Trenton  in  Todd  County.  In  January,  1906,  they  dynamited  one  in  Elkton  in  the 
same  county.  On  Thanksgiving  night,  the  same  year  they  burned  two  factories  at 
Princeton;  and  the  next  month  tried  to  burn  the  town  of  Hopkinsville.  The  alert 
mayor  of  this  city  prevented  them,  but  a  year  later  they  succeeded. 

This  "war"  carried  on  into  the  regime  of  Beckham's  successor,  Governor  Augustus  E. 
Wilson,  who  used  the  militia  to  patrol  the  tobacco  "patches"  but  with  no  very  marked 
success.  Finally  the  rise  in  the  price  which  the  new  and  efficient  selling  methods  induced, 
and  the  action  of  the  Legislature  which  gave  legal  authorization  to  "pooling"  and  forbade 
selling  of  tobacco  which  had  been  pooled  save  through  the  pool,  put  an  end  to  the 


Governor  Beckham  also  had  to  meet  the  feud  murders  in  Breathitt  County  in 
Eastern  Kentucky.  The  building  of  the  Lexington  and  Eastern  Railway  from  Lexington 
to  Jackson,  the  county  seat  of  Breathitt,  made  the  latter  the  most  important  com- 
mercial center  in  that  part  of  the  State.  Here  the  steam  shipments  were  unloaded  and 
both  large  distributing  stores  arose  and  the  wagon  trade  began  for  supplying  the 
smaller  stores  in  the  country  beyond. 

For  the  profits  of  this  trade  great  rivalries  arose.  Judge  James  Hargis,  who  had 
acquired  a  commanding  position  in  the  Democratic  party,  and  his  brother  Alexander 
("Alec")  owned  the  largest  store  in  Jackson.  To  the  commercial  rivalry  was  added 
a  political  one.  James  Hargis  was  elected  County  Judge,  a  position  which  made  it 
nearly  impossible  to  punish  him  or  his  henchmen.  In  the  trials  which  later  arose  it  was 
proven  that  there  were  associated  with  the  Hargis  brothers,  in  politics  at  least,  Edward 
Callahan,  the  high  sheriff  and  who  owned  a  big  store  south  some  miles  of  Jackson, 
and  B.  Fulton  French,  who  had  been  leader  of  the  French-Eversole  feud  in  Perry 
County  some  years  before. 

A  number  of  people  who  were  against  the  Hargis  regime  was  assassinated;  amongst 
them  being  Dr.  D.  B.  Cox,  the  leading  local  physician,  James  B.  Marcum,  the  leading 
Republican  lawyer  and  James  Cockrell  the  Town  Marshall.  Captain  B.  J.  Ewen,  who 
owned  a  large  hotel,  happened  to  be  the  leading  witness  in  the  killing  of  Marcum, 
and  just  as  the  trial  was  beginning  his  hotel  was  burned,  for  the  purpose,  it  is  said  of 
intimidating  him. 

Conditions  in  this  county  were  so  bad  and  seemingly  so  hopeless  that  the  suggestion 
was  made  to  abolish  the  county;  and  it  gained  many  adherents  throughout  the  State. 
Every  little  while  the  press  would  announce  another  shooting  in  Breathitt.  Some  of  the 
evidence  was  so  repulsive  that  it  was  hard  to  believe.  However,  most  of  it  was  not 
refuted  save  by  denial  of  the  accused  parties. 

Mose  Feltner  was  ostensibly  on  the  Hargis  gang  but  was  placed  there  as  a  spy  by 


Attorney  James  Marcum,  who  was  afterwards  killed.  He  told  that  Judge  Hargis 
placed  several  others  in  ambush  to  shoot  Marcum  as  he  came  to  his  office  from  his 
home.  Marcum  himself  a  Mountain  man,  and  knowing  that  even  Mountain  thugs 
would  hesitate  to  injure  a  child,  would  carry  his  baby  in  his  arms  with  him  to  work. 
When  they  failed  to  carry  out  their  orders  to  kill,  Hargis  demanded  their  reason.  They 
answered  that  they  could  not  shoot  because  of  the  baby.  He  ordered  them  to  "kill 
the  baby  and  wrap  its  guts  around  its  father's  neck." 

The  proof  and  disproof  of  such  statements  may  be  hard  to  get,  but  it  is  a  fact 
that  Marcum  was  shot  by  Curtis  Jett,  one  of  the  Hargis  henchmen,  that  Hargis  went 
on  his  bond  and  fought  for  him  through  the  courts,  that  the  hotel  of  the  chief 
witness  against  Jett  was  burned  just  as  the  trial  was  to  begin,  that  Mose  Feltner  was 
offered  $1,500  by  Hargis  to  leave  the  State  and  not  appear  as  a  witness,  and  too 
many  other  things  in  all  of  the  trials  to  permit  of  doubt  as  to  Hargis's  hatreds  and 
guilt.  The  note  for  the  money  to  pay  Mose  was  signed  by  Alec  Hargis,  Ed  Callahan, 
and  B.  Fult  French,  and  endorsed  on  the  back  by  James  Hargis.  Judge  Hargis  later 
deposited  another  thousand  to  induce  Mose  to  leave. 

Jim  Cockrell  was  shot  from  the  second  story  windows  of  the  Courthouse.  Dr.  Cox 
was  shot  from  Judge  Hargis'  barn  as  he  was  passing  along  the  sidewalk  across  the 
street.  Cox  was  Cockrell's  uncle.  One  of  the  assassins  testified  that  Judge  Hargis 
boasted  to  him  that  he  could  get  a  pardon  in  advance,  even  for  any  one,  for  any  crime. 
This  was  doubtless  untrue,  but  its  publication  had  a  bad  effect  on  the  State  administra- 
tion, and  the  following  elections. 

The  Democratic  Commonwealth's  Attorney  A.  Floyd  Byrd,  despite  the  threats  and 
examples  of  what  happened  to  those  who  opposed  the  Hargises,  prosecuted  vigorously 
and  was  the  largest  factor  in  breaking  up  the  horrible  conditions.  Most  of  the  trials 
were  changed  to  other  counties  where  juries  could  be  found  who  were  not  intimidated 
by  threats  against  their  properties  and  families.  No  executions  resulted  but  a  number 
of  sentences  to  prison,  and  the  widow  Marcum  got  damages  in  a  civil  suit  against  the 
four  leaders  above  mentioned.  Judge  Hargis  was  shot  and  killed  by  his  own  son;  Ed 
Callahan  was  assassinated  in  his  own  store;  Alec  Hargis  lost  everything  he  had;  and 
B.  F.  French,  who  had  moved  to  Winchester,  died  in  his  bed.  Judge  Hargis,  who  was 
Democratic  State  Chairman,  by  his  proven  misbehavior,  did  much  to  help  elect  the 
Republican  successor  to  Governor  Beckham. 

In  March,  1902,  the  Legislature  made  provision  for  a  home  for  infirm  and  dependent 
Confederate  Soldiers.  Kentucky  had  refused  to  join  the  Confederacy  but  did  send  her 
quota  of  soldiers  to  both  sides  in  the  great  Civil  conflict,  but  it  did  not  hesitate  to  care 
for  the  old  soldiers  of  the  Lost  Cause.  For  this  purpose  land  was  bought  and  buildings 
were  erected  near  Louisville.  The  same  Legislature  arranged  to  take  care  of  the  graves 
of  the  Confederate  dead  at  the  State's  greatest  battlefield,  Perryville,  in  Boyle  County. 
It  also  established  the  State  Fair. 


In  the  gubernatorial  election  of  1903  the  Republicans  opposed  Governor  Beckham 
with  one  of  the  State's  best  business  men,  Col.  Morris  K.  Belknap.  Col.  Belknap,  as 
an  officer  in  the  crack  Louisville  Legion,  the  First  Kentucky  Infantry,  had  served  in 
Porto  Rico  in  the  Spanish  War,  and  had  been  a  public-spirited  citizen,  with  a  knowledge 
or  the  State's  affairs.  Those  Democrats  who  had  opposed  Goebel  were  by  now  coming 
back  to  their  normal  allegiance,  led  by  such  men  as  Judge  Alex  P.  Humphrey  and 
Col.  W.  C.  P.  Breckinridge  and  others  in  every  county;  Beckham  proudly  boasted  of 


the  accomplishments  of  his  regime,  amongst  which  was  the  repeal  of  the  obnoxious 
election  law,  and  although  Belknap  had  a  strong  ticket  behind  him  and  made  a  vigorous 
personal  campaign,  he  was  defeated. 

There  occured  in  this  campaign  for  the  first  time  the  modern  phase  of  the  Negro 
question.  Negroes  had  been  taking  advantage  of  the  public  schools,  and  many  men  and 
even  families  were  appearing  who  could  not  be  ranked  with  those  who  had  made  little 
social  advancement  from  their  slave  time  culture.  Many  of  these  were  teaching  in 
the  schools,  some  were  practicing  the  professions,  and  a  few  were  flaunting  signs  of 
wealth.  As  most  of  the  Negroes  were  Republicans,  the  Democratic  orators  argued  that, 
if  the  former  were  elected,  they  would  at  once  place  Negroes  in  positions  of  public 
trust,  where  they  could  claim  and  impose  social  equality.  However,  the  educated 
Negroes  were  not  all  voting  for  "Marse  Abe"  Lincoln;  many  were  considering  public 
questions  and  voting  as  they  thought  best.  How  many,  it  is  impossible  to  say,  because 
of  the  secret  ballot;  but  it  is  true  that  education  of  the  black  man  was  beginning  to 
help  the  Democratic  party.  Besides  the  educated  Negro  vote,  there  were  numbers  of 
Negro  young  men  coming  on  to  vote  who  knew  next  to  nothing  of  slavery  and  not  feeling 
the  ex-slave's  gratitude,  were  selling  their  votes  to  whomsoever  offered  the  most.  The 
party  in  power  perhaps  had  the  best  of  this. 

While  the  intimidations  of  the  open  ballot  had  long  since  passed  away  and  election 
frauds  were  the  stock  in  trade  of  local  and  even  state  leaders,  violence  at  elections  was 
waning.  In  many  parts  of  the  state  election  day  was  exciting,  but  peaceful  and  opposing 
leaders  were  not  often  armed. 

In  the  cities  police  and  thugs  still  intimidated  the  peaceful,  and  purging  the  lists  of 
"repeaters"  and  nonexistent  registrants  was  an  onerous  duty  imposed  on  the  party's 
lawyers.  The  Evening  Post  of  Louisville  said  editorially  that  "The  election  was  a  farce. 
Police,  thugs  and  repeaters  ran  roughshod  over  voters  and  returned  the  required  ma- 
jority." While  conditions  were  improving  constantly  they  did  not  disappear  in  general 
until  women  voters  came  to  the  polls.  By  more  refined  methods  elections  are  still 
swayed  by  other  means  than  voting. 

In  May,  1907,  the  Court  of  Appeals,  which  was  overwhelmingly  Democratic,  ousted 
the  recently  elected  Democratic  officials  in  Louisville,  and  all  the  Jefferson  County  officers 
save  judges  and  magistrates.  Its  opinion  was  a  scathing  denunciation  of  the  Democratic 
committee,  likening  its  actions  to  the  conspiracy  of  King  George  III  and  his  council 
against  the  liberties  of  the  Colonies. 

The  Republicans  struggled  to  overcome  the  bad  impressions  of  the  Goebel  troubles 
as  can  be  garnered  from  Ex-Governor  Bradley's  speech  in  this  campaign  in  which  he 
said:   "The  scaffold  is  indeed  a  narrow  platform  on  which  a  great  party  should  stand." 

The  struggle  away  from  Civil  War  conditions  can  be  in  some  measure  glimpsed  from 
an  editorial  from  the  pen  of  Henry  Watterson  appearing  in  the  Courier- Journal  which 
said,  "Republicanism  is  not  indigenous  to  our  soil.  It  is  a  noxious  weed."  This 
statement  ignored  all  claims  the  Nation  might  have  on  a  voter's  consideration  and 
assumed  that  voting  was  a  purely  state  affair.  Needless  to  say,  Kentuckians  vote  as 
their  intelligence  dictates  (save  the  venal  few) ,  and  its  allegiance  swings  from  one 
party  to  the  other  as  do  its  sister  states.  Again  we  see  that  this  era  is  the  one  in  which 
the  old  political  concepts  of  the  Civil  War  were  passing  away  forever. 

In  his  inaugural  Governor  Beckham  promised  not  to  have  a  partisan  administration,  to 
improve  the  common  school  system,  to  make  text-books  as  cheap  as  in  any  other  state; 
to  encourage  outside  capital  to  develop  the  state's  resources. 

Caufield   and  Shook. 




The  Republican  Convention  for  State  officers  met  in  Louisville  on  June  17,  1907. 
The  feeling  of  the  leaders  was  against  Roosevelt  but  not  for  Taft.  They  preferred 
Charles  Fairbanks.  Few  Negroes  were  present.  Ex-Governor  W.  O.  Bradley  was 
permanent  chairman  and  fired  the  delegates  with  his  eloquence  and  zeal.  Augustus  E. 
Willson,  a  leading  attorney  of  Louisville,  was  nominated  for  governor  with  a  strong 
ticket  and  a  platform  which  called  for  the  enforcement  of  the  law,  and  the  abolition 
of  the  Kentucky  Racing  Commission.  There  were  few  contested  delegations  and  no 
squabbles  serious  enough  to  make  bad  feelings.  Marshall  Bullitt,  a  young  attorney 
of  Louisville,  made  a  speech  declaring  that  the  assassin  of  Goebel  ought  to  be  hanged. 

The  Democrats  nominated  W.  S.  Hager  and  made  the  best  fight  possible  under  the 
circumstances,  but  their  whole  ticket  was  defeated.  The  Democratic  candidates  were 
carrying  too  great  a  load.  Both  candidates  for  Governor  were  of  high  standing  as 
lawyers  and  citizens,  but  the  people  were  tired  of  the  Beckham-Haley  machine,  confused 
about  the  tobacco  troubles,  and  the  Democratic  party  was  suffering  all  over  the  Nation 
from  the  vigorous  administration  of  Theodore  Roosevelt,  the  first  fearless  progressive 
who  had  occupied  the  president's  chair  since  the  Civil  War.  Roosevelt's  abandoning 
Civil  War  Issues  nationally  was  winning  votes  for  the  Republican  party  everywhere; 
and  the  passing  of  the  Confederate  power  in  Kentucky  was  weakening  the  state  Demo- 
cratic party.  The  election  of  Governor  Willson  may  be  set  down  as  a  part  of  the 
revolution  that  was  taking  place  throughout  the  Nation.  Later  the  Democratic  party 
was  to  make  one  more  appeal  to  the  Civil  War  feeling  by  nominating  Senator  McCreary 
for  Governor.  He  was  elected,  however,  not  by  war  votes, — but  he  did  the  party  no 

Bradley  was  nominated  by  the  Republicans  for  United  States  Senator  and  Beckham 
by  the  Democrats.  As  the  Democrats  usually  elected  the  Legislature  regardless  of  the 
vote  for  state  officers,  they  were  very  confident  of  Beckham's  election;  but  in  the  first 
ballot  he  was  four  votes  short  in  the  Senate  and  three  in  the  House.  Necessary  to 
elect,  69;  Beckham  had  66,  Bradley  64,  bolting  Democrats  4,  absent  3,  and  one  not 
voting.  This  was  a  deadlock  and  on  January  21,  1908,  William  J.  Bryan  appeared 
before  the  joint  body  and  appealed  for  Beckham.  On  February  28,  Bradley  was 
elected,  one  Democratic  Senator  having  died  and  three  Democrats  voting  for  Bradley. 

Governor  Willson  set  out  vigorously  to  curb  the  lawless  spirits  in  the  tobacco  organiza- 
tions by  using  small  detachments  of  mounted  militia  for  patrolling  the  several  districts. 
He  also  called  the  leaders  for  a  conference  meeting  in  Frankfort.  His  first  Legislature 
also  legalized  producers'  pools  and  made  illegal  the  selling  pooled  tobacco  outside  of 
the  pool. 

Governor  Willson's  regime  is  also  noted  for  the  expansion  of  the  school  system  and 
the  establishment  of  the  state's  high  school  system.  This  last  is  part  of  a  movement 
that  was  sweeping  the  Nation  about  that  time  which  was  to  make  easy  a  preparation 
for  college  and  thereby  increase  college  attendance  in  America  to  numbers  undreamed 
of  in  the  world  theretofore.  At  the  beginning  of  the  century  college  attendance  in  the 
United  States  was  around  115,000,  but  the  work  of  the  high  schools  constantly  increas- 
ing, it  was  1,300,000  in  1941,  almost  or  possibly  as  great  as  all  of  the  non-English- 
speaking  world  together. 

Governor  Willson's  second  Legislature  appropriated  $500,000  for  completing  the 
handsome  new  Capitol;  $10,000  for  repair  of  Henry  Clay's  statue  in  Lexington,  it 
having  been  injured  by  a  storm;  the  name  of  the  State  A.  &  M.  College  at  Lexington 
changed  to  Kentucky  University;  the  Christian  Church  institution  in  Lexington  which 


had  been  using  that  name  being  induced  to  give  it  up  and  return  to  its  original  name 
of  Transylvania  University. 

Annual  appropriations  were  fixed  for  the  various  state  colleges  and  better  organizations 
provided  for  county  school  districts  and  sub-districts.  Each  county  was  directed  to 
establish  one  or  more  high  schools.  Child  labor  laws  were  passed  to  protect  children  . 
from  exploitation  or  heavy  or  dangerous  tasks.  An  educational  commission  was  formed 
to  study  the  state's  school  system,  compare  it  with  other  states,  and  report  to  the  next 
General  Assembly.  The  Attorney  General  was  empowered  to  employ  legal  assistance 
when  needed.  The  education  and  training  of  teachers  were  standardized.  An  experiment 
station  and  farm  were  appropriated  for.  Mine  safety  laws  were  passed;  and  the  remains 
of  Captain  Thomas  F.  Marshall  taken  from  their  grave  in  Woodford  County  and 
reintered  in  the  State  Cemetery  at  Frankfort. 

Governor  Willson's  second  legislature  established  the  State  Board  of  Health,  with 
duties  to  investigate  and  prevent  where  possible  the  diseases  current;  to  make  bacterio- 
logical survey  of  the  state's  waters  and  other  possible  sources  of  disease;  to  collect  vital 
statistics;  to  control  disease  amongst  domestic  animals;  to  train  county  and  city  health 
officers.    Another  act  was  passed  to  prevent  cruelty  to  animals. 

The  compulsory  school  law  was  strengthened.  The  law  on  compulsory  attendance 
at  this  writing  (1945)  seems  to  have  fallen  down  or  the  will  of  Kentuckians  to  go  to 
school  seems  weak.  In  1940  the  attendance  on  school  of  persons  from  5  to  24  years 
of  age  in  the  various  states  shows  Kentucky  at  the  bottom  of  the  list.  In  the  states 
surrounding  Kentucky,  Virginia  has  an  attendance  of  52  percent;  West  Virginia  (a 
Mountain  state)  56  percent;  Ohio,  59;  Indiana,  59;  Illinois,  58;  Missouri,  57;  and 
Tennessee,  53.    Kentucky  has  only  39,  the  lowest  in  the  Union. 

Other  interesting  acts  were  passed.  One  designating  electrocutions  as  the  means  for 
carrying  out  the  death  sentence.  Hanging  which  had  been  the  conventional  way  at 
least  since  the  days  of  Esther  gave  way  to  modernism.  Another  was  the  providing 
a  plant  for  making  serum  and  virus  for  prevention  of  hog  cholera.  Thus  registered 
the  end  of  witchcraft  and  nostrums,  swept  aside  forever  by  knowledge.  Another 
provided  for  the  registration  and  management  of  motor  vehicles  and  traffic.  Another 
passage  from  the  dying  past  to  the  eaning  future.  The  National  income  tax  amend- 
ment was  ratified,  a  long  step  away  from  the  tax  ideas  of  the  founders  of  the  Republic. 
It  also  decreed  that  the  state  would  take  part  in  the  Centennial  Celebration  of  the 
Battle  of  Lake  Erie,  as  Kentucky  had  supplied  cordage,  hardware,  and  men,  and  the 
results  of  the  battle  were  so  beneficial  to  the  state.    Eight  hour  work  day  was  established. 

This  regime  shows  how  revolutions  arrive  in  free  democracies.  The  end  of  the  ante- 
bellum, Civil  War,  and  post-bellum  ideologies  arrives  and  the  new  era  begins,  not 
entirely  free  from  stress  and  violence,  witness  the  Goebel  troubles,  the  Mountain  feuds, 
but  the  violence  never  rules,  it  is  but  a  minor  incident,  although  sensational.  The  deeper 
movements  are  hardly  noticed. 


In  the  political  campaign  of  1911  ex-Governor  and  ex-Senator  James  B.  McCreary 
was  the  Democratic  nominee  for  governor  and  Judge  Edward  O'Rear  the  Republican. 
During  Willson's  regime  O'Rear  had  been  Chief  Justice,  and  differences  had  arisen 
between  them  so  serious  that  Willson  did  not  attend  his  party's  convention  and  seemed 
to  take  no  interest.  The  burning  issue  was  probably  prohibition,  the  form  in  which 
it  was  presented  was  whether  local  option  should  be  county-wide  or  for  sub-districts 
within  the  county.  Mr.  Watterson  in  the  Courier- Journal  argued  that  local  option  was 
a     Trojan  horse"  and  if  admitted  would  shortly  mean  state-wide  prohibition.     Besides 


Mr.  Watterson's  personal  predilections,  his  fear  was  that  Louisville  would  be  voted  dry 
by  the  state,  and  against  its  wishes. 

Mr.  Desha  Breckinridge,  editor  of  the  Lexington  Herald,  the  Democratic  daily  for 
Central  and  Eastern  Kentucky,  did  not  think  that  county  option  could  be  enforced  but 
warned  the  liquor  interests  to  clean  house  if  they  wished  their  industry  to  survive;  that 
they  must  break  all  ties  with  politics  or  the  people  would  consider  them  fair  marks  for 
political  action.  McCreary  and  Beckham  favored  the  county  option  plank,  and  it  was 
adopted.  There  was  an  anti-lobbying  plank;  one  favoring  woman  suffrage  in  school 
elections;  one  for  workman's  compensation  and  arbitration  of  labor  disputes  by  law; 
and  the  usual  promises  of  financial  reform,  school  improvements,  and  criticism  of  the 
Republican  administration. 

The  Republican  platform  denounced  the  Democrats  for  not  apportioning  the  state 
into  state  and  National  election  districts  according  to  the  provisions  of  Congress;  de- 
manded a  corrupt  practices  act  that  would  limit  the  size  of  campaign  contributions  and 
prohibition  of  contributions  by  corporations  and  demanded  bipartisan  control  of  elections. 
Asked  that  direct  primaries  be  held  under  state  auspices  and  paid  for  by  the  state. 
That  the  judiciary  be  chosen  in  a  non-partisan  manner  and  for  non-partisan  grounds. 
Favored  the  county  unit  in  local  option;  equal  educational  opportunities  to  children  of 
both  races,  longer  school  terms  and  better  paid  teachers.  Condemned  the  "Third 
House,"  the  lobby;  favored  arbitration  of  labor  disputes;  and  the  usual  promises  of 
reform  and  recriminations  against  the  Democrats. 

The  split  between  conservatives  and  progressives  that  caused  the  "Bull  Moose"  de- 
fection was  beginning  to  be  noticeable.  The  progressives  disliked  Taft  but  had  to 
endorse  him  to  get  into  the  "pie"  in  event  of  his  election.  Senator  Bradley,  an  old 
line  conservative,  led  the  "pie"  brigade  and  won.    One  of  the  wags  got  off  this  quatrain: 

"Little   drops   of   Willson, 
Little  grains  of   Taft, 
Make   for  Billy  Bradley. 
Isn't  it  a  laugh?" 

The  county  was  running  against  the  conservative  branch  of  the  Republican  party 
and  its  machine,  and  O'Rear,  although  making  a  vigorous  campaign  was  defeated. 
Although  Governor  McCreary  was  long  past  the  most  active  of  life  he  proved  still  a 
potent  campaigner.  He  and  Governor  Shelby,  who  was  the  first  and  fifth  governor  are 
the  only  governors  to  be  reelected  with  intervening  regimes  of  others.  It  is  interesting 
to  note  that  although  the  new  governor  had  been  in  public  office  practically  all  of  his 
adult  life,  the  opposition  found  nothing  in  his  public  record  that  could  be  successfully 
attacked.     He   proved   a   conservative,   matter-of-fact,   political   administrator. 

The  outstanding  act  of  his  regime  was  the  organization  of  the  State  Highway  Depart- 
ment. The  "Moonlight  School"  movement  to  cure  Kentucky  of  illiteracy,  inaugurated 
by  Mrs.  Cora  Wilson  Stewart,  of  Morehead,  proved  to  be  rather  helpful  and  popular 
at  that  time.  The  new  methods  of  transportation  were  demanding  legal  controls  and 
adjustments  and  better  roads.  A  realization  of  this  at  first  appalled  the  taxpayers  as 
it  was  not  foreseen  where  the  new  taxes  were  to  come  from. 

In  1914  Senator  W.  O.  Bradley  died  in  office  and  Governor  McCreary  appointed 
Johnson  Camden,  a  wealthy  horseman  of  Woodford  County,  to  fill  the  unexpired  term 
until  the  November  election.  In  November  Camden  won  the  remnant  of  Bradley's 
term  over  William  Marshall  Bullitt,  Republican,  and  George  Nicholas,  Progressive,  both 
attorneys  of  Louisville. 


For  the  full  term  Senatorial  election  coming  at  the  same  election,  J.  C.  W.  Beckham 
won  the  Democratic  nomination  over  Governor  McCreary  and  A.  O.  Stanley,  a  Member 
of  Congress,  and  defeated  the  Republican  ex-Governor  A.  E.  Willson. 

In  the  presidential  campaign  of  1912  a  new  party  appeared,  the  Progressive,  led  by 
the  ex-President  Theodore  Roosevelt.  To  the  prestige  of  Theodore  Roosevelt  there 
were  added  the  national  opposition  to  Taft's  regime,  the  impression  that  he  was  using 
Federal  office  holders  to  gain  a  renomination,  and  the  revolution  in  political  thought 
that  was  sweeping  the  country,  to  which  neither  of  the  older  parties  was  hospitable, 
and  which  the  new  party  expressed  in  its  platform  and  candidates,  capturing  many 
leaders  from  both  the  Democrats  and  Republicans. 

The  new  party  was  popularly  known  as  the  "Bull  Moose,"  from  an  expression  of 
Theodore  Roosevelt  relative  to  his  physical  fitness,  and  it  adopted  the  bull  moose  as 
its  emblem.  In  Kentucky  it  did  not  take  as  well  as  in  some  states — perhaps  because 
the  Republican  party  was  a  Federal  office  holders'  party  and  expected  Taft's  reelection. 
The  proportions  of  the  parties  were  expressed  in  the  Senatorial  race  between  Camden, 
Bullitt  and  Nicholas.  The  figures  were  177,797,  and  133,137,  and  31,641  respectively. 
In  the  adjoining  State  of  Indiana,  where  the  Republican  party  had  been  a  state  party 
and  where  leaders  like  Beveridge  favored  it,  it  cut  a  large  figure.  Mr.  Taft's  over- 
whelming defeat  and  the  election  of  Woodrow  Wilson  is  National  history. 

One  of  the  results  of  Governor  McCreary 's  return  to  the  governor's  chair  was  the 
creation  of  McCreary  County.  This  made  the  one  hundred  and  twentieth  county  in  a 
state  that  needed  not  over  forty;  more  than  any  other  state  in  the  Union  except  Texas 
and  Georgia.  Like  the  great  majority  of  Kentucky  counties,  it  cannot  pay  its  way, 
placing  the  burden  of  maintenance  more  heavily  than  formerly  on  its  residents  and  a 
further  load  on  the  twenty  or  thirty  counties  which  pay  their  way  plus  a  surplus  into  the 
state  treasury  which  has  to  be  devoted  to  their  less  fortunate  sister  counties. 

On  November  11,  1911,  President  Taft  visited  Frankfort  to  dedicate  the  bronze 
statue  of  Lincoln  placed  in  the  rotunda  of  the  new  Capitol  by  the  generosity  of  Mr. 
James  B.  Speed,  of  Louisville.    It  was  a  gala  occasion. 

On  Nov.  9,  a  few  days  before,  the  Lincoln  Memorial  Association  presented  the 
Lincoln  Memorial  at  Hodgenville  to  the  Nation.  Governor  Jos.  W.  Folk  of  Missouri 
made  the  presentation  and  President  Taft  accepted  it.  Senator  Wm.  E.  Borah,  of 
Idaho,  Mayor  General  John  C.  Black,  of  Illinois,  Brigadier  General  John  B.  Castleman, 
of  Louisville,  and  The  Right  Reverend  Thomas  S.  Byrne,  Bishop  of  Nashville  also  spoke. 


The  election  of  1915  was  led  by  A.  Owsley  Stanley,  gubernatorial  nominee  of  the 
Democrats  and  Edwin  P.  Morrow,  of  the  Republicans.  The  Republicans  had  almost 
recovered  from  the  Bull  Moose  defection  while  the  Democrats  were  rather  apathetic. 
The  result  was  that,  while  Stanley  was  elected,  he  had  40,000  less  votes  than  were  cast 
for  McCreary. 

The  "wet"  and  "dry"  question  had  become  a  burning  one  and  many  Democrats 
were  dissatisfied,  particularly  those  who  had  favored  the  candidacy  of  Harry  V. 
McChesney,  who  had  announced  "dry."  Not  only  was  Stanley  considered  "wet"  but  he 
was  thought  by  many  to  be  the  candidate  of  the  liquor  interests.  In  spite  of  the  fact 
that  he  had  declared  himself  in  favor  of  the  County  Option  law,  which  his  platform 
endorsed,  he  was  considered  by  many  as  wetter  than  Morrow.  Harry  McChesney  and 
Lieutenant  Governor  Edward  McDermott  were  not  treated  very  well  in  the  convention. 
Four  members  of  the  Democratic  State  Committee  were  removed  without  cause  and 
Beckham  was  hissed  when  he  protested.     Stanley  won.     The  Republicans  thought  they 


had  the  election  won  until  a  few  hours  before  the  voting  when  they  learned  that  the 
two  northern  counties  in  which  lie  the  large  cities  of  Covington  and  Newport,  and  upon 
which  they  were  relying,  would  not  support  Morrow  because  of  the  defection  of  the 
local  Republican  leader.  Although  it  was  noised  around  that  this  was  due  to  the 
liquor  and  horse  interests  it  was  too  late  for  Morrow  to  make  use  of  this  rumor. 

Although  Stanley's  plurality  was  less  than  500,  Morrow  refused  to  contest  because 
of  the  bitterness  it  would  engender.  Instead  he  conceded  his  opponent's  election  and 
in  a  gallant  and  magnanimous  address  claimed  that  his  campaign  would  result  in  much 
good,  because  it  had  called  attention  to  governmental  extravagance  and  many  other 
things  the  people  ought  to  consider. 

Governor  Stanley's  inaugural  speech  won  plaudits  from  the  press  and  the  public 
generally,  in  which  he  promised  a  number  of  needed  laws  and  reforms. 

Mr.  Watterson,  who  was  very  "wet,"  in  an  editorial  in  the  Courier-Journal  attributed 
the  little  done  by  Stanley's  first  Legislature  to  the  "prohibition  politicians  and  their 
fanatical  dupes"  who  "paying  no  attention  to  the  pronouncement  of  the  people  at  the 
polls  .  .  .  insisted  on  keeping  all  sorts  of  liquor  bills  and  resolutions  to  the  front  .  .  . 
so  effectively  that  the  wets  as  well  as  the  drys  subordinated  everything  else  to  mouthing 
and  wrangling,  bickering  and  dickering." 

A  Kentucky  Council  of  Defense  was  created  and  the  possession  of  firearms  and 
explosives  by  aliens  was  prohibited;  a  war-time  necessity. 

In  the  Legislature  of  1918,  the  National  Prohibition  amendment  was  ratified,  and 
the  pen  with  which  the  Governor  signed  it  was  auctioned  on  the  floor  of  the  House 
and  bought  by  Representative  Clarence  Miller,  of  Estill,  for  $150.00  the  money  going 
to  the  Red  Cross.  The  State  was  redistricted  into  the  100  legislative  districts  demanded 
by  the  Constitution.  Other  important  incidents  of  Stanley's  regime  were  acceptance 
of  Federal  aid  in  road  building;  a  corrupt  practices  act;  abolishment  of  railroad  passes. 
The  pardon  record  of  Governor  Stanley  was  sharply  criticised  so  as  to  give  the  general 
impression  that  something  wrong  was  being  done.  However,  no  successful  accusations 
were  made. 

The  war  stimulated  the  state's  mineral  production  in  oil,  coal,  fluorite,  clay  products 
and  also  in  timber.  There  was  no  such  industrial  development  as  featured  the  state's 
contribution  to  the  second  World  War. 

Senator  Ollie  M.  James  died  in  office  in  1918,  and  Governor  Stanley  appointed 
George  B.  Martin,  of  Boyd  County,  to  the  unexpired  term.  Senator  Martin  sat  until 
March  4th,  1919,  when  Governor  Stanley,  who  was  elected  the  preceding  November  to 
the  succeeding  term,  took  the  seat.  Senator  Martin  was  in  the  Senate  too  short  a  time 
to  make  a  mark,  but  he  was  an  accomplished  gentleman  of  native  Kentucky  stock,  a 
highly  educated  and  successful  lawyer,  and  would  have  held  his  own  in  any  body. 

When  Governor  Stanley  resigned  to  become  Senator,  Lieutenant  Governor  James  D. 
Black's  regime  was  too  short  to  have  accomplished  anything  of  note.  He  did  not  have 
a  Legislative  session.  Most  of  his  time  was  taken  up  with  his  candidacy  to  succeed 
himself.     A  feature  of  his  campaign  was  his  creations  of  numerous  "Kentucky  colonels." 

It  has  often  been  said  that  Kentucky  is  more  like  mother  England  than  any  of  the 
states.  In  England  anciently  the  Knight  was  a  functional  military  officer;  later  the 
sovereigns  knighted  men  who  had  done  something  worth  while  or  were  personal  friends, 
regardless  of  military  standing.  In  Kentucky  the  colonelcy  has  had  the  same  history 
and,  but  for  the  oaths  of  chivalry  candidates  for  knighthood  had  to  take,  is  practically 
the  same  in  public  estimation.  The  "colonels"  are  a  select  body  of  men— and  lately 
women — and  while  there  is  some  inanity,  there  is  hardly  ever  a  lack  of  good  breeding 
or  good  behavior. 



In  the  governor's  race  in  1919,  Edwin  P.  Morrow,  who  had  so  nearly  defeated 
Stanley  was  the  opponent  of  Governor  James  D.  Black.  Black's  opponent  for  the  nomi- 
nation was  Judge  John  D.  Carroll,  of  New  Castle,  at  the  time  Chief  Justice  of  the 
Court  of  Appeals  and  one  of  the  ablest  jurists  the  state  has  produced.  Black's  majority 
was  over  ten  thousand  in  the  primary. 

While  Black  was  a  good  visitor  and  handshaker  and  made  an  active  campaign  of 
that  nature,  Morrow  was  a  great  orator  of  the  kind  who  could  say  good  things 
eloquently  but  in  the  words  of  the  common  people.  He  discussed  State  affairs  in  a 
convincing  and  confident  way  and  touched  with  wisdom  and  fine  satire  the  good  and 
bad  issues,  promising  no  more  than  seemed  possible  but  things  which  everyone  knew 
should  be  done. 

Morrow's  indictment  of  his  Democratic  predecessors  gives  such  a  clear  light  upon 
conditions  and  the  causes  of  his  election  that  quotations  from  it  can  hardly  be  avoided 
in  a  description  of  political  opinions  and  facts:    (The  Louisville  Herald,  May  15,  1919). 

"Four  years  ago  there  came  to  a  close  an  administration  of  the  people's  affairs.  An 
administration  marked  by  broken  promises  and  violated  pledges,  characterized  by  needless 
waste  and  reckless  extravagance,  branded  by  confessed  and  open  political  corruption, 
shamed  by  the  plunder  of  the  public  treasury,  and  closing  with  naught  to  show  for  its 
existence  save  a  public  interest-bearing  debt  of  more  than  three  million  dollars.  Four 
years  ago  in  a  campaign  which  stirred  the  state  to  its  depth,  the  people  were  asked  to 
repudiate  that  administration,  to  rebuke  its  unworthy  servants,  to  strike  against  their 
own  dishonor.  But  wedded  to  their  idols,  bound  by  their  customs,  they  withheld  their 
condemnation  and  placed  the  welfare  of  the  state  in  the  hands  of  the  present 

"Under  fair  and  solemn  platform  pledges,  and  by  word  of  mouth  these  public  servants 
promised  economy,  retrenchment  and  reform;  the  abolition  of  useless  offices;  the  removal 
of  the  charitable  and  penal  institutions  from  political  control;  the  turning  on  of  the 
light,  and  faithful  and  efficient  service.  For  four  years  this  administration  has  had 
the  full  and  absolute  control  of  every  branch  and  department  of  the  state  government. 

"As  it  approaches  its  wretched  end,  these  are  the  known  and  admitted  facts: 

"No  economy,  but  increased  extravagance.  Six  million  dollars  more  collected  from 
the  people,  while  the  state  debt  has  grown  greater  by  a  million  and  a  half  dollars — 
More  burdens  to  bear  and  less  evidence  of  the  benefits  of  government;  no  'beheading' 
of  useless  officers,  but  increased  cost  in  every  department  of  state. 

"Impotent  by  its  favoritism,  befouled  by  its  pardon  record,  stained  and  shamed  by 
the  mockery  of  political  control  of  the  state's  charities,  ludicrous  in  its  text-book  adoption 
— in  the  midnight  of  political  corruption,  it  is  dying — without  a  champion,  a  defender 
or  an  apologist. 

*K       *K       *K 

"This  administration  has  been  the  husbandman  of  the  fairest  land  on  earth;  it  has 
let  the  golden  harvest  of  its  opportunities  go  ungathered,  and  permitted  it  to  be  dispoiled. 
Entrusted  with  the  shining  talents  of  government,  it  has  buried  them  in  the  dirty  napkin 
of  political  intrigue. 

"Now  the  master  (the  people) ,  demand  to  know  the  condition  of  the  vineyard,  and 
the  use  that  has  been  made  of  the  talents." 

Morrow's  election  is  due  to  his  proposals  for  progress  and  the  public  confidence  in 
him — his  accomplishments  were  many  but  the  leading  ones  were  his  placing  of  engineers 
in  charge  of  road  construction;  improved  educational  facilities,  methods  and  school-book 


selection;  corrected  many  bad  conditions  in  the  penal  and  charitable  institutions;  defeated 
the  anti-evolution  law  which  would  have  fined  or  imprisoned  or  both  anyone  mentioning 
that  subject  within  long  distances  of  a  school-house;  and  added  two  new  normal 
colleges,  Morehead  and  Murray.  His  regime  was  not  all  plain  sailing.  There  occurred 
a  tobacco  panic  at  the  end  of  the  war;  a  coal  strike;  and  a  terrible  lynching  battle  at 
Lexington  between  citizens  and  the  militia.  On  the  whole  Governor  Morrow's  regime 
was  one  of  the  best  in  recent  times. 

Senator  Beckham's  term  coming  to  an  end,  he  stood  to  succeed  himself,  but  was 
defeated  by  Richard  P.  Ernst,  a  prominent  lawyer  of  Northern  Kentucky. 


In  the  campaign  of  1923  William  Jason  Fields  at  the  time  Congressman  from  north- 
eastern Kentucky,  was  the  Democrat  standard-bearer,  while  ex-Attorney-General  Charles 
I.  Dawson  was  the  Republican  nominee.  The  interesting  events  of  this  campaign 
occurred  in  the  nominating  conventions.  The  Democrats  first  selected  J.  Campbell 
Cantrell,  son  of  the  Judge  in  the  Goebel  trials,  and  at  the  time  representing  the 
Ashland  district  in  Congress.  But  between  his  nomination  and  the  election  he  died 
and  Fields  was  then  chosen  hurriedly  to  carry  on.  Under  such  circumstances  the 
Republicans  had  the  advantage.    But  they  had  their  troubles  also. 

George  Colvin,  of  Washington  County,  was  ending  a  term  in  the  too  often  colorless 
office  of  State  Superintendent  of  Education,  that  had  proven  anything  but  colorless 
under  him.  His  regime  was  not  sensational  but  vigorously  constructive  and  liberal, 
taking  his  obligations  dead  earnestly  and  putting  into  a  highly  trained  intellect  and  a 
consuming  zeal  for  education. 

The  announcement  of  his  candidacy  was  received  with  approbation  by  many  Democrats 
who  saw  in  his  honesty,  his  earnestness,  his  courage,  his  efficiency,  and  comprehension, 
the  opportunity  for  an  administration  to  their  taste.  If  elected  by  help  of  progressive 
Democrats,  it  would  make  of  the  Republican  party  one  of  state  aims.  A  large  and 
potent  part  of  that  party  was  determined  to  keep  it  in  the  hands  of  those  who  handled 
Federal  patronage,  and  therefore  saw  that  if  Colvin  should  win,  they  would  lose  their 
power.  Even  since  Kentucky  had  shown  a  willingness  to  go  Republican,  the  National 
organization  had  been  willing  to  put  larger  sums  of  money  into  its  elections.  The  con- 
trol of  this  money  was  a  vital  consideration  politically.  In  the  days  before  Kentucky 
first  went  Republican  the  party  had  had  to  build  its  support  from  Federal  office  hopes 
and  holders,  so  that  the  leaders  who  grew  up  in  that  day  considered  any  other  attitude 
as  young  presumptious  impudence  and  threatening  to  their  interests.  They  had  been 
"ins"  and  resented  Democrats  coming  into  the  party,  since  from  their  point  of  view 
winning  state  elections  was  not  essential  or  even  unsafe. 

This  branch  of  the  party  violently  opposed  Colvin  and  when  he  came  to  the  con- 
vention at  Lexington  a  possible  winner,  they  pulled  all  the  tricks  of  organization  possible 
to  defeat  him.  Their  candidate  Judge  Dawson  had  not  appealed  to  the  independent 
voters  and  few,  if  any,  felt  that  he  could  win  if  nominated.  His  speeches  lacked  the 
progressiveness,  the  terseness,  the  zeal  of  Colvin's,  and  after  the  dissatisfaction  produced 
by  the  defeat  of  Colvin,  the  independent  vote  went  to  Fields.  As  the  Mountains  were 
the  stronghold  of  the  Republican  party,  Fields  who  was  a  Mountain  man,  played  upon 
the  dissatisfaction  in  that  section  by  promising,  if  elected,  to  put  in  good  roads,  which 
next  to  schools,  were  the  Mountain  peoples'  greatest  need. 

Dawson  was  later  appointed  Judge  of  the  Western  Federal  District,  which  he  resigned 
after  some  years  to  enter  private  law  practice. 

History  of  Kentucky  741 

Colvin  became  President  of  the  University  of  Louisville  where  he  gave  much  promise 
but  died  after  a  short  term. 

The  administration  of  Governor  Fields  proved  to  be  rather  unpopular.  Governor 
Fields  had  earnestly  hoped  to  help  the  state,  to  bring  progress.  Yet  he  was  far  too 
ingenuous  to  deal  effectively  with  the  astute  political  manipulators  of  what  was  termed 
a  "diabolical  bi-partisan  machine."  He  had  gained  the  ill-will  of  the  Courier-Journal 
which  had  bitterly  opposed  and  helped  to  defeat  his  plan  to  float  bonds  to  the  amount 
of  $50,000,000  or  more  for  education,  roadbuilding  and  general  improvement.  The 
enmity  of  this  and  its  sister  paper,  The  Louisville  Times,  has  been  fatal  to  many 
administrations  and  governors.  As  these  are  the  only  papers  in  the  state  with  large 
statewide  circulation,  they  wield  a  tremendous  influence.  If  they  choose  to  be  partisan, 
which  is  sometimes  the  case,  then  the  people  get  their  political  facts  in  a  somewhat 
biased  form.  Yet  these  papers  are  more  often  right  than  wrong.  Moreover,  there 
was  also  much  inefficiency  and  apparent  waste  in  the  management  of  the  departments, 
together  with  flagrant  nepotism  on  the  part  of  the  governor.  Undoubtedly,  the  Gover- 
nor, a  trusting  man,  was  greatly  imposed  upon  by  many  selfish,  often  ignorant,  political 
leeches,  who  exploited  state  jobs  without  rendering  adequate  or  competent  service. 
It  might  be  pointed  out  too  that  little  of  polish,  urbanity,  grace,  charm  or  rhythm  was 
associated  with  the  administration.  All  in  all  therefore  the  Fields'  administration  moved 
to  an  unpleasant  end,  unwept,  unhonored  and  unsung.  Under  these  circumstances  the 
Republicans  became  active. 


The  tendency  in  the  two  parties  regarding  the  approaching  elections  was  to  split  along 
the  line  of  reform  and  anti-reform,  particularly  as  concerned  legalized  race-track 
gambling.  As  a  reform  candidate  the  Republicans  presented  Robert  Lucas,  while  the 
"bi-partisan"  or  pari-mutual"  Republicans  put  forward  Judge  Flem  D.  Sampson.  In 
the  Democrat  party,  the  "reform"  elements  advanced  J.  C.  W.  Beckham,  while  the  old 
line  Democrats  presented  Robert  T.  Crowe,  of  La  Grange.  Running  rather  independently 
was  William  Shanks,  retiring  auditor.  Incidentally  many  officials  as  soon  as  they 
become  seated  in  the  Capitol  begin  grooming  themselves  for  another  state  office,  pre- 
ferably the  governor's.  After  a  few  months  of  routine  clerical-help  flattery,  many  of 
these  officials  feel,  no  doubt,  that  they  should  be  at  least  president  of  the  United  States. 

After  a  bitter  race  in  which  Mr.  Crowe  proved  an  able  and  popular  candidate  gaining 
support  everywhere,  the  Democrats  selected  Mr.  Beckham,  known  as  The  Courier- 
Journal  candidate  (Mr.  Beckham  was  a  close  friend  of  Judge  Robert  W.  Bingham, 
owner  of  The  Courier-Journal) .  Mr.  Crowe  made  a  good  race.  Somehow  the  people 
got  the  impression  that  he  really  would  give  them  good  roads  and  bridges;  moreover, 
they  liked  Crowe,  with  his  pleasing  personality,  his  ability  to  throw  everything  he  had 
into  a  speech,  his  apparent  seriousness.  He  gained  rapidly,  starting  from  nothing,  just 
the  anti-Beckham-Bingham  candidate.  He  promised  33  1/3  percent  cut  in  State  tax 
on  agricultural  land  and  a  similar  reduction  in  state  license  on  automobiles.  The  support 
of  the  Fields  administration  was  given  him.  Clearly  vast  numbers  of  people  were  tired 
of  Mr.  Beckham,  who  was  thought  to  have  little  to  offer. 

The  old  line  machine  Republican  leaders,  Chesley  Searcy,  Morris  Galvin  and  Matt 
Chilton  supported  Judge  Sampson,  while  the  reform  leaders,  among  whom  were  Mayor 
Huston  Quinn,  U.  S.  Senator  Fred  M.  Sackett  and  William  Heyburn,  of  Louisville, 
supported  Colonel  Lucas.     In  the  primaries  Beckham  and  Sampson  won  out. 

So  clear  was  the  disaffection  in  the  Democrat  party  because  of  dissatisfaction  with 
the  Beckham-Haley-Bingham  group  that  signs  of  bolting  were  evident.     In  November 


the  entire  Democrat  ticket  except  Beckham  was  elected.  In  a  very  bitter  race,  Beckham 
was  beaten  by  approximately  10,000  votes,  while  the  other  Democrat  candidates  won 
by  fairly  good  margins.  The  racing  interests  had  fought  Beckham,  as  well  as  many 
of  the  women  voters.  (He  had  opposed  the  woman  suffrage  amendment  in  the  U.  S. 
Senate) .  Clearly,  the  people  had  not  voted  for  Sampson,  they  had  voted  against 

The  two  tickets  had  been  made  up  of  the  following  candidates:  Republican  Ticket: 
For  Governor,  Flem  D.  Sampson,  Barbourville;  Lieutenant  Governor,  E.  E.  Nelson, 
Williamsburg;  Secretary  of  State,  Mrs.  F.  D.  Quisenberry,  Elizabethtown;  Attorney 
General,  Miller  Hughes,  Prestonburg;  Treasurer,  John  G.  Rogers,  Frankfort;  Clerk 
of  the  Court  of  Appeals,  W.  A.  Dicken,  Albany;  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction, 
Warren  Peyton,  Beaver  Dam;  Commissioner  of  Agriculture,  Tate  Bird,  Shelby ville;  and 
Auditor,  John  Perkins,  Frankfort. 

Democratic  Ticket:  For  Governor,  J.  C.  W.  Beckham,  Louisville;  Lieutenant  Governor, 
James  Breathitt,  Jr.,  Hopkinsville;  Treasurer,  Emma  Guy  Cromwell,  Frankfort;  Auditor, 
Clell  Coleman,  Harrodsburg;  Commissioner  of  Agriculture,  Newton  Bright,  Eminence; 
Attorney  General,  J.  W.  Cammack,  Owenton;  Secretary  of  State,  Miss  Ella  Lewis, 
Leitchneld;  Clerk  of  the  Court  of  Appeals,  William  B.  O'Connell,  Louisville;  and 
Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  W.  C.  Bell. 

Governor  Sampson,  assuming  that  the  people  really  desired  his  being  governor,  drew 
up  an  expansive  program  of  reform  and  progress  for  the  Legislature  to  enact — im- 
provement of  education,  welfare,  penal  and  charitable  institutions,  roads,  bridges,  parks, 
building  of  memorials  to  the  heroes,  etc.  But  the  Democrat  Legislature  had  no  inten- 
tion of  passing  his  program,  which  was  ridiculed  by  many  from  many  angles.  A  bitter 
and  acrimonious  struggle  ensued  in  the  Legislature,  preventing  the  passage  of  much- 
needed  legislation.  The  Democratic  majority  proceeded  to  shear  Governer  Sampson  of 
his  appointing  power  and  to  bestow  it  upon  the  Lieutenant  Governor.  The  impasse 
continued  throughout  the  administration.  The  press  howled  fiercely  and  the  people 
began  to  talk  of  gubernatorial  incompetence.  An  editorial  in  the  Courier- Journal  of 
March  21,    1930  summed  up  the  administration  in  this  manner: 

"End  of  a  Story  that  is  not  Ended. 

"Kentuckians  interested  in  the  welfare  of  their  state  will  review  with  mixed  feelings 
the  Legislature's  session  just  ended.  It  did  good  work  and  it  did  bad  work,  but  its 
bad  work  was  so  very  bad  that  it  is  likely  to  warp  the  minds  of  many  against  conceding 
the  Legislature  all  the  credit  that  is  its  due. 

"Chief  among  its  good  works  was  its  enactment  of  a  new  election  law  and  its  salvation 
of  Cumberland  Falls.  It  could  not  have  pleased  more  people  than  by  its  acceptance 
of  the  duPont  offer;  while  the  election  reform  it  provided  gives  the  State  better  assurance 
of  fair  elections  than  it  has  ever  had — an  assurance  which  it  has  sadly  needed.  Who  does 
not  believe  that  if  this  law  had  been  in  effect  in  1927  Kentucky  would  not  have  been 
humiliated  by  the  Governor  who  now  discredits  the  Executive  chair?  In  future  it  will 
be  very  difficult  to  steal  elections  in  Kentucky,  as  elections  in  Kentucky  have  been 
stolen  in  the  past — and  not  remote  past. 

Louisville,  by  the  way,  has  particular  reason  for  being  grateful  to  this  Legislature 
for  coming  to  the  city's  aid  in  its  fight  for  fair  elections.  The  passage  of  the  model 
registration  law  was  handsomely  done,  and  is  none  the  less  appreciated  because  under 
a  proper  system  of  government  Louisville  would  not  be  compelled  to  go  to  Frankfort 
for  legislation  regulating  the  city's  local  elections. 

The  blight  of  this  session  of  the  General  Assembly  was  partisanship — partisanship  of 
the  blindest,  bitterest  kind.     The  Democratic  majority  went  to  Frankfort  hotly  resenting 


the  partisan  maladministration  of  a  Republican  Governor,  and  especially  his  Highway 
Commission.  They  had  ample  cause  for  resentment,  but  in  venting  it  they  acted  on 
the  mistaken  assumption  that  any  course  was  justifiable  to  remedy  the  situation:  that 
any  wrong  was  right  to  right  a  wrong. 

It  was  a  blunder  which  not  only  submerged  the  session  in  partisanship,  but  which  will 
submerge  the  future  politics  of  the  state  in  partisanship.  While  a  legislative  investigation 
was  not  necessary  to  show  that  the  Sampson  Highway  Commission  should  be  removed, 
if  that  could  not  be  effected  through  legal  processes  it  would  have  been  far  better  to 
wait  for  the  installation  of  a  new  administration  by  the  next  election  than  to  resort  to 
the  desperate  expedient  of  smashing  constitutional  government  in  order  to  smash  the 
Highway  Commission.  But  the  smashers  were  determined.  They  ripped  out  of  office 
the  Governor's  Highway  Commission  and  put  in  its  place  a  commission  of  their  own, 
all  Democrats,  by  transferring  a  Republican  Governor's  appointing  power  to  a  Demo- 
cratic Lieutenant  Governor  and  Attorney  General.  Not  only  that,  but  they  replaced 
a  bad  piece  of  road  machinery  with  a  worse,  doubling  the  number  of  commissioners  and 
allotting  them  to  geographical  districts,  in  accordance  with  a  system  which  cannot  be 
well  worked  except  by  logrolling,  and  which,  if  the  courts  allow  the  commission  to 
stand,  will  afford  the  members  tempting  opportunities  to  mix  their  official  duties  with 
politics,  one  of  the  curses  of  the  old  commission.  It  is  not  inexplicable  that  General 
Sibert  declined  to  serve  on  the  new  commission. 

"Whether  or  not  this  revolution  of  the  Democratic  majority  of  the  Legislature  shall 
result  in  better  administration  of  the  Highway  Department,  it  is  bound  to  effect  most 
injuriously  the  politics  of  the  State.  It  will  subordinate  all  other  considerations  in 
the  next  political  campaign  to  the  passions  of  the  primitive  partisanship,  dividing  the 
state  into  two  camps,  each  actuated  by  the  supreme,  if  not  sole,  purpose  to  cut  the 
other's  throats. 

"In  its  bearings  on  the  fortunes  of  the  Democratic  Party,  the  enactment  of  the 
Highway  Ripper  bill  was  egregious  tactical  folly.  With  the  notorious  record  made  by 
the  Sampson  Administration,  all  that  the  Democrats  had  to  do  to  sweep  the  last 
vestige  of  it  out  of  power  was  to  wait  until  they  got  a  chance  at  it  in  the  election 
booths.  But  they  have  now  given  the  Sampsonites  a  new  issue — an  issue  on  which, 
the  Democratic  Party  in  Kentucky  will  be  compelled  to  fight  a  defensive,  instead  of  an 
aggressive  campaign. 

"It  is  an  issue  which  already  is  rallying  all  stripes  of  Republicans,  including  those 
to  whom  Sampson  has  been  a  nauseating  dose. 

"That  was  strongly  in  evidence  at  the  gathering  of  the  clans  at  Frankfort  Wednesday 
night,  in  response  to  the  summons  of  Sampson,  when  even  such  Republicans  as  Louis- 
ville's Mayor  joined  Sampson  in  denouncing  the  Court  of  Appeals  on  its  stand  for 
clean  elections  in  this  city.  But  for  the  era  of  partisanship  which  has  been  inaugurated, 
no  such  powwow  as  that  at  Frankfort  Wednesday  night  would  have  been  possible.  It 
was  there  that  the  Governor  was  able  to  convert  a  personal  rebuke  into  a  party 
insult.  It  was  nothing  to  him  to  be  prevented  from  making  private  deals  for  a  few 
million  dollars'  worth  of  textbooks,  an  $11,000,000  bridge  bond  issue  and  a  cement 
plant  to  do  business  with  the  Highway  Department,  or  to  be  prevented  from  controlling 
the  Highway  Department  during  the  approaching  campaign.  His  agony  was  all  for 
his  beloved  party.  He  would  have  it  believed  that  he  is  only  the  vicarious  scapegoat 
turned  loose  in  a  patronageless  wilderness. 

'And  the  Governor  didn't  stop  at  the  Legislature.  In  sympathetic  company  he 
attacked  the  Court  of  Appeals  which  had  held  him  to  the  law  against  his  attempted 
private   negotiation    of   public    contracts,    two   of   the   Judges    being   Republicans.      He 


referred  to  the  Louisville  election  case  in  which  he  had  sat  while  a  Republican  candidate 
and  he  denominated  it  a  judicial  ^ripper  dubbing  his  colleagues  of  the  court  six  of 
the  gloomiest  little  men,'  although  one  of  the  Judges  concurring  in  the  ouster  and 
disagreeing  with  him  was  a  Republican  of  high  character  and  legal  ability. 

"The  politicians  who  gathered  at  that  banquet  would  not  think  of  pitching  the  1931 
campaign  on  an  issue  approving  the  Sampson  Administration.  They  are  belligerent 
with  a  new  hope  now  because  they  believe  they  will  not  have  to  fight  on  that  issue,  as 
the  Democrats  of  the  Legislature  have  given  the  Republicans  a  new  issue." 


The  Democratic  State  Central  Executive  Committee  called  the  democratic  convention 
for  May  12,  1931.  Aspirants  for  nomination  were:  Judge  W.  R.  Shakelford  of  Rich- 
mond, James  Breathitt,  Jr.  of  Hopkinsville,  W.  B.  Ardery  of  Paris,  Clell  Coleman  of 
Harrodsburg,  Dr.  Rainey  T.  Wells,  of  Murray,  Ralph  Gilbert  of  Shelbyville,  Judge 
Ruby  Laffoon  of  Madisonville,  Joseph  E.  Robinson  of  Lancaster,  and  Osie  S.  Ware, 
of  Covington.  The  former  U.  S.  Senator  Geo.  B.  Martin,  of  Catlettsburg,  campaigned 
for  Shakelford  and  was  himself  picked  to  run  as  coalition  candidate  for  temporary 
chairman  by  the  minority  candidate.  This  was  an  attempt  to  ward  off  Ruby  Laffoon  who 
had  more  delegates  than  anyone  else.  The  Woodland  Auditorium  in  Lexington  with 
a  seating  capacity  of  only  2,400  was  packed  with  nearly  4,060  heads.  With  Shakelford 
and  Wells  withdrawing  and  Gilbert  quitting  on  the  second  nomination,  Laffoon  got 
1,548  of  the  1,922  votes.  Later  with  only  Ardery  and  Breathitt  left  in  the  race,  he  got 
1,735  votes.  He  was  thus  nominated  on  the  first  ballot.  Congressman  Fred  M.  Vinson, 
of  Ashland,  was  elected  temporary  chairman  and  Fred  Wallis  of  Paris,  permanent 
chairman.  While  awaiting  the  reports  of  committees,  the  crowd  found  entertainment  in 
Senator  Barkley's  and  Logan's  comments  on  the  National  and  State  Republican  ad- 
ministration. The  democratic  platform  called  for  (1)  a  complete  audit  of  every 
department,  (2)  a  balanced  budget,  (3)  impartial  distribution  of  road  construction,  (4) 
free  textbooks,  (5)  economy  in  government,  (6)  continuation  of  present  highway  com- 
mission, (7)  tax  revision,  (8)  enlargement  and  modernizing  of  charitable  and  penal 
institutions,  (9)  educational  extension  and  improvement,  (10  stringent  bank  law,  (11) 
consolidation  of  counties,    (12)    encouragement  of  manufacturing  and  enterprises. 

A  disturbance  which  surely  influenced  the  convention  was  a  disagreement  between 
the  miners  and  operators  of  the  Harlan  mine.  On  May  11,  the  mine  guards  were 
replaced  by  400  National  Guardsmen  and  five  had  already  lost  their  lives  in  the  violence. 

The  Courier-Journal,  saying  that  Kentucky  must  be  "rescued  from  the  wildness 
of  misgovernment  into  which  it  has  been  forced  by  both  Democratic  and  Republican 
Administrations"  has  this  comment  on  the  Democratic  platform:  "In  estimating  these 
convictions  and  purposes,  the  platform  put  forth  by  the  convention  counts  for  little. 
That  is  an  elaborate  document,  containing  much  that  is  commendable,  including  impor- 
tant recommendations  which  if  heeded  will  promote  the  good  of  the  commonwealth. 
It  was  written  by  a  committee  on  which  were  Democrats  of  character  and  ability.  But 
its  authorship  will  not  execute  it.  Nor  was  that  expected  of  its  authors  who  referred 
the  detailed  execution  of  its  policies  and  principles  to  the  Legislature  and  the  Governor. 
To  what  extent  it  expresses  the  views  of  Judge  Laffoon  is  not  known;  nor  is  it  known 
to  what  extent  it  expresses  the  views  of  the  convention,  for  it  was  adopted  by  that  body 
in  a  jiffy,  without  being  read  to  it." 

During  the  torrid  heat  of  a  July  day,  former  Governor  Morrow  the  temporary 
chairman,  sounded  the  keynote  for  the  Republican  Convention  in  the  Woodland 
Auditorium,  Lexington.     He  declaimed  the  Highway  Law  as  a  Monster,  demanded  its 

Courtesy,   Louisville   Convention  and   Publicity  League. 


13— Vol.    II 


repeal,  and  pledged  the  Republican  party  to  the  formation  of  a  Bi-partisan  Road 
Commission  if  the  law  is  not  repealed.  He  also  extolled  Mayor  W.  Harrison,  of 
Louisville  as  a  knightly  leader  to  carry  forward  the  standards  of  the  Republican  party. 
Judge  Sam  Hurst,  Beattyville's  nominee  for  the  Republican  ticket  withdrew,  leaving 
Harrison  as  the  sole  Republican  nominee  for  Governor.  The  platform  of  the  Republican 
party  for  the  1931  election  made  the  Road  Board  the  target  of  its  attack.  It  lauded 
theh  Hoover  and  Sampson  Administrations  as  well  as  advocating  (1)  a  bipartisan  or 
preferably  a  non-partisan  highway  commission,  (2)  free  school  books,  (3)  a  scientific 
survey  of  the  state's  charitable  institutions,  (4)  equal  representation,  and  (5)  greater 
economy  in  administration.  It  also  asked  for  a  Republican  Assembly  and  denounced 
"bipartisan  political  combines  and  pledged  the  freedom  of  republican  nominees  from 
such  influence. 

The  Socialistic-Labor  Ticket  was  made  up  of  Herman  Horning,  Louis  Fleischer,  and 
James  O'Hearn,  all  of  Louisville,  for  the  officers  of  Governor,  Lieutenant  Governor, 
and  Secretary  of  State  respectively. 

The  outcome  of  the  1931  elections  was  an  overwhelming  democratic  victory,  Laifoon 
led  Harrison  by  73,078  votes — a  margin  that  has  been  topped  only  once  before  in 
Kentucky  when  John  W.  Stevenson  the  Democratic  candidate  of  1868  triumphed  by 
78,677  votes.  The  effects  of  his  election  on  the  Legislature  was  that  the  House  now 
had  74  Democrats  to  26  Republicans.  "The  explanation  is  that  Kentucky,  like  the 
rest  of  the  country,  is  flooded  by  a  tidal  wave  against  the  Republican  Party,  caused 
by  the  unpopularity  of  the  Hoover  Administration  and  the  conditions  which  for  nearly 
two  years  during  the  life  of  that  Administration  have  depressed  the  country  and  for 
which  so  many  of  the  voters,  however  unjustly,  hold  the  Administration  to  blame." 
(Courier- Journal,  November  6,  1931).  So  this  cause  might  also  be  added  the  un- 
popularity of  the  former  Republican  Governor  Sampson  and  Laffoon's  connections  with 
the  "political  combine"  which  sought  "to  make  itself  supreme  by  fastening  upon  the 
state  a  hand-picked  chief  executive  and  a  subservient  Legislature."  (Louisville  Herald 
Post,  July  21,  1931). 

The  beginning  of  the  Laffoon  Administration — one  of  the  most  turbulent  that  Ken- 
tucky has  suffered  for  many  a  decade — was  one  of  pagentry  and  festivity.  The  oath 
of  office  was  administered  by  Judge  Richard  Priest  Dietzman  and  soon  afterwards  Laf- 
foon appointed  Brigadier  General  H.  H.  Denhardt  of  the  Kentucky  National  Guard, 
the  former  Lieutenant  Governor,  as  the  new  Adjutant  General.  In  his  inaugural  speech, 
Governor  Laffoon  showed  deep  emotions.  He  said  that  as  a  boy  while  plowing  he 
had  frequently  entertained  the  dream  to  be  governor,  and  that  he  would  be  Governor 
of  and  for  the  whole  people.  He  also  mentioned  the  pressing  need  of  the  under-privileged 
children,  relief  for  penal  and  charitable  institutions,  and  the  demands  for  better  roads 
and  other  improvements.  He  also  congratulated  Harrison  for  his  courtesy  during  the 
campaign  and  for  his  felicitations. 

Governor  Laffoon  entered  office  at  a  bad  time.  The  country  was  rapidly  entering 
the  depression.  President  Hoover  had  asked  for  higher  taxes  and  burglarizing  by 
armed  bands  was  prevalent,  especially  in  Louisville.  Tobacco  riots  had  broke  out  in 
Lexington  as  200  tobacco  growers  held  mass  meetings  because  of  the  fall  in  tobacco 
prices.  The  dispute  between  the  coal  miners  and  the  mine  operators  was  still  in 
progress  and  a  group  of  40  students  under  the  auspices  of  the  National  College  Com- 
mittee in  New  York  were  turned  back  by  irate  citizens  of  Bell  County  and  were 
denied  the  protection  of  county  officials  when  they  sought  to  make  a  study  of  the 
miners's  conditions  in  Harlan  County. 

This  lack  of  employment  accompanying  the  depression  was  the  principal  social  prob- 
lem of  the  Laffoon  Administration.     It  was  this  unemployment  that  allowed  thousands 


of  workers  to  appear  on  the  Frankfort  streets  March  3,  1932  in  opposition  to  the  Sales 
Tax  measure  that  Governor  Laffoon  championed.  Some  of  the  mob  even  broke  into 
the  Governor's  mansion,  frightening  members  of  the  household  and  breaking  some 
furniture.  The  Anti-depression  War  conducted  by  the  American  Legion,  the  Ameri- 
can Federation  of  Labor,  the  Associated  Advertising  Clubs  and  the  American  Legion 
Auxiliary  in  March  of  1932  was  mainly  an  attempt  to  curtail  this  unemployment. 
It  aimed  in  this  way  to  bring  about  a  recovery  of  business  and  to  employ  large  numbers 
of  men.  The  War  ended  in  Louisville  on  March  20th  with  a  big  parade  of  Legion- 
naires and  other  groups.  To  this  date  600  had  been  employed  in  Louisville  and  $50,000 
of  construction  work  pledged. 

The  1932  session  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Kentucky  Legislature  adjourned 
with  very  little  accomplished.  The  most  important  bills  were  the  sales  tax  which  was 
denied  consideration  by  the  State  Senate,  the  redisricting  bill  which  reduced  Ken- 
tucky's congressional  districts  from  11  to  9,  and  the  budget  bills  which  increased  the 
state's  budget  to  approximately  "$4,000,000  more  than  the  anticipated  revenues."  The 
Legislature  did  provide  for  a  board  of  eight  to  make  a  two  year  study  of  the  state's 
educational  needs.  The  need  for  such  a  survey  was  questioned  by  an  editorial  in  the 
Courier-Journal  of  March  22,  1932,  on  he  grounds  that  a  survey  had  already  been  made 
by  the  Kentucky  Educational  Committee,  employing  the  best  minds  in  Kentucky  and 
assisted  by  the  General  Education  Board  of  New  York  and  that  the  very  definite  recom- 
mendations of  the  Efficiency  Commission  on  the  subject  of  Education  in  1924  were 

On  the  whole  few  sessions  of  the  Legislature  have  been  subjected  to  as  much  criti- 
cism as  that  of  1932  Assembly.  The  Herald  Post,  March  19,  1932,  saw  its  sole  re- 
deeming feature  in  the  fact  "that  thy  fell  out  among  themselves  so  that  the  state  may 
have  been  spared  something  worse."  The  Courier  Journal  of  the  same  date  had  more 
to  say:  "Deplorable  it  truly  is,  for  there  never  was  a  time  in  Kentucky  history  when 
sagacious  competent  patriotic  statesmanship  was  so  urgently  needed  in  the  administration 
of  Kentucky's  government.  And  yet  there  never  was  a  time  when  such  statesmanship 
was  so  lacking  at  Frankfort  and  when  the  abortive  efforts,  or  pretensions,  of  the  Ex- 
ecutive and  Legislative  department  left  the  state  in  so  shamefully  wretched  a  con- 

"In  the  first  place,  that  administration  came  in  not  on  the  broad,  high  plane  of  con- 
secration to  public  service  regardless  of  party  partisanship  but  consecrated  to  the  en- 
abling theory,  rto  the  victors  belong  the  spoils.'  From  the  first,  that  theory  inspired 
and  dominated  the  Governor  and  his  partisans  in  the  Legislature.  They  seized  all  the 
spoils  in  sight,  and,  hungry  for  more,  created  more  spoils  by  the  establishment  of  more 
offices  and  the  payment  of  salaries  to  officials  who  had  been  unsalaried.  Republicans 
everywhere  were  either  dismissed  by  the  Governor  or  ripped  out  by  the  Legislature,  and 
their  places  were  filled  by  persons  who  whether  or  not  they  were  otherwise  qualified, 
had  the  qualifications  of  calling  themselves  Democrats  and  of  helping  or  professing 
to  help  the  victors  to  get  within  reach  of  the  spoils. 

".  .  .  Both  branches  of  the  Administration  the  Executive  and  Legislative — worked 
cooperatively  together  in  the  effectuation  of  that  policy  but  cooperation  ended  when 
they  undertook  to  meet  serious  problems  of  the  government's  administration  which 
confronted  them,  and  which  they  were  elected  to  solve.  Then  they  were  at  sea.  They 
were  at  loggerheads.  They  floundered  in  confusion  and  ignorance  of  what  should  be 
done,  utterly  unable  to  formulate  and  agree  upon  any  method  of  solving  the  problems, 
whose  solution  the  welfare  of  the  State  demanded  and  whose  solution  they  had  so 
fully  promised  when  they  asked  to  be  entrusted  with  the  solution." 


The  1934  session  of  the  Kentucky  Legislature  passed  among  other  bills  the  new 
school  code.     (See  Chapter  on  Education) . 

Because  the  important  task  of  levying  taxes  to  provide  the  state  with  an  adequate 
budget  was  not  completed  in  the  regular  session,  a  special  session  of  the  General 
Assembly  was  called  and  convened  Wednesday  May  9,  1934.  It  will  be  recalled  that 
this  problem  of  state  finance  had  claimed  the  attention  of  the  1932  assembly.  Governor 
Laffoon  asked  for  a  reduction  of  the  real  estate  tax  and  for  the  pooling  of  funds,  ex- 
pecting, of  course,  that  the  Legislature  would  provide  additional  revenue  from  some 
other  source.  But  he  and  the  Legislature  disagreed  over  the  source.  He  succeeded  in 
defeating  the  House  plan  to  tax  the  sale  of  malt  and  the  exploitation  of  natural  re- 
sources; but  his  plan  to  tax  the  necessaries  of  life  through  a  retail  sales  tax  met  with 
both  popular  and  legislative  opposition.  It  had  the  opposition  of  the  Merchants  and 
Commercial  Associations,  while  a  crowd  of  several  thousand  appeared  in  Frankfort, 
March  3,  1932  to  boo  the  measure.  The  bill  was  defeated  when  the  Senate  refused 
to  consider  the  proposed  sales  tax.  Governor  Laffoon  declined  to  call  a  special  session 
to  provide  the  needed  appropriations  and  when  the  regular  session  in  1934  convened, 
he  failed  to  transmit  to  the  House  the  report  of  his  Budget  Commission  with  budget 
bills  appropriating  the  revenue  until  March.  Then  the  House  was  "monopolized  with 
the  activity  of  the  Committee  on  Foreign  relations  engaged  in  exposing  the  conspiracy 
of  Kentucky  retail  merchants  against  higher  prices  and  investigating  the  treasonable 
utterances  of  a  number  who  had  critized  the  way  the  House  proceeded  with  its  busi- 
ness in  a  [Courier-Journal]  "Point  of  View"  article  from  which  his  name  was  with- 
held. Perhaps  the  bipartisan  majority  felt  they  had  earned  the  leisure  for  a  man  hunt. 
They  already  had  prevented  a  vote  on  the  compulsory  primary  law,  passed  the  ripper 
legislation,  placed  municipal  power,  light,  fuel  and  water  plants  and  the  rates  of  public 
service  companies  under  a  bipartisan  State  board  over  the  opposition  of  the  cities, 
reduced  the  taxes  on  utility,  coal  and  gas  lands,  defeated  N.R.A — State  cooperation, 
and  authorized  the  establishment  of  convenient  nudist  colonies." — (Courier- Journal 
March  17,  1934) .  The  result  of  this  was  that  a  special  session  of  the  Legislature  be- 
came necessary  to  appropriate  needed  funds  for  the  administration.  Governor  Laf- 
foon's  Sales  Tax  bill  was  decidedly  unpopular  and  a  flood  of  tax  bills  were  proposed  in 
the  House  in  opposition  to  it.  After  a  long  deadlock,  however,  the  House  on  June 
8,  passed  the  bill  51  to  47  and  on  June  15  the  Senate  gave  its  approval  with  a  20  to  17 
vote.  Governor  Laifoon  signed  the  bill  six  hours  later,  saying:  "Within  six  months 
this  bill  become  the  most  popular  act  ever  adopted  in  the  State."  The  revenue  from  the 
sales  tax,  estimated  at  $12,000,000  annually,  was  divided  between  the  state  and  county 
governments  with  the  State  getting  two-thirds.  After  stripping  Lieutenant  Governor 
Chandler,  bitter  opponent  of  Laffoon,  of  his  power  with  a  ripper  bill,  the  Special 
Session  ended  July  3.  As  it  turned  out  the  Sales  Tax  became  what  was  perhaps  the 
most  unpopular  bill  in  Kentucky's  history  as  a  state. 

Opposition  to  the  Laffoon  Administration  was  not  long  in  arising.  His  administration 
actually  was  unpopular  from  the  start,  and  the  depression  in  no  way  helped  this  state 
of  affairs.  Before  two  years  his  program  was  torn  apart  by  the  depression  and  party 
defection.  Lieutenant  Governor  Chandler  had  strongly  opposed  his  sales  tax  bill  in 
the  Senate  and  his  Drivers'  License  Law  and  the  Chain  Store  tax  repeal  bill  were  passed 
only  after  the  Chandler  Anti-administration  forces  had  adjourned.  The  crisis  came 
when  Governor  Laffoon  was  in  Washington  to  request  $50,000,000  in  Federal  aid  for 
road  construction.  Lieutenant  Governor  Chandler  called  an  extra  session  of  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  to  consider  a  compulsory  Primary  Bill  that  would  undo  the  work  of 
the  nominating  committee  and  submit  the  choice  of  Democratic  candidates  to  the 
people.     Governor  Laffoon  hastened  back  to  the   state  and   signed  a   revocation  order 


to  cancel  the  extra  session;  but  the  Court  of  Appeals  declared  that  the  special  session 
was  valid.  Apparently  the  Governor  felt  that  his  favorite  for  the  coming  gubernatorial 
election,  Mr.  Thomas  S.  Rhea,  would  be  more  favored  by  a  Democratic  Convention, 
while  Lieutenant  Governor  Chandler  thought  his  hopes  of  running  as  the  next  Demo- 
cratic candidate  for  governor  would  be  better  advanced  by  a  private  ballot  submitted 
to  the  people.  When  the  Primary  Bill  won  out  in  the  special  session,  Laffoon  gave 
his  support  to  a  proposed  dual  primary  bill  which  provided  that  a  second  primary 
ballot  be  taken  if  no  candidate  obtains  a  majority  in  the  first  ballot, — only  the  two 
highest  candidates  would  run  in  the  second  ballot.  This  bill  became  a  law  in  Feb- 
ruary 27,  1935,  when  the  Chandler  forces  joined  those  of  the  Laffoon — Rhea  factions. 
It  was  this  dual  primary  bill  that  won  the  1935  elections  for  Chandler  against  Mr. 

Albert  B.  ("Happy")  Chandler  came  to  his  nomination  in  large  part  because  of 
his  action  in  calling  an  extra  session  of  the  Legislature  during  the  absence  from  the 
State  of  Governor  Laffoon;  and,  in  so  doing  throwing  down  the  gauntlet  to  the  interests 
who  were  popularly  thought  to  be  behind  Governor  Laffoon  and  so  capturing  the 
imagination  of  the  people  by  his  boldness. 

In  his  campaign  for  the  nomination  he  set  out  his  purposes  and  platform  so  clearly 
that  he  took  the  initiative  and  held  it  all  through  the  campaign.  Expense  of  state 
government  had  risen  beyond  reason  and  the  sales  tax  imposed  by  the  Laffoon  regime 
was  not  popular.  This  he  promised  to  repeal  and  at  the  same  time  reduce  the  state's 
debts  and  expenses.  To  many  this  sounded  like  pulling  rabbits  out  of  the  hat,  but  his 
earnest  campaign  oratory  did  not  sound  like  the  usual  campaign  promises  to  be  broken 
later  on. 

Besides  the  popularity  of  his  political  ideals  and  the  courage  of  his  speech  and  actions, 
"Happy"  Chandler  has  always  been  a  pleasing  personality  so  that  besides  his  earnest- 
ness and  understanding  on  the  rostrum  he  exuded  a  wealth  of  geniality  and  good  feeling 
in  his  personal  contacts  with  the  voters. 

In  his  opposition  for  the  nomination  he  was  blessed.  Governor  Laffoon  had  gotten 
through  the  Legislature  a  double  primary  law,  which  voters  generally  thought  to  be 
an  effort  to  defeat  Chandler.  This  was  a  compliment  which  produced  both  respect  and 
sympathy  for  the  latter.  In  the  first  primary  John  Rhea  of  Russellville  ran  ahead  but 
in  the  second,  Frederick  Wallis  of  Paris,  dropping  out  being  also  a  progressive,  his 
votes  went  to  Chandler  and  aided  greatly  in  his  victory. 

In  the  regular  election  Judge  Swope  rather  attacked  Chandler  than  discussed  affairs 
of  state.  Voters  like  to  have  their  business  discussed  with  them  on  a  non-personal 
basis,  and  the  more  serious  ones  do  not  now  take  much  interest  in  the  candidate  who 
does  not  take  them  into  his  confidence  and  explain  how  his  election  will  benefit  their 
future.  To  Swope's  assertion  that  Chandler  would  prove  a  dictator,  "Happy"  answered 
happily  by  playing  on  Swope's  first  name  and  calling  him  "King  of  Kentucky."  As 
neither  gentlemen  were  inclined  towards  dictatorship  or  royalty,  "Happy's"  retort  con- 
tained just  as  much  sense  as  "King's"  charge  and  besides  contained  the  divine  spark 
of  humor  which  Swope's  lacked.  Amongst  Chandler's  champions  was  ex-Governor,  ex- 
Senator  J.  C.  W.  Beckham,  the  "elder  statesman"  of  the  Kentucky  Democracy. 
Swope  also  charged  that  the  state's  civil  and  highway  employes  were  being  bled  for 
contributions  to  Chandler's  election  fund.  This  was  doubtless  true;  but  it  had  too 
long  been  a  custom  in  Kentucky  to  cause  dismay  or  even  a  shock;  and,  as  the  Republi- 
cans made  no  effort  to  prove  it  or  stop  it,  but  only  used  it  for  election  ammunition, 
the  public  felt  that  it  was  exaggerated  and  that  a  Republican  administration  would  not 
remedy  it.  The  charge  was  far  from  a  "bomb-shell"  and  it  is  doubtful  if  it  did 
Chandler  any  more  damage  than  it  did  Swope. 


At  Governor  Chandler's  inauguration  a  vast  and  colorful  procession  marched  in 
review  at  Frankfort  on  December  10,  1935.  There  were  lowering  winter  skies  and  chill 
winter  winds  but  the  turnout  was  the  largest  in  the  history  of  the  state.  The  pro- 
cession was  two  hours  in  passing  the  Governor's  reviewing  stand. 

A  passage  in  his  address  typified  the  young  Governor's  disposition.  It  said  "My  joy 
at  the  opportunity  to  serve  you  is  unbounded.  I  commenced  this  campaign  in  Kentucky 
this  year  with  a  smile  upon  my  face  and  a  song  in  my  heart."  Among  the  distinguished 
men  on  his  platform  were  former  governors  of  Kentucky,  A.  O.  Stanley,  J.  C.  W. 
Beckham,  William  J.  Fields,  and  James  D.  Black;  Governor  George  H.  Earle  of  Penn- 
sylvania; Postmaster  General  of  the  United  States,  James  A.  Farley;  Senators  Joseph 
Guffey  of  Pennsylvania  and  Harry  F.  Byrd  of  Virginia. 

The  retiring  Governor,  Hon.  Ruby  Laffoon  made  a  kindly  and  gentlemanly  address. 
Chandler  promised  reorganization  "from  top  to  bottom"  of  the  state  government;  ade- 
quate appropriations  for  the  public  schools,  charities,  and  public  health,  and  establishment 
in  Kentucky  of  President  Roosevelt's  program  for  social  security  and  old  age  pensions. 

The  Courier- Journal's  editorial  the  next  day  said  "The  address  of  Governor  Chandler 
was  admirable  in  scope  of  reassurances  and  restraint  of  modesty."  The  new  governor 
acted  with  vigor  to  make  his  promises  good  and  "the  majestic  proportions  of  the  vote 
cast,  the  mandatory  majority,  the  inaugural  demonstration  were  too  imperative  to  be 
misunderstood  by  the  legislator"  as  the  Courier- Journal  put  it. 

J.  Dan  Talbott,  the  Insurance  Commissioner,  estimated  that  the  Reorganization  Bill 
that  was  passed  would  save  the  state  $2,000,000  annually. 

On  March  6,  the  Courier- Journal  said: 

"This  legislature  has  crowded  an  extra  session  within  the  constitutional  period  of  the 
regular  session  with  time  to  spare.  It  has  proceeded  with  expedition  and  precision 
because  it  has  been  systematic  in  its  procedure  and  attended  to  the  state's  instead  of 
the  Lobby's  business."  In  its  session  no  "gag"  rule,  no  "deals,"  no  bipartisan  coal- 
ition, were  in  evidence. 

Particular  attention  was  given  to  educational  needs.  The  Sales  Tax  was  repealed  and 
higher  taxes  paid  on  alcoholic  beverages.  Reforms  were  instituted  in  the  State  High- 
way Department  designed  to  prevent  its  participation  in  politics.  When  the  appropria- 
tions exceeded  the  estimated  tax  income  Governor  Chandler  called  the  Legislature  in 
extra  session  to  raise  taxes  for  the  following  two  years  so  that  the  appropriations  could 
be  met. 

The  Kentucky  Constitution  forbids  debt  in  excess  of  $500,000,  but  Governor  Chand- 
ler inherited  from  past  administrations  one  and  one  half  million  dollars  of  floating 
debt.  The  state's  outstanding  warrants  on  January  1,  1936,  amounted  to  $21,366,000, 
which  was  $1,500,000  in  excess  or  receipts  for  the  preceding  six  months.  Chandler's 
administration  wiped  out  the  $1,500,000  deficit,  paid  the  state's  bills,  and  had  a  balance 
of  $1,120,000  in  the  treasury.  In  one  month  after  his  inauguration  he  had  dropped 
3,500  people  from  the  state's  payroll.  To  this  the  Courier- Journal  commented  "Again 
the  Governor  displays  the  same  alacrity  and  initiative  which  caught  the  public  imagi- 
nation .  .  .    He  leaves  himself  no  course  but  reform." 

At  the  close  of  his  first  legislative  session  the  Courier- Journal  said  "Governor  Chand- 
ler stands,  still  at  the  beginning  of  his  administration,  unsurpassed  in  accomplishment 
in  this  or  perhaps  any  commonwealth. 

There  were  no  ill-winds  or  untoward  events  in  his  administration  worthy  of  mention. 
He  showed  a  power  of  foresight  and  a  skill  in  planning  rarely  displayed  in  our 
public  officials. 

On  October  3,  1939  Kentucky's  United  States  Senator,  M.  M.  Logan  died  and  it 
became  incumbent  on  the  Governor  of  Kentucky  to  appoint  his  successor     As  Gover- 


nor  Chandler  had  accomplished  the  reforms  he  promised  in  his  campaign  and  as  his 
term  of  office  was  nearly  up,  he  resigned,  and  Lieutenant-Governor  Keen  Johnson  suc- 
ceeding to  the  governorship,  appointed  "Happy"  to  fill  out  Senator  Logan's  unexpired 

History  without  reluctance  and  few  apologies  will  tell  that  he  was  a  good  governor; 
and  his  legions  of  acquaintances  will  remember  the  exuberant  spirits,  and  genial  ways 
that  made  him  to  all,  not  Governor  or  Senator  so  much,  as  "Happy  Chandler." 


As  gubernatorial  administrations  go,  Chandler's  tenure  must  be  considered  as  one 
of  progress  and  achievement.  His  sentimentalism  on  the  hustings  was  not  carried  into 
his  administration  of  affairs.  Yet  Governor  Chandler  was  far  more  unpopular  upon 
leaving  office  than  upon  taking  it,  in  spite  of  successful  incumbency.  This  was  due 
perhaps  to  four  reasons,  namely  (1)  the  officiousness  of  his  officials  (2)  the  fact  that 
the  people  were  showing  signs  of  satiety  with  the  sustained  combination  of  Horatio 
Alger — poor-boy-makes-good,  Al  Jolson-Eddie  Cantor,  "Pass  the  Biscuit  Pappy"  Mc- 
Daniel  brand  of  campaign  spell-binding.  (3)  Too,  Mr.  Chandler's  chief  adviser,  or- 
ganizer and  manager,  J.  Dan  Talbott  (former  auditor  and  incumbent  finance  chief) 
had  gained  many  enemies  to  the  administration  because  of  what  were  termed  dictatorial 
and  ruthless  political  methods;  especially  had  the  perennial  extractions  of  funds  from 
the  job-holders  for  the  campaign  war  chests  irritated  many.  (4)  Perhaps  the  principal 
cause  of  the  growing  unpopularity  was  the  fact  that  he  had  audaciously  challenged 
the  Senatorial  seat  of  Alben  W.  Barkley  in  1938.  The  general  feeling  among  Demo- 
crats was  that  Barkley  for  his  many  and  faithful  services  to  the  party,  in  both  the 
state  and  nation,  deserved  the  nomination  without  serious  opposition.  This  action, 
brought  on  by  boundless  ambition  and  faulty  advice,  proved  to  be  a  costly  blunder 
indeed,  one  which  seriously  injured  Mr.  Chandler  locally  and  nationally. 

That  Keen  Johnson,  acceptable  to  both  the  Thomas  S.  Rhea  and  Dan  Talbott  wings 
of  the  party,  would  receive  the  Democratic  nomination  in  1939  was  a  foregone  con- 
clusion. Yet  it  was  known  that  Mr.  Johnson  was  formed  in  a  somewhat  conservative 
retiring  mold — none  of  the  Chandler  blare,  blarney  and  fanfare,  which  but  for  the 
time  would  have  in  no  wise  been  discrediting  to  Mr.  Johnson. 

Nominated,  along  with  Mr.  Johnson  were:  Rhodes  K.  Myers,  for  Lieutenant  Gov- 
ernor; George  G.  Hatcher,  for  Secretary  of  State;  Ernest  W.  Shannon,  for  Auditor; 
David  Logan,  for  Treasurer;  Hubert  Meredith,  for  Attorney  General;  John  W.  Brooker, 
for  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction;  William  H.  May,  for  Commissioner  of 
Agriculture;  and  Charles  K.  O'Connell,  for  Clerk  of  the  Court  of  Appeals. 

The  Republicans  after  a  spirited  race  between  Judge  King  Swope,  of  Lexington, 
and  Judge  John  Cooper,  of  Somerset,  again  nominated  Judge  Swope  as  their  guberna- 
torial standard-bearer.  Nominated  with  him  were:  Jouett  Ross  Todd,  for  Lieutenant 
Governor;  Kenneth  Tuggle,  for  Attorney  General;  R.  L.  Stewart,  for  Clerk  of  the 
Court  of  Appeals;  Charles  I.  Trivette,  for  Secreary  of  State;  Thomas  J.  Niceley,  for 
Auditor;  John  S.  Petot,  for  Treasurer;  John  S.  Brown,  for  Superintendent  of  Public 
Instruction;  and  Van  Alexander,  for  Commissioner  of  Agriculture. 

The  Democrats  were  pleased  to  stand  upon  their  record  of  achievement  in  both  the 
state  and  nation,  pointing  with  pride  to  the  success  of  the  Chandler  administration 
in  reorganization  of  the  state  government,  liquidation  of  indebtedness,  accumulation  of 
surplus,  old-age  benefits,  conduct  of  the  penal  and  charitable  institutions  and,  par- 
ticularly to  the  multiplicity  of  New  Deal  reforms.  They  reminded  again  the  voters  of 
the  depression  begun  during  Herbert  Hoover's  administration  and  indicted  the  Re- 
publican party  for  both  its  incipiency  and  its  continuance. 


The  Republicans,  on  the  other  hand,  charged  their  opponents  with  inefficiency, 
bossism,  graft,  favoritism  and  mounting  taxes.  Judge  Swope  made  a  vigorous,  vitriolic 
campaign,  but  all  to  no  avail.  The  New  Deal  had  almost  completely  gained  the  labor 
and  the  Negro  vote,  without  a  good  part  of  which — barring  wholesale  Democrat  dis- 
affection— the  Republicans  could  not  hope  to  win;  moreover,  the  farmers  were  sticking 
with  the  Democrats. 

The  vote  was:  Johnson,  460,834;  Swope,  354,704 — a  majority  of  106,130  votes  for 
Mr.  Johnson — a  majority  seldom,  if  ever,  precedented  in  races  for  state  office  in 

Governor  Johnson  could  do  little  more  than  carry  forward  reforms  which  had  al- 
ready begun.  He  hoped  to  improve  the  penal  and  welfare  institutions,  conduct  an 
efficient  business-like  administration,  and  build  up  the  surplus.  He  seemed  determined 
apparently  at  all  costs  to  be  niggardly  in  spending.  Though  a  cultured,  pleasant  gentle- 
man, he  did  not  possess  the  warmth,  geniality  and  approachability  Mr.  Chandler 
possessed  as  governor,  which,  though  nothing  to  his  discredit,  probably  gave  many  an 
adverse  impression.  Unfortunately,  his  determination  to  be  parsimonious  with  the 
public  funds  was  an  admirable  resolve  which  came  at  the  wrong  time.  Costs  of  living 
were  rapidly  mounting,  prices  of  materials  were  skyrocketing  (the  Second  World  War 
was  on) ,  which  caused  state  employees,  wards  and  teachers  to  suffer  acutely.  Spending 
lavishly  probably  would  have  been  quite  in  order;  yet  only  a  trickle  came  out.  The 
welfare  institutions  and  public  education  were  soon  in  a  sad  plight — and  little  help 
was  forthcoming. 

Mr.  Johnson  too  was  unfortunate  enough  to  inherit  the  sins  of  a  long-time  incumbent 
political  machine,  the  accumulated  short-comings  of  which,  though  not  of  his  making, 
were  nevertheless  charged  to  him.  Soon  it  was  whispered  that  Clifford  E.  Smith,  a 
Frankfort  attorney,  was  profiting  greatly  through  favoritism.  Mr.  Johnson  possessed 
also  an  attorney  general  who  was  a  free  lance  individualist,  cantankerous,  with  a  positive 
mania  for  muck-raking.  No  less  more  vitriolic  but  more  of  a  genius  at  magnifying 
errors  into  public  scandals  and  coloring  personalities  to  angel  white  or  satanic  red  was 
the  Courier-Journal's  columnist,  J.  Howard  Henderson,  who  did  with  words  what 
Nast  had  done  with  cartoons  during  the  1870s  and  1880s.  Scandal  after  scandal,  real 
or  imagined,  developed.  All  the  while  the  old  needy,  the  wards  and  the  teachers  were 
suffering;  education  was  breaking  down;  the  people,  stirred  by  the  war,  were  becoming 
more  and  more  restive.  Governor  Johnson  conducted  the  office  with  dignity  and  firm- 
ness. Yet,  the  public  tide  was  sweeping  away  from  the  state  Democrats.  Even  a  large 
section  of  the  Democrats  had  become  disaffected.  They  were  preparing  to  punish  the 
organization  for  its  accumulated  sins.  The  Republicans,  breathing  the  sweet  odor  of 
victory  from  afar  began  scrambling  for  position. 

Though  the  candidates  of  the  two  parties  are  more  or  less  picked  by  the  organiza- 
tions, a  primary  is  held,  in  order  to  carry  cut  the  letter  of  the  law  and  give  the  people 
the  impression  of  their  sovereignty.  The  Republican  primary  in  the  year  1943  was 
merely  a  nominal  affair  with  no  contests.  However,  the  race  for  the  gubernatorial 
nomination  in  the  Democrat  party  became  serious,  with  the  former  and  popular  Farm 
Bureau  Federation  district  head,  Ben  Kilgore,  challenging  the  organization-picked 
candidate,  J.  Lyter  Donaldson,  an  able  and  tireless  public  servant.  Though  Mr.  Donald- 
son won  out,  Mr.  Kilgore  ran  a  strong  race,  and  it  appears  that  most  of  the  disaffected 
Democrats  did  not  return  to  the  fold  that  year. 

The  Republicans  selected  these  candidates:  Judge  Simeon  S.  Willis,  for  Governor; 
Kenneth  H.  Tuggle,  for  Lieutenant  Governor;  Mary  Landis  Cave,  for  Secretary  of 
State;  Eldon  S.  Dummitt,  for  Attorney  General;  Charles  I.  Ross,  for  Auditor;  Thomas 
W.   Vinson,    for   Treasurer;   John  Fred  Williams,   for  State   Superintendent  of  Public 


Instruction;  Elliott  Robertson,  for  Commissioner  of  Agriculture;  and  E.  E.  Hughes, 
for  Clerk  of  the  Court  of  Appeals. 

The  Democrats  nominated:  J.  Lyter  Donaldson,  for  Governor;  William  H.  May, 
for  Lieutenant  Governor;  Charles  K.  O'Connell,  for  Secretary  of  State;  Ernest  E. 
Shannon,  for  Auditor;  Holman  R.  Wilson,  for  Treasurer;  A.  E.  Funk,  for  Attorney 
General;  George  L.  Evans,  for  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction;  Tom  Phipps,  for 
Commissioner  of  Agriculture;  Brooks  L.  Hargrove,  for  Clerk  of  the  Court  of  Ap- 

They,  after  promising  to  "clean  out  the  gang,"  repeal  the  income  tax,  appropriate 
increased  funds  for  education  and  more  benevolent  attention  to  the  pensioners  and 
wards  and  returning  soldiers,  as  well  as  the  Negroes,  set  forth  a  "Bill  of  Particulars" 
so  scathing  that  it  is  here  quoted  in  full  from  their  hand-bill: 

"Bill  of  Particulars 

"The  Johnson-Donaldson  political  crowd  promised  Kentucky  honest,  honorable,  effi- 
cient management. 

"But  once  safely  in  office,  it: — 

"Gave  no  relief  to  burdened  taxpayers  though  state  income  was  far  more  than 
enough  to  meet  expenses. 

"Strengthened  by  devious  political  practices  a  machine  that  already  had  the  people 
by  the  throat. 

"Put  and  kept  on  the  payroll  men  who  by  later  acknowledgment  didn't  do  one  lick 
of  work  for  the  state. 

"Engaged  in  purchasing  practices  that  its  own  personally  selected  committee  found 
loose,  preferential  and  wasteful. 

"Tried  to  put  through  a  laundry-equipment  deal  that  would  have  cost  the  taxpayers 
needless  thousands  of  dollars  and  were  kept  from  doing  so  only  by  courageous  action 
on  the  part  of  the  attorney  general. 

"Attempted  to  keep  on  collecting  tolls  after  the  bridge  at  Covington  had  paid  for 
itself  and  again  were  prevented  from  doing  so  by  action  of  the  attorney  general. 

"Farmed  out  back-tax  collections,  at  a  fabulous  commission,  to  Politician-Lawyer 
Clifford  Smith,  alias  "The  Brain." 

"Faced  an  injunction,  obtained  by  the  attorney  general  against  Johnson  and  Donald- 
son, forbidding  the  assessment  of  state  employees  for  campaign-fund  purposes. 

"Denied,  through  Spokesmen  Johnson  and  Donaldson,  the  receipt  of  $22,000  in 
illegal  campaign  funds,  only  to  be  forced  to  a  confession  by  the  actual  evidence. 

"Appointed  as  finance  manager  for  the  Donaldson  campaign  a  notorious  lobbyist 
for  big  and  special  interests,  thus  giving  the  lie  to  its  own  promises  of  reform. 

"It's  high  time  for  a  change!" 

Mr.  Donaldson  came  out  with  a  sensible,  sane  platform  of  economy,  efficiency  and 
support  of  the  Roosevelt  administration.  He  did  not  believe  that  the  state  budget 
could  stand  the  loss  of  revenues  brought  in  by  the  state  income  tax  and  therefore 
stated  that  he  opposed  its  repeal.  He  wished  very  earnestly  to  be  governor  and 
probably  would  have  made  an  efficient  one,  but  he  had  too  great  a  load  to  carry. 
Moreover,  Judge  Willis,  a  fine,  impressive-looking  man  physically — a  six-footer  with 
a  shock  of  gray  hair  and  a  twinkle  in  his  eyes — proved  to  be  a  very  popular  and  con- 
vincing campaigner,  inspiring  confidence  everywhere  he  spoke.  Even  the  old-time 
Democratic  spell-binders,  rabble-rousers  and  stem-winders  could  not  stem  the  tide. 
Willis  and  the  entire  Republican  ticket  (with  the  exception  of  Mary  Landis  Cave  for 
Secretary  of  State,  beaten  by  the  very  popular  and  versatile  Charley  O'Connell)  were 
elected  by  more  than  5,000  majority. 



The  Republicans  were  ushered  in  auspiciously.  Both  the  Courier- Journal  and 
the  independent  Democrats — even  the  vitrolic,  truculent  and  predatory  Howard 
Henderson — were  inclined  to  wish  well  Governor  Willis.  Yet,  he  lost  the  support 
of  all  these,  together  with  many  Republican  politicians,  within  a  short  time.  Several 
factors  are  responsible  for  this  rapid  decline:  (1)  A  chastened  and  contrite  Democracy, 
ashamed  of  its  disaffection  and  resolved  to  stick  next  time.  (2)  the  Governor's  failure 
to  act  quickly  with  a  clear-cut  decisive  program  in  dealing  with  the  Legislature  early 
in  the  session.  (3)  The  fact  that  the  Governor,  who  had  promised  repeal  of  the  in- 
come tax,  was  forced  to  back-track  on  his  campaign  promise.  (4)  The  fact  that 
though  promises  were  kept  in  appropriations  for  education,  the  teachers  and  education, 
because  of  war-time  conditions  and  an  ancient  and  settled  backwardness  and  con- 
servatism on  the  part  of  the  generality  of  Kentuckians  in  matters  pertaining  to  educa- 
tion, were  little  better  off — actually  worse  off  by  comparison  with  all  the  other  forty- 
seven  states  of  the  Union.  (5)  The  welfare  and  penal  institutions,  because  of  war-time 
prices  and  shortage  of  able  personnel  were  soon  in  trouble.  (6)  Governor  Willis  does 
not  appear  to  like  politicians  and  does  not  "play-ball"  with  them,  it  is  said.  Actually 
Governor  Willis  is  a  very  attractive  man  whose  honesty  and  sincerity  can  not  be 
doubted.  Yet,  he  is  judicially-minded,  which  makes  for  conservatism  and  slowness — 
often  being  injurious  to  the  executive.  War-time  conditions  too  have  deprived  every 
department  of  the  full  and  efficient  personnel  needed  for  successful  administration. 
Most  of  the  Democrats  held  over  (and  the  number  is  large)  know  departmental  work 
better  than  most  of  the  new  Republicans. 

It  is  quite  obvious  that  Kentucky  ranking  at  the  bottom  among  the  states  of  the 
Union  in  welfare,  education,  antiquity  of  transportation  laws,  governmental  organiza- 
tion, and  many  other  things,  needs  reform.  It  appears  quite  clear  that  the  entire  people 
should  go  in  for  a  vast  and  compelling  crusade  for  general  improvement  and  uplift. 
This  should  present  a  very  challenging  appeal  to  both  parties  and  leaders.  What  the 
Republican  party  and /or  Governor  Willis  will  do  are  not  yet  known.  As  Senator 
Chandler  seems  upon  the  point  of  resigning  his  seat  at  this  time  (April  27,  1945)  to 
accept  the  position  of  "Czar"  of  baseball,  made  vacant  by  the  death  of  the  colorful 
Judge  Kenesaw  Mountain  Landis,  many  political  speculators  are  of  the  opinion  that 
Governor  Willis  will  resign  and  that  Lieutenant  Governor  Tuggle,  becoming  governor, 
will  appoint  Governor  Willis  to  Chandler's  vacated  seat  in  the  United  States  Senate. 

As  time  advances,  the  records  clearly  reveal  that  Governor  Willis  is  sincerely  desirous 
of  planning  improvement  and  advancement  to  the  state.  He  has  appointed  several  non- 
partisan committees,  particularly  the  Post  War  Planning  Council,  which  are  undertaking 
to  make  a  fair  estimate  of  Kentucky's  needs,  as  well  as  suggesting  means  of  achievement. 
Since  the  end  of  the  War,  many  signs  indicate  beginning  action  for  the  state's  improve- 
ment. The  Department  of  Education  has  announced  a  broad  program  of  expansion, 
improvement  and  advancement;  the  Department  of  Conservation,  guided  by  the  enlight- 
ened policies  of  Federal  agencies,  has  announced  a  forward  looking  program  of  soil 
improvement  and  preservation,  forest  improvement  and  preservation,  and  a  fine  program 
of  recreation,  embracing  many  sections  of  the  state.  The  Welfare  Department  has  also 
recently  announced  an  incipient  building  program  and  adoption  of  improved  methods 
in  connection  with  the  many  institutions  under  its  control  and  supervision.  Barring  a 
legislative  session  in  1946  controlled  by  parsimony  and  partisanism,  the  people  of  Ken- 
tucky may  well  look  forward  to  the  beginning  of  an  era  of  advancement  and  prosperity 
in  the  state. 



An  account  of  Daniel  Boone's  captivity  as  related  by  Nathan  Boone,  youngest  son 
of  Daniel,  to  Lyman  Draper. 

The  same  evening  occurred  a  dispute  arose — probably  in  council  as  to  whether  the 
prisoners  ears  should  be  trimmed — i.e.  to  split  the  rim  of  the  ear  fully  two  inches  in 
length  in  which  when  healed  to  hang  bobs,  &c.  The  two  French  officers  got  into  a 
warm  dispute  about  it,  one  proposing  and  favoring  the  measure  &  trying  to  persuade 
the  Indians  to  adopt  it — the  other  opposing;  they  finally  drew  their  swords  on  each 
other,  &  Black  Fish  &  other  influential  Indians  interfered  &  prevented  bloodshed. 
Boone  asked  Brubey,  what  this  was  about,  &  he  told  him.  This  Col.  N.  Boone  thinks 
must  have  been  the  only  thing  this  project  of  trimming  of  the  ears — that  Jackson 
alludes  to,  when  he  represents  a  council  held  to  determine  the  fate  of  the  prisoners. 
That  possibly  there  may  have  been  a  council  held,  &  Col.  Boone  may  have  in  it  spoken 
in  behalf  of  the  prisoners  &  demanded  the  fulfillment  of  the  stipulations  &  that  Jackson 
misunderstood  the  point  discussed. 

Thinks  the  return  march  of  the  Indians  to  the  Shawanoe  towns,  was  one  of  severity 
&  want  but  no  distinct  recollection  except  that  some  of  the  Indians  had  their  ears 
frozen; — has  heard  his  father  speak,  when  in  want  of  food,  of  having  eaten  slippery 
elm  bark  (rather  loosening)  and  oak  ooze  by  chewing  tanbark  (stringent)  mutually 
to  counteract  any  bad  effects — &  also  knows  Indians  have  what  they  call  black  drink 
made  into  a  soup  with  weeds, —  (what  it  is  made  of  not  known)  which  they  take  when 
they  have  overloaded  their  stomachs  at  a  dog-feast,  when  they  have  tried  to  see  who 
could  eat  the  most,  &  wish  to  vomit;  but  cannot  fix  either  of  such  resorts  as  having 
occurred  on  this  march.  Their  route,  or  of  crossing  the  Ohio  not  known.  Recollects 
of    some   carrying    kettles — no   particular    incidents    connected    with    them    remembered. 

Nothing  particularly  recollected  as  occurring  at  the  Indian  town — Black  Fish  & 
other  Indians  took  Boone  to  Detroit.  Gov.  Hamilton  offered  to  ransom  him,  but 
Black  Fish  would  not  part  with  him  (probably  retaining  him,  as  I  think,  to  carry  along 
on  the  intended  expedition  against  Boonesboro,  to  make  use  of  him  in  effecting  the 
peaceable  surrender  of  the  fort  &  people,  according  to  Boone's  promise  made,  in 
durance  ?,  when  first  captured — as  Santa  Anna  acknowledged  the  Independence  of 

At  the  first  arrival  of  Black  Fish,  Hamilton  learning  the  name  &  character  of  Boone 
as  the  principal  prisoner,  sent  for  him — wishing  to  keep  &  entertain  him  that  night, 
&  return  him  next  morning.  The  Gov.  wished  to  gain  intelligence, — &  had  Boone  in 
his  room;  &  enquired  if  he  had  heard  anything  of  Burgoyne's  army?  Yes,  says  Boone, 
it  was  well  known  in  Ky.  as  a  fact  before  I  was  taken,  that  Burgoyne  &  his  whole 
army  had  surrendered  to  Gen.  Gates.  Gov.  Hamilton  then  called  to  his  private  secre- 
tary, John  Hay,  in  an  adjoining  room,  saying — "Hay,  the  report  of  Burgoyne's  disaster 
I  fear  is  true;  Capt.  Boone  says  it  was  well  known  in  Ky.  before  he  was  taken.  Feel- 
ing convinced  of  it,  Hamilton  requested  Boone  not  to  mention  it  to  the  Indians,  as  it 
would  do  no  good.  You  are  too  late,  Governor,  I  have  already  told  them  of  it," 
The  Governor  then  desired  that  Boone  would  endeavor  to  speak  slightly  of  the  affair, 


as  if  it  were  mere  vague  report,  &  was  unworthy  of  belief, — or  that  he  had  jokingly 
spoken  of  it.    No  recollection  about  any  other  conversation. 

Finding  Boone  could  not  be  redeemed,  the  Governor  gave  orders  to  the  King's  com- 
missary to  furnish  Cap't  Boone  with  a  horse,  saddle,  bridle  &  blanket  and  also  with 
a  quantity  of  Indian  silver  trinkets  to  use  among  the  Indians  as  currency.  The  horse 
furnished  was  a  poney.  Col.  N.  Boone  thinks  it  very  likely  Col.  D.  Boone  used  some 
policy  with  Hamilton;  but  no  knowledge  of  exhibiting  his  Dunmore  commission. 

Returning  from  Detroit,  Black  Fish  went  down  the  Lake,  &  up  Huron  River,  to 
visit  the  Mingoes,  &  other  Indian  towns — &  fell  upon  the  heads  of  Scioto  &  down  it, 
visiting  other  Indian  towns — giving  them  all  notice  to  assemble  for  the  grand  expedition 
against  Ky. 

The  first  of  the  Salt  boiler  captives  who  escaped  &  got  in  to  the  settlement,  was 
Andrew  Johnson.  While  a  prisoner  he  made  the  Indians  fully  think  he  was  a  fool; 
would  set  him  shooting  a  gun — he  would  be  afraid  of  the  gun  &  when  he  would  shoot 
he  would  dodge  his  head  back,  &  make  awkard  &  bad  shots — even  missing  a  large 
tree  when  near  a  mark.  Feigned  fear  to  leave  camp  alone.  The  Indians  would  make 
much  sport  of  him;  &  being  small  in  size,  gave  him  the  name  of  pe-cu-la,  or  the  Little 
Duck.*  He  was  really  an  admirable  woodman,  &  took  an  early  occasion  to  run  off, 
which  he  effected  without  difficulty  as  he  was  deemed  by  the  Indians  too  foolish  to 
know  enough  to  attempt  to  escape — or  if  he  attempted,  to  succeed  in  it,  &  hence  was 
not  watched  as  were  the  others.  Johnson  soon  reached  Boonesboro — &  piloted  a  small 
party  to  the  Indian  country  near  Chillicothe  &  attacked  several  sugar  camps  all  together 
adjoining  each  other  &  defeated  the  Indians  there,  perhaps  killing  one  or  more — & 
then  returned  safely  back  to  Boonesboro  (See  Whitley's  M.  Co.  narrative) .  (This  is 
doubtless  the  affair  meant  in  Col.  A.  Campbell's  letter,  July  31,  78,  that  "A  Captain 
&  11  men  from  Ky.  went  within  5  miles  of  Chillicothe  lately  undiscovered  &  returned 
safe."  (possibly  Capt.  Smith  &  John  Martins  trip?)  Undiscovered  until  they  got 
within  5  miles  of  Chillicothe  &  attacked  the  sugar  camps,  as  I  suppose:  No  knowl- 
edge what  subsequently  became  of  Johnson  when  Black  Fish  &  Boone  returned  from 
Detroit.  Black  Fish  asked  Boone  who  he  thought  it  could  possibly  be  that  had  done 
this  bold  act — as  the  Indians  thought  none  of  the  Kentuckians  knew  the  locality  of 
the  Indian  towns  &  geography  of  the  Indian  country.  Boone  replied,  more  to  annoy 
the  Indians  than  really  thinking  it  was  so,  that  it  was  Pe-cu-la.  No,  says,  Black  Fish, 
it  could  not  have  been  him — he  was  a  fool  &  could  not  have  reached  Ky.  He  was  no 
fool,  but  a  man  of  good  sense,  &  a  fine  woodsman,  said  Boone.  Then  why  did  you 
not  tell  me  so  before  enquired  Black  Fish?  "Because,"  Boone,  you  never  asked  me. 
'You  had  him  herein  for  a  laughing  stock."  Boone  learned  upon  his  return  to  Boones- 
boro that  Johnson  was  the  one  who  incited  6C  piloted  this  little  expedition.  It  gave  the 
Indians  much  concern,  as  unimportant  as  it  was,  it  being  the  very  first  enterprise  of 
the  Kentuckians  against  their  towns;  &  was  the  first  proof  to  them  that  the  captivity 
of  the  large  party  of  salt  boilers  was  in  a  fair  way  to  result  as  disastrously  to  the 
Indians  as  advantageously  to  the  whites. 

Sam'l  Brooks  &  James  Calloway  attempted  to  run  off  from  the  Detroit  region,  in 
canoe  down  Detroit  river — in  a  fog — as  it  cleared  off,  they  found  themselves  in  the 
very  midst  of  an  Indian  town  on  the  bank  of  the  stream,  &  were  retaken — made  to 
run  the  gauntlet,  where  were  squaws  &  children  &  youngsters,  who  are  always  more 
unmerciful  to  one  running  the  gauntlet  than  the  men  are,  &  both  passed  through  a 
severe  ordeal  &  Brooks  particularly,  who,  when  struck,  would  stop  &  strike  the  Indians 
in  return,  &  during  the  race  got  his  arm  broke.  They  were  put  in  confinement  &  were 
overheard  planning  another  attempt  to  escape.     Brooks  had  to  talk  loud,  as  Calloway 


was  hard  of  hearing — &  their  design  thwarted.  Brooks  died  in  captivity — &  Col.  D'l 
Boone  used  to  say,  that  probably  Brooks  would  have  survived  &  returned,  but  for  his 
irascible  conduct  &  getting  himself  constantly  embroiled  in  difficulties.  Not  recollected 
how  James  Calloway  got  away  (Mrs.  N.  Boone  don't  recollect  about  his  refusing  to 
carry  the  salt  kettle) .  He  settled  in  Missouri,  in  Howard  Co. — probably  children 
living — one,  Stephen,  in  Platte  or  Buchanan  Co.  Jame  Calloway  has  been  dead  15  or 
20  years — Came  to  Mo.  several  years  after  the  Bocnes,  was  brother  of  Flanders  & 

Jesse  Cofer,  another  of  the  captives  subsequently  returned — married  a  daughter  of 
Sam'l  Boone    (brother  of  D'l  Boone)   settled  &  died  in  Ky.  probably  Clark  Co. 

Nathaniel  Bullock  (not  Nathan  Bullitt  as  Kenton  has  it)  was  the  name,  as  Col.  N. 
Boone  has  often  heard  it:  Don't  know  what  became  of  him. 

Mr.  &  Col.  N.  Boone  relate — that  Black  Fish  sent  Boone  to  fall  a  tree,  &  had  him 
cut  notches  in  it,  holding  something  like  a  quart,  in  which  to  salt  the  horses.  Boone 
got  his  hands  blistered — &  went  &  showed  them  to  Black  Fish  (into  whose  family 
Boone  was  adopted — but  the  particulars  of  which  are  not  remembered  by  either  Col. 
N.  or  Mrs.  Boone — but  both  are  positive  it  was  into  Black  Fish's  family  he  was 
adopted) — says  "see — you  are  making  a  slave  of  me — you  don't  treat  me  like  a  son; 
men  warriors  &  hunters  dont  perform  such  menial  services;  in  Ky.  I  had  servants  to 
do  such  work."  Black  Fish  said  it  was  true — &  he  need  not  work.  Both  Black  Fish 
&  his  squaw  treated  him  very  kindly — seemed  to  think  much  of  them:  They  had  two 
children — girls,  both  small,  names  Pom-me-pe-sy  &  Pim-ne-pe-sy,  the  former  some  four 
or  five  years  old,  ill  tempered  &  hateful;  the  youngest  a  mere  child,  perhaps  a  year  old, 
a  kind  temper,  &  Boone  used  to  nurse  it  frequently,  &  with  his  silver  trinket  currency, 
would  buy  maple  sugar  &  give  it  to  the  children,  who  would  smilingly  call  it  'molas. 
To  show  old  Black  Fish's  kindness,  as  well  as  to  show  an  Indian's  idea  of  taste,  Col. 
D.  Boone  used  to  say?,  many  a  lump  of  sugar  old  Black  Fish  (some  50  years  old, 
perhaps  not  quite  so  much)  would  suck  awhile  in  his  mouth,  take  it  out  &  give  it  to 
his  son  Boone, — whom  he  always  addressed  as  "my  son."  The  name  given  him  by 
Black  Fish  signified  "The  Big  Turtle"  (in  Indian,  as  Moses  Boone  recollected,  Shel- 
tow-y) . 

In  Spring  as  the  grass  was  getting  up  nicely,  Boone  asked  Black  Fish  for  permission 
to  hopple  &  turn  out  his  poney  in  the  prairie?  "Yes,  after  a  little,"  replied  the  Chief. 
In  half  an  hour  after,  he  came  to  Boone,  told  him  he  could  go  &  turn  out  his  horse. 
Boone  went,  &  soon  discovered  several  Indians  secreted  flat  in  the  old  grass  &  dry 
weeds  &  brushes,  with  their  guns — plainly  enough  placed  there  by  Black  Fish's  orders 
to  watch  the  prisoner  &  see  if  he  evinced  any  disposition  to  run  away.  Boone  pre- 
tended not  to  have  seen  them,  turned  out  his  poney  &  went  to  whistling  as  unconcernedly 
as  if  nothing  had  happened.  He  was  thus  watched  two  or  three  time,  &  finally  was 
suffered  to  go  at  liberty.  He  might  have  effected  his  escape  much  sooner  than  he 
did,  but  as  he  had  learned  of  the  large  Boonesborough  expedition,  he  delayed  till  he 
could  learn  more  definitely  concerning  it  &  the  time  of  its  marching — once  his  poney 
was  missing — someone  had  taken  it  off,  &  he  told  Black  Fish,  who  made  reply  that  he 
thought  he  was  out  in  the  range — reckoned  he  would  come  back  again. 

Indians  thus  borrow  &  use,  without  asking  the  owner,  very  frequently;  &  will  not 
tell  of  each  other  thus  trangressing.  Boone  knew  full  well  his  poney  had  gone  in  the 
same  way,  &  only  feared  lest  he  should  not  be  brought  back  in  time  to  aid  him  in  his 
premeditated  escape.  After  three  or  four  weeks,  Black  Fish  came  &  notified  Boone 
that  his  poney  had  got  back.     Boone  forms  ?  he  had  been  badly  used,  &  his  back  was 


very  sore;   but  good  care  &  attention  soon  restored  him  again.     Nothing  was  further 
said  about  this  Indian  borrowing. 

Sometimes  to  while  away  time,  Boone  would  go  out  into  the  field  &  volunteer  to 
aid  his  Indian  Mother  in  hoeing  the  corn;  Black  Fish  seeing  which  would  say,  "My 
son,  you  need  not  work,  Your  Mother  can  easily  raise  enough  for  us  all."  Black  Fish 
would  sometimes  smooth  over  the  dirt  on  the  ground  &  mark  out  the  geography  of 
the  country,  apparently  to  amuse  Boone. 

Wm.  Hancock,  who  was  a  poor  woodman,  &  discontented  with  his  captivity  &  moody 
(as  he  afterwards  used  to  say)   did'nt  see  how  Boone  could  be  whistling  and  contented 
among  the  dirty  Indians,  when  he  was  so  melancholy. 

The  "worst  act  the  Indians  ever  did  'Boone  used  to  say,"  was  their  taking  the  salt 
boilers,  &  learning  ?  them  the  way  to  to  their  towns  &  the  geography  of  the  Indian 
country — &  that  they  it  resulted  in  a  real  good  to  the  Kentuckians,  though  at  first 
they  deemed  it  so  great  a  disaster" — In  shooting  at  a  mark,  he  would  purposely  suffer 
the  Indians  to  beat  him,  that  they  might  not  be  jealous,  was  permitted  to  hunt  alone. 

At  length  Black  Fish  &  wife  &  a  party  went  to  the  Scioto  Licks  &  Salt  Works — 
made  some  salt  there  a  few  days.  It  was  probably  at  the  Point  Creek  town  Jimmy 
Rogers  lived — a  white  man  prisoner,  who  never  abandoned  the  Shawanoes  &C  finally 
moved  with  the  portion  that  went  to  Mo.  &  raised  an  Indian  family,  some  of  his 
children  were  educated — Got  Boone  to  exercise  his  skill  in  gun  making  to  stock  a 
gun  for  him,  which  he  did.  An  Indian  also  got  him  to  stock  a  rifle  barrel — Boone 
took  it  with  him  &  did  it  in  a  rough  substantial  manner  while  at  the  Salt  Licks.  When 
previously  out  a  hunting  he  had  saved  &  secreted  a  few  charges  of  powder  &  ball  for 
the  intended  escape.  Col.  N.  Boone  thinks  it  was  the  second  day  on  the  way  to  Chilli- 
cothe  from  the  Salt  Licks  (near  night  as  Mrs.  Col.  N.  Boone  well  recollects  hearing 
Col.  D'l  Boone  say)  the  Indians  scared  up  a  block  of  turkies,  &  chased  some  distance 
after  them,  &  lighted  in  trees  &  while  busily  engaged  in  shooting  them — all  the 
Indians  (number  not  recollected)  had  left  the  horses,  Boone  &  the  squaws  &  children 
— when  Boone  concluded  he  would  start  for  Ky.,  as  the  Indian  army  was  then  assemb- 
ling— &  cut  the  ropes  &  threw  off  the  load  of  brass  kettles — when  his  Indian  mother 
discovering,  asked  him  what  he  was  going  to  do?  He  said  he  was  going  to  see  his 
wife.  She  said  he  must  not  do  so,  for  Black  Fish  would  be  angry.  He  mounted  his 
poney  dC  laid  on  whip,  when  the  squaws  raised  a  loud  hallooing,  to  give  the  alarm.  He 
was  soon  beyond  hearing.  Jimmy  Rogers  said  (Whom  Col.  D'l  Boone  visited  as  well 
as  the  Shawanoes  of  Mo.,  who  first  lived  at  Owen's  Station,  12  mi.  nearly  west  of  St. 
Louis,  &  afterwards  onto  the  creek  called  the  Burbees,  which  runs  into  the  Merrimack 
river  within  three  miles  of  where  a  village  of  Union  now  is.  This  was  not  the  clan  near 
New  Madrid,  unless  these  Mo.  over  emigrated  from  there.  The  remant  of  this  band 
went  finally,  after  several  removes  to  Kansas  River)  when  Boone  escaped  he  was  at 
first  greatly  afraid  he  had  carried  the  gun  he  had  stocked  for  him — but  found  it. 
That  the  Indians  followed  Boone's  trail  some  distance  &  returned,  saying  he  would 
get  lost.  But  Rogers  said  he  knew  "better — that  he  was  sure  Boone  would  go  as  straight 
as  a  leather  string  home." 

Boone  rode  hard  that  evening  &  all  night  till  about  ten  o'clock  next  morning,  when 
the  poney  gave  out.  He  had  stopped  but  a  few  moments,  when  the  creatures  legs 
became  so  stiff  he  could  scarcely  move  them:  Took  off  the  saddle,  bridle  &  saddle 
blanket  &  hung  them  up  in  a  tree  (not  a  hollow  tree) — &  went  on  afoot  as  rapidly 
as  he  could,  &  that  day  crossed  the  Ohio  (Col.  N.  B.  thinks  his  father  struck  the 
Ohio,  a  little  above  Maysville) — tied  a  couple  of  dry  logs  (very  likely  a  standing  dry 
sapling,   nearly    rotted    at   the    roots)    tied    together   with    a   grapevine — placed   gun   & 


clothes  upon  it,  &  swam  over  pushing  his  raft  before  him.  The  first  night  after 
crossing  the  Ohio,  wearied,  he  ventured  to  rest,  &  rapped  himself  up  in  his  blanket, 
&  went  to  sleep,  when  he  was  awakened  by  something  seizing  one  of  his  toes  (having 
taken  off  the  moccasins,  as  usual)  when  he  thought  the  Indians  had  him  again — he 
humped,  &  judged  it  was  a  wolfe  or  fox,  by  the  noise  it  made  in  scampering  off.  He 
had  no  more  alarms.  His  feet  getting  scalded,  by  heat  in  walking,  he  peeled  some 
oak  bark,  jamed  ?  up  &  made  some  ooze,  with  which  he  washed  his  feet,  &  proceeded 
the  last  day,  somewhere  not  long  after  passing  the  Blue  Licks,  he  killed  a  buffalo 
with  his  new  gun,  cooked  6C  ate  a  delicious  meal,  cut  out  the  tongue  &  took  it  along 
to  present  to  his  son  Daniel  whom  he  hoped  to  have  found  at  Boonesboro. 



John  Brown  was  perhaps  the  most  notable  proponent  of  separation  and  statehood. 
For  this  role  he  was  preeminently  equipped:  distinguished  family  connections,  out- 
standing military  and  civil  achievements,  superb  educational  training,  affable  disposition 
and  pleasing  manner.  Brown  was  studying  at  Princeton  when  the  British  Army 
forced  that  college  to  close;  he  then  enlisted  in  the  Continental  Army;  soon  became 
an  officer  under  LaFayette.  Before  the  close  of  the  War,  he  entered  William  and 
Mary  College,  completing  his  course,  then  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Thomas  Jefferson. 

In  1783  came  to  Kentucky  to  practice  law,  settling  at  Danville,  then  the  center  of 
the  culture,  society  and  politics  of  the  District.  In  Danville  he  made  friends  quickly, 
gained  a  lucrative  legal  practice,  established  an  enviable  reputation.  The  keenly  in- 
telligent French  trader,  Bartholomew  Tardiveau,  who  arrived  in  Danville  in  May,  1789, 
in  a  letter  to  his  friend,  St.  John  de  Crevecoeur,  French  consul  at  New  York,  called 
attention  to  Brown's  prominence:  "I  find  that  he  is  held  in  great  esteem.  People  em- 
ployed him  with  confidence  in  his  capacity  as  a  lawyer  before  his  journey  to  New  York 
but  his  absence  has  made  him  lose  much  of  his  practice.  His  friends  want  him  to  take 
up  a  political  career,  in  which  they  are  of  the  opinion  that  he  will  cut  a  distinguished 
figure.  Competent  people  tell  me  that  in  Virginia  he  is  inferior  only  to  Mr.  Madison — 
that  is  all,  my  dear  friend,  that  I  have  been  able  to  find  about  him  up  to  now,  and 
that  is  enough  to  make  his  acquaintance  valuable." 

Presumably,  the  people  of  Kentucky  believed  that  John  Brown  was  the  man  best 
qualified  to  secure  separation  from  Virginia  and  admission  to  the  Union,  as  well  as 
the  opening  of  the  Mississippi  River,  because  they  sent  him  to  the  Virginia  Assembly; 
and  in  turn,  for  the  same  purpose,  Virginia  sent  him  to  the  Confederation  Congress 
in  1787. 

During  his  absence  from  Kentucky,  Brown's  law  practice  was  handled  by  his  close 
friend,  Harry  Innes.  A  letter  from  Innes  to  Brown,  in  New  Work,  runs:  "I  do  not 
think  your  business  will  suffer  much  i.e.,  the  business  now  in  court  .  .  .  you  may  rely 
upon  every  exertion  of  mine  to  do  you  and  your  clients  justice.  ...  I  am  induced 
to  think  the  court  will  give  you  every  indulgence.  I  have  publically  offered  assistance 
to  .  .  .  your  clients.  .  .  .  The  idea  of  your  absence  hath  caused  the  litigants  to  desist 
suing  even  in  the  supreme  court  &  the  business  to  increase  in  the  County  Courts." 

Kentucky  elected  Mr.  Brown  as  her  first  representative  to  the  New  Congress  in 
1788  and  again  in  1790.  He  was  sent  as  her  first  senator  in  1792  and  reelected  until 
1805  when  he  refused  to  run  for  public  office  again,  refused  to  accept  even  high 
presidential  appointments. 


John  Brown  throughout  life,  was  a  public-spirited  citizen,  interested  not  only  in 
politics,  but  in  the  commercial,  cultural,  and  social  advancement  and  happiness  of  his 
adopted  state.  Politically,  he  was  a  disciple  of  Jefferson.  Early  a  scholar — one  of  the 
first  members  of  Phi  Beta  Kappa — he  continued  a  scholar  throughout  life.  And  he 
was  as  elegant  physically  as  mentally.  Elegant  indeed  was  he  in  person,  with  the 
delicately  carved  features — the  luminous  brown  eyes,  the  powdered  hair,  the  fine  lace 
stock  and  the  velvet  coat.     He  lived  as  aristocratically  as  did  a  great  Virginian  planter. 

judge  Mcdowell 

Another  distinguished  leader  of  the  period  was  Judge  Samuel  McDowell,  who 
presided  over  all  of  the  conventions  save  two,  over  the  constitutional  convention  of 
1792,  and  was  chairman  of  the  joint  session  of  the  two  houses  receiving  the  newly 
inaugurated  Governor  Shelby  the  same  year.  Judge  McDowell  was  a  rugged  Scotch 
Presbyterian  from  the  Valley  of  Virginia — a  man  of  calm  dignity  and  sterling  integrity. 
He  was  virtually  indispensible  to  Kentucky  during  the  critical  period.  Possessing  a  fine 
manly  physique,  a  strong,  intelligent  face,  a  grave  and  majestic  bearing,  Judge  McDowell 
was  "in  every  position,"  writes  Thomas  Speed,  "respected  for  his  ability  and  reverenced 
for  his  high  personal  qualities." 

The  people  of  both  Virginia  and  Kentucky  bestowed  upon  him  numerous  high 
offices.  The  governor  of  Virginia  had  appointed  him  one  of  the  three  judges  of  the 
newly  established  district  court  of  Kentucky  in  1783,  at  which  time  he  removed  his 
wife,  seven  of  his  sons,  and  two  of  his  daughters,  settling  ultimately  in  Danville.  "The 
weight  of  his  character  and  the  soundness  of  his  patriotism,"  wrote  John  Mason  Brown, 
"had  inspired  in  the  statesmen  of  Virginia  a  feeling  of  security  as  to  the  moderation 
and  justice  of  the  action  that  might  be  taken  in  the  deliberative  bodies  of  the  District 
of  Kentucky  and  of  the  certainty  that  his  opinions  would  greatly  influence  public  con- 
clusions. Some  idea  of  his  popularity  can  be  gained  by  a  consideration  of  election 
returns.  For  instance,  the  votes  of  Mercer  County  for  the  convention  of  May  1788  were 
as  follows:  Samuel  McDowell,  275;  John  Brown,  240;  Harry  Innes,  213;  John  Jouett, 
196;  and  Christopher  Greenup,  125. 

Attesting  to  his  interest  in  the  cultural  and  social  progress  of  Kentucky  was  the 
fact  that  Judge  McDowell  in  December  1786  organized,  at  his  home,  the  "Political 
Club."  This  organization,  to  which  many  of  the  prominent  lawyers,  public  officials, 
military  and  commercial  leaders  of  the  district  were  elected,  included  on  its  roster  the 
names  of  Harry  Innes,  Christopher  Greenup,  John  Brown,  Thomas  Todd,  George  Muter, 
and  Benjamin  Sebastian.  Humphrey  Marshall,  the  Federalist  leader  and  historian,  had 
been  blackballed,  and  somehow  James  Wilkinson  failed  to  become  a  member.  "It 
would  not  have  been  possible,"  writes  John  Mason  Brown,  "to  assemble  another  body 
within  the  district  equal  to  these  men  in  accomplishments,  experience,  and  possession  of 
public  confidence."  Judge  McDowell  showed  notable  foresight  in  organizing  such  a 
club  in  the  new  country. 


Judge  Harry  Innes,  one  of  the  most  prominent  of  the  state-makers,  had  also  come 
from  Virginia.  He  was  of  a  highly  respected  family,  had  been  a  schoolmate  and  life- 
long friend  of  James  Madison  and  had  served  Virginia  with  marked  success  in  many 
tasks  during  the  War.  He  came  to  Kentucky  after  having  been  appointed  by  the 
Virginia  Legislature  in  1784  to  succeed  Walker  Daniel,  killed  by  the  Indians,  as 
attorney  general  for  the  Western  District. 


Arrived  in  Kentucky,  Judge  Innes  took  up  residence  in  Danville,  where  he  became 
popular  and  prominent  within  a  short  time.  He  was  genial,  bright,  kindly,  impulsive, 
and  knightly.  The  portrait  of  him  by  Mathew  Jouett,  a  portrait  painted  of  him  in 
middle  age,  reveals  an  open,  handsome  face,  that  of  one  who  lives  well;  large,  honest 
eyes;  straight  nose,  somewhat  pointed;  bald  from  the  forehead;  good-natured  mouth, 
with  full  lips;  chin  well  formed;  neck  large  and  fleshy,  with  fine  white  lace  stock.  But 
he  was  far  from  being  habitually  composed.  At  times  he  became  quite  angry,  yet  he 
readily  forgave;  was  even  willing  to  forgive  Humphrey  Marshall,  who  had  spent  a  life- 
time maligning  and  attempting  to  destroy  him. 

Judge  Innes  was  preeminently  a  public-spirited  man,  interested  in  civic  development 
of  all  kinds,  as  is  attested  by  the  fact  that  he  was  a  member  of  practically  every  impor- 
tant board  and  committee  for  social,  educational  and  commercial  promotion.  He  was 
decidedly  a  social  creature,  taking  a  genuine  and  lively  interest  in  people;  many  confided 
in  him.  Tardeveau,  pictured  him,  on  one  occasion,  as  knight-errant  of  a  lady  in  distress. 
Innes  enjoyed  many  warm  friendships,  that  with  John  Brown  being  most  notable. 

Judge  Innes  was  selected  as  a  delegate  to  practically  all  of  the  conventions;  in  these 
he  was  outstanding.  All  in  all,  he  probably  sought  more  persistently  to  secure  free 
passage  for  Kentucky  goods  down  the  Mississippi  than  did  any  other  leader.  A  com- 
plete summary  of  his  arguments,  denying  Spanish  right  to  close  and  setting  forth  the 
necessity  for  opening  this  artery,  is  found  in  a  letter  written  to  John  Brown  in  December 
1787.  "The  navigation,"  he  wrote  years  after  to  Wilson  Cary  Nicholas,  "was  all 
important  to  us,  our  every  thought  bore  upon  it." 

Judge  Innes  became  disgusted  with  Congress  when  he  learned,  in  1787,  that  the 
northern  states  had  voted  to  close  the  Mississippi  in  return  for  commercial  benefits  to 
the  East,  and  wrote  these  statements  in  a  letter  to  John  Brown,  December  7,  1787. 
"You  will  discover  a  sentiment  in  the  address  which  plainly  leads  to  this  point  that  if 
our  application  is  rejected  we  shall  scarcely  trouble  Congress  with  a  second  deliberation 
on  this  subject  ...  If  we  should  be  compelled  to  adopt  other  measures  we  shall  stand 
justified."  This  seems  to  be  as  far  as  Judge  Innes,  and,  in  fact,  Kentucky  went 
toward  adopting  "other  measures,"  in  spite  of  Humphrey  Marshall's  charges.  Spain, 
of  course,  was  eager  for  Kentucky  to  secede  and  join  her.  She  made  several  overtures 
in  dispatches  which  naturally  were  sent  to  the  leaders,  one  of  whom  was  Judge  Innes. 
This  fact  was  learned  by  Humphrey  Marshall,  who  began  a  persection  which  lasted 
even  after  Innes's  death.  Innes  was,  in  fact,  Marshall's  chief  object  of  persecution  in 
the  "Spanish  Conspiracy."  However,  his  friends  and  the  public  in  general  remained 
loyal.  Even  President  Washington,  apparently  unaffected  by  it,  appointed  him  the 
first  Federal  judge  of  Kentucky  and  Congress  refused  to  bring  impeachment  charges 
later.  Yet  Judge  Innes  was  deeply  affected  personally  by  the  ceaseless  and  relentless 
persecution,  as  is  revealed  in  a  letter  of  February  18,  1807,  by  his  friend,  Buckner 
Thurston,  United  States  Senator  from  Kentucky. 

The  principles  of  Innes  were  clear-cut.  Polit'.caliy,  he  followed  the  Jefferson  school. 
He,  along  with  most  of  the  leaders  of  Kentucky  had  opposed  the  ratification  of  the 
Federal  Constitution,  because  of  fear  of  losing  the  Mississippi  River  to  Kentucky  trade. 
He  also  possessed  the  humanitarian  principles  of  Jefferson;  he  was  one  of  the  few 
members  of  the  constitutional  convention  of  1792  who  favored  emancipation  of  the 

The  historian,  Richard  Collins,  closes  his  sketch  of  Judge  Innes's  life  with  this 
tribute:  "He  was  a  polished  gentleman  in  all  relations  of  private  and  social  life  ...  a 
noble  specimen  of  the  old  school,  in  dignified  courtesy  and  varied  intelligence. 

14— Vol.    n 



Judge  George  Muter,  who  came  to  Kentucky  toward  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary 
War  as  one  of  the  three  judges  of  the  newly  established  District  Court,  became  one  of 
the  valuable  builders  of  the  commonwealth.  He  arrived  in  Danville  distinguished  with 
military  and  naval  service  for  Virginia.  "His  long  service  as  Quarter-Master  of 
Virginia  during  the  Revolution  had  made  Judge  Muter  well-known  to  all  the  prominent 
personages  of  that  state,"  wrote  John  Mason  Brown. 

"He  was  eminently  a  connection  link  between  the  two  peoples,"  continues  Brown, 
"and  his  patriotism  was  indisputable."  His  position  as  Judge  naturally  lent  prestige 
and  made  him  prominent,  but,  in  addition,  Muter  possessed  a  kindly,  likeable  per- 
sonality, as  well  as  marked  ability.  Immediately  following  his  arrival  he  became  inter- 
ested in  contributing  to  the  safety  and  development  of  Kentucky.  Together  with 
Brown,  Innes,  McDowell  and  Logan,  he  was  made  a  member  of  practically  every  im- 
portant public  organization  and  committee.  He  was  a  member  of  all  the  conventions 
from  1785  to  1790,  being  chosen  president  of  the  last;  had,  with  Harry  Innes,  been 
appointed  by  the  convention  of  August,  1785,  to  carry  to  the  Virginia  Legislature  the 
petition  begging  separation;  was  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Convention  of  1792,  as 
well  as  an  elector  of  that  year.  In  1785  Judge  Muter  had  become  Chief  Justice  of  the 
District  Court,  sitting  in  Danville.  This  office  he  held  until  1792,  when  he  was  appointed 
Chief  Justice  of  the  recently  established  Court  of  Appeals,  continuing  in  that  office 
until  1805. 

But,  writes  John  Mason  Brown,  "he  was  vacillating  as  compared  with  the  strong  men 
with  whom  he  came  in  contact,  easily  influenced,  as  events  proved,  and  neither  wise 
enough  to  keep  counsel  nor  vigorous  enough  to  permanently  command  the  respect  of 
contending  parties." 

Judge  Muter  had  begun  his  Kentucky  career  in  Danville  closely  allied  to  the  Jeffer- 
sonians — Innes  and  Brown.  However,  he  had  come  from  the  same  locality  in  Virginia 
as  had  the  Marshalls,  and,  in  the  hands  of  Thomas  or  Humphrey,  the  poor  man  was 
like  putty.  He  betrayed  a  confidence — probably  brow-beaten  into  it — of  John  Brown  to 
Humphrey  Marshall,  which  was  of  grave  import  to  the  public,  a  breach  of  ethics  which 
Brown  apparently  considered  serious.  In  this  connection,  it  seems  almost  incredible  that 
Muter  could  have  believed  Brown  guilty  of  involvement  in  a  "Spanish  Conspiracy"  to 
detach  Kentucky  from  the  Union. 

Later,  Judge  Muter  concurred  in  a  decision  concerning  ownership  of  land  which 
greatly  incensed  the  public.  However,  shortly  thereafter,  he  reversed  his  position. 
Strangely  enough  Humphrey  Marshall  was  intensely  interested  in  the  case,  in  fact  got 
to  the  United  States  Senate  because  of  his  militant  stand  against  the  first  decision,  as 
a  member  of  the  Legislature.  Whether  or  not  Humphrey  helped  Judge  Muter,  in  this 
instance,  to  change  his  mind  is  not  known.  This  can  be  said,  however:  Facing  one  of 
the  overwhelming  Marshalls  was  a  trying  experience  indeed,  but  being  confronted  by 
two,  and  that  two,  Colonel  Thomas  and  the  redoubtable  Humphrey,  was  a  cataclysmic 

Never  in  his  life  had  George  Muter  husbanded  his  economic  resources,  though  having 
given  without  stint  his  entire  energy  and  time  to  the  public  service.  In  the  year  1805, 
superannuated  and  senile,  he  was  induced  by  certain  influential  members  of  the  General 
Assembly  to  resign  from  the  bench,  upon  the  promise  that  a  pension  would  be  granted. 
The  ensuing  session  granted  a  pension  of  $300.00  per  annum;  however,  the  session 
following  repealed  it,  thus  leaving  the  helpless  old  man  destitute,  alone  and  without  a 
home.      The    Governer,   Christopher   Greenup,   a    friend   and   associate   of   many   years, 


vetoed  the  repeal  bill,  recounting  the  generous  services  of  the  aged  jurist  to  Kentucky 
and  charging  the  Legislators  with  violation  of  moral  obligation.  Governor  Greenup's 
strong  message  was  of  no  avail,  however;  the  niggardly  Assembly  easily  mustered  a  two- 
thirds  majority  to  pass  over  the  Governor's  veto. 

At  that  point,  another  old  friend  and  colleague,  Judge  Thomas  Todd,  recently 
appointed  to  the  Federal  Supreme  Bench,  took  in  Judge  Muter,  sustained  and  main- 
tained him. 


Isaac  Shelby  came  to  Kentucky  to  live  in  the  year  1783.  He  was  welcomed  as 
a  hero;  he  was  mourned  at  death  as  a  hero;  and  he  was  no  less  throughout  life.  Had 
he  received  no  other  appellative  than,  "Hero  of  King's  Mountain,"  Isaac  Shelby  would 
have  held  a  place  in  American  history.  But  he  was  hero  of  many  engagements:  He  was 
quite  as  gifted  in  the  legislative  hall,  in  the  executive  chamber,  on  the  business  mart 
and  on  the  civic  board  as  on  the  battle  field;  one  of  the  most  progressive  and  successful 
industrialists  of  his  day,  and,  added  to  these,  he  was  an  ideal  specimen  of  the  practical 
noble  man  among  men. 

In  stature,  Governor  Shelby  was  not  unlike  his  Welch  ancestry:  stocky,  thick,  powerful 
body,  tending  toward  corpulency  in  late  years;  clear  blue  eyes  and  sandy  hair;  com- 
plexion very  ruddy  from  robust  out-of-door  living.  Yet  his  features  were  strongly 
marked;  a  largeness  of  the  eye,  an  arch  of  the  brow,  a  ruggedness  of  visage  and  a 
quiet  strength  of  countenance,  marking  him  decidedly  as  Isaac  Shelby. 

His  body  was  strong,  and  his  constitution  amazingly  hardy,  capable  of  enduring 
protracted  exertions  and  extraordinary  privations  without  noticeable  fatigue;  in  fact,  his 
powers  of  endurance  were  remarkable. 

His  qualities  of  character  were  conspicuously  harmonious  with  his  physical  traits: 
mental  energy,  indomitable  courage,  unrelenting  persistency,  unshakable  resolution, 
sagacity,  loyalty  and  magnanimity — these,  joined  with  a  personality  habitually  dignified 
yet  affable,  kind  and  winning — these,  together  with  an  indefinable  something  called  in- 
dividuality were  the  personal  attributes  of  Isaac  Shelby. 

Prominent  from  his  advent,  Shelby  quickly  became  a  leader  in  Kentucky:  Chairman 
of  the  convention,  in  Danville,  of  militia  officers  to  consider  means  of  protecting  the 
District  and  securing  independence  from  Virginia,  November,  1784;  member  of  the  con- 
ventions of  1787,  1788  and  1789,  and  of  the  Constitutional  Convention,  of  1792;  member 
of  the  important  Kentucky  Board  of  War,  together  with  Charles  Scott,  John  Brown, 
Harry  Innes  and  Benjamin  Logan,  which  was  appointed  by  President  Washington  in 
1791;  trustee  of  Transylvania  Seminary;  member  of  the  Kentucky  Society  for  the 
Promotion  of  Useful  Knowledge;  hero  of  the  Battle  of  the  Thames. 

In  1817  Governor  Shelby  was  proffered  the  post  of  War  in  the  cabinet  of  President 
Monroe,  distinctly  an  honor,  but  one,  which,  because  of  advanced  years,  Shelby  de- 
clined. Nevertheless,  he  was  Kentucky's  representative  in  1818  in  the  convention  with 
the  Chickasaw  Indians,  which  resulted  in  the  acquisition  of  the  territory  known  as  the 
Jackson  Purchase. 

With  becoming  modesty  and  magnanimity  he  steadily  disclaimed  credit  for  notable 
services  in  connection  with  the  battles  of  King's  Mountain  and  Cowpens,  and  vital 
services  in  the  War  of  1812.  With  fine  magnanimity  and  loyalty,  Governor  Shelby 
defended  George  Rogers  Clark,  Harry  Innes  and  William  Henry  Harrison,  defended 
them  in  crises  when  it  seemed  that  their  reputations  would  be  irreparably  villified 
and  blackened. 


That  the  leaders  of  Kentucky  selected  Isaac  Shelby  as  first  governor  of  Kentucky 
was  natural;  that  he  conducted  himself  in  that  office  with  a  dignity,  sagacity,  fore- 
bearance,  justice  and  gentility  resembling  that  of  George  Washington  was  not  an 
accident;  because  Isaac  Shelby  too,  possessed  elements  of  greatness. 

The  historian,  Lewis  Collins,  wrote:  "He  was  the  model  of  an  elevated  citizen,  whether 
at  the  plow,  in  the  field,  or  in  the  cabinet." 



DECEMBER,  1817 

Fellow  citizens  of  the  Senate,  and  House  of  Representatives: 

In  meeting  you  again,  it  is  with  sincere  pleasure  I  have  to  congratulate  you  and  our 
constituents  on  the  flattering  prospect  of  our  public  affairs,  the  rapid  progress  of  our 
agriculture,  commerce  and  manufactures,  and  the  general  improvement  of  our  country. 
We  are  assembled  under  a  free  and  happy  constitution  to  consult  for  the  common 
good,  to  redress  grievances,  to  remedy  defects  in  the  existing  laws,  and  to  adopt  such 
measures  as  are  best  calculated  to  advance  the  welfare  of  the  commonwealth.  Coming 
from  every  part  of  the  state,  you  must  be  better  acquainted  with  the  various  interests 
of  the  community,  and  upon  your  superior  wisdom  and  information,  I  chiefly  rely  for 
a  due  attention  to  the  wants  and  concerns  of  our  fellow-citizens. 

Persuant  to  a  resolution  of  the  last  legislature,  I  enclosed  to  our  distinguished  fellow- 
citizen  James  Madison,  late  president  of  the  United  States,  their  address  approbatory 
of  his  public  services,  and  private  worth,  and  have  received  his  answer  in  April  last, 
which  I  have  now  the  honor  to  lay  before  you. 

Agreeably  to  another  resolution  passed  at  the  last  session,  I  opened  a  correspondence 
with  the  governors  of  Ohio  and  Indiana  touching  the  difficulties  experienced  by  our 
citizens  in  regaining  their  slaves  who  escape  into  those  states,  and  am  happy  to  inform 
you,  that  their  answers  evince  a  disposition  on  the  part  of  their  respective  states  to 
remove  as  far  as  practicable  every  cause  of  complaint,  and  to  maintain  with  Kentucky 
the  most  friendly  relations.  A  copy  of  the  correspondence  with  each  state  is  herewith 

The  resolution  respecting  an  armory,  I  am  not  yet  prepared  to  comply  with,  but  have 
been  endeavouring  to  collect  information,  and  hope  to  be  able  to  make  a  full  communi- 
cation on  this  subject,  on  some  future  day  of  your  present  session. 

The  pecuniary  affairs  of  the  penitentiary  are,  I  understand,  in  a  prosperous  state, 
but  the  report  of  the  auditor  which  will  be  shortly  laid  before  you,  will  give  a  satis- 
factory view  of  its  concerns.  There  is  on  hand  a  considerable  quantity  of  raw  materials, 
and  manufactured  articles.  Owing  to  the  tardiness  of  the  sales,  the  keeper  has  been 
obliged  to  advance  money  for  the  purchase  of  materials,  for  refunding  which,  immediate 
provisions  ought  to  be  made.  The  present  agent  with  my  advice  has  removed  the 
articles  manufactured  to  the  neighboring  towns  to  be  vended,  a  measure  which  promises 
a  speedy  reimbursement  of  monies  advanced  and  much  advantage  to  the  public.  The 
condition  of  the  building  demands  your  particular  and  immediate  attention.  It  is 
believed  to  be  insecure,  and  to  require  repair  and  enlargement.  I  submit  to  your 
serious  consideration  whether  it  is  just  or  expedient  to  sentence  offenders  to  ad- 
ditional confinement  who  are  tempted  by  the  state  of  the  building,  and  negligence  of 
the  guards  to  make  their  escape.  Would  it  not  be  better  to  secure  more  vigilance  on 
the  part  of  the  guards,  by  subjecting  them  to  some  punishment  or  penalty  for  neglect 


of  duty.  This  institution,  which  originated  in  a  spirit  of  philanthrophy,  and  a  liberal, 
and  enlightened  humanity,  ought  not  to  be  abandoned,  or  neglected.  It  has  too  long 
received  the  approbation  of  not  only  the  wise  and  benevolent  of  our  own  state,  but 
of  most  of  our  sister  states;  and  must  be  viewed  with  a  partial  and  benignant  eye, 
wherever  the  life  of  rational,  immortal  man  is  duly  estimated.  I  trust  therefore  that 
the  legislature  will  repair,  improve,  and  extend  the  building,  and  revise  the  regulations 
and  management  of  the  institution  so  far  as  it  respects  the  reformation  of  offenders, 
one  of  the  leading  objects  of  the  system.  Some  provision  ought  to  be  made  for 
furnishing  them  with  bibles,  and  books  of  morality,  and  for  giving  them  religious 
and  moral  instruction.  I  would  also  advise  that  such  of  those  unfortunate  victims  of 
folly  and  vice,  who  learn  good  trades,  and  conduct  themselves  well,  should  be  entitled 
upon  their  discharge  to  a  small  compensation  out  of  the  profit  of  the  institution  to 
purchase  tools,  and  enable  them  to  commence  business.  Such  a  provision  will  probably 
produce  both  industry  and  amendment.  But  little  good  is  done  if  the  offenders  go 
forth  into  the  world  unredeemed  in  any  degree  from  the  depravity  for  which  they  were 
cut  off  from  their  social  state. 

I  beg  leave  again  to  bring  into  view,  the  subject  of  education,  one  of  the  first  im- 
portance that  can  engage  your  attention,  whether  we  regard  its  influence  on  human 
happiness  or  the  permanency  of  our  republican  system.  Colleges,  or  universities,  upon 
a  large  scale  require  considerable  funds,  and  cannot  be  numerous — The  Transylvania 
University,  which  had  its  origin  in  the  liberality  of  our  parent  state,  will  soon,  it  is 
believed  hold  an  eminent  rank  among  the  institutions  of  learning  in  the  United  States. 
I  am  not  informed  whether  its  funds  are  adequate  or  not,  but  think  it  would  be  wise 
in  the  legislature  to  extend  to  this  institution  every  aid  necessary  to  place  it  on  the 
most  respectable  footing.  It  is  hoped  and  expected  that  this  university,  situated  in  one 
of  the  most  healthy  and  delightful  parts  of  the  United  States,  will  render  it  not  only 
unnecessary  for  the  youth  of  our  own  state  to  be  sent  to  distant  colleges,  but  invite  the 
young  men  of  other  states  to  finish  their  education  here.  There  are  considerations  in 
favor  of  a  good  system  of  education,  which  strongly  address  themselves  to  our  pride 
as  a  state.  It  should  be  remembered  that  Kentucky  is  the  first  member  of  the  federal 
union  that  emerged  from  the  western  wilderness,  and  that  she  now  holds  a  very  high 
standing  in  the  national  government.  And  shall  it  be  said  that  she  is  unfriendly  or 
even  indifferent  to  learning?  Let  it  rather  be  our  boast  that  Kentucky  is  as  famed 
for  science  and  the  arts,  as  for  the  valor  and  patriotism  of  her  citizens. 

To  establish  a  perfect  method  of  education,  has  long  been  considered,  by  the  most 
enlightened  friends  of  mankind,  the  best  means  of  rendering  a  people  free  and  happy. 
I  therefore  recommend  to  you,  to  arrange  and  adopt  a  plan  extensive,  diffusive,  and 
convenient  to  every  portion  of  the  community.  I  would  advise  that  all  the  settled  parts 
of  the  state  be  divided  into  school  districts,  equal  to  five  or  six  miles  square,  through 
the  agency  of  the  county  courts,  or  in  some  other  manner  to  be  prescribed;  a  school  to 
be  established  in  each  district  free  to  all  poor  children,  and  to  be  supported,  if  not  en- 
tirely, in  part,  at  the  public  expense.  We  have  many  good  schools,  but  nothing  short 
of  carrying  education  to  the  neighborhood  of  every  man  in  the  state  can  satisfy  the 
just  claims  of  the  people,  or  fulfil  the  duty  of  the  government.  Few  people  are  able 
to  board  their  children  from  home,  and  unless  schools  are  established  conveniently  to 
them,  their  education  will  be  neglected.  The  distribution  of  schools  in  every  neighbor- 
hood, would  be  attended  with  many  advantages;  they  will  not  only  improve  the  mind 
and  moral  habits  of  the  youth,  but  will  give  more  permanency,  and  a  more  settled 
character  to  our  population.  They  will  diffuse  much  useful  instruction  among  all  classes 
of  people,  and  introduce  a  taste  for  learning  and  information.     They  will  develop  the 


mental  riches  of  the  commonwealth.  The  experience  of  the  world  has  proved,  that 
genius  is  not  confined  to  any  particular  order  of  men;  but  Providence,  in  bestowing 
her  choicest  gift,  intelligence,  as  if  to  mortify  the  pride  and  vanity  of  those,  who  from 
their  birth  and  fortune  would  exalt  themselves  above  their  fellow  men,  delights  to 
raise  up  the  brightest  ornaments  of  humanity  from  the  most  obscure  and  humble  con- 
ditions of  life.  To  instruct  and  improve  the  rising  generation,  is  among  the  first  duties 
of  every  American  statesman.  The  American  people  in  establishing  their  independence, 
and  republican  form  of  government,  have  done  much;  but  much  more  remains  to  be 
done.  These  states  are  but  recently  transplanted  from  the  nursery  of  freedom,  and  al- 
though in  a  thriving  and  promising  condition,  they  have  not  acquired  such  maturity  and 
strength,  as  no  longer  to  need  the  care  and  skill  of  the  political  husbandman.  To  give 
success  to  this  experiment  of  freedom,  the  youth  of  our  country  should  be  qualified  to 
understand  and  enjoy  its  blessings.  In  vain  have  our  ancestors  bled;  in  vain  did 
they  hazard  everything  upon  the  issue  of  the  revolutionary  contest;  in  vain  has  our 
country  been  distinguished  by  the  most  sublime  and  elevated  patriotism,  if  the  in- 
estimable boon  which  they  achieved  is  to  be  lost  by  a  neglect  of  the  means  necessary  to 
its  preservation  and  progress.  While  the  utility  and  importance  of  education  is  generally 
admitted,  yet  either  because  the  beneficial  effects  appear  remote  or  universal,  the  sub- 
ject does  not  seem  to  excite  that  lively  interest  and  zeal  which  are  usually  awakened 
by  questions  of  a  local  or  personal  character.  When  we  reflect  that  this  government 
has  no  need  of  a  standing  army  to  sustain  or  enforce  its  authority;  but  for  its  efficiency, 
essentially  reposes  on  the  patriotism  and  intelligence  of  the  great  body  of  the  people, 
how  obvious  is  the  necessity  of  providing  a  system  of  instruction  calculated  to  improve 
the  minds  and  moral  habits  of  the  rising  generation. 

Although  our  government,  in  its  form  and  structure,  is  a  departure  from  a  simple 
democracy,  yet  it  is  a  government  of  the  people,  instituted  for  their  benefit,  and 
essentially  dependent  on  their  will.  It  is  true  that  every  excitement  of  popular  feeling 
and  passion  is  not  to  be  considered  the  will  of  the  community;  but  the  deliberate  sense 
of  the  people  cannot,  ought  not  to  be  resisted.  The  American  statesman,  who  have 
formed  our  system  of  government,  warned  by  the  fate  of  the  tumultuous  democracies 
of  antiquity,  long  since  buried  beneath  the  depotism  of  the  old  world,  have  wisely 
constructed  the  vessel  of  state  so  as  to  prevent  its  being  driven  by  every  popular  blast 
from  its  proper  course,  by  interposing  checks  and  balances,  to  stay  the  intemperance 
and  rashness  of  the  moment,  and  to  give  time  for  the  sober  reason  of  the  community  to 
be  exercised.  To  protect  the  weak  against  the  strong,  the  minority  against  the  majority, 
and  to  secure  all  and  every  one  against  violence,  injustice  and  oppression,  the  people  in 
their  highest  sovereign  character  assembled  in  convention  for  that  special  purpose,  have 
by  a  written  constitution  established  certain  rules  and  principles,  and  erected  barriers 
to  restrain  and  limit  their  own  powers,  and  the  powers  of  all  those  appointed  under 
its  authority;  and  these  rules,  principles,  and  barriers,  they  have  solemnly  pledged  their 
faith  to  each  other  to  observe  inviolable,  until  the  constitution  itself  shall  be  altered  or 
abolished.  By  our  constitution,  powers  of  government  are  confided  to  the  several  de- 
partments, or  bodies  of  magistracy,  legislative,  executive,  and  judicial,  all  deriving  their 
authority  mediately  or  immediately  from  the  constitution,  and  intended  to  check  and 
restrain  each  other  from  transcending  their  appropriate  limits.  Ours  is  not  a  simple 
democracy,  in  which  the  people  exercise,  in  their  own  persons,  the  powers  of  administra- 
tion; their  numbers  and  dispersed  situation  render  it  impracticable;  but  a  representative 
government,  in  which  they  have  confided  to  men  chosen  by  themselves,  for  short  and 
limited  periods.  The  senate,  by  their  age,  experience,  and  term  of  service,  is  made  a 
check  on  the  house  of  representatives,  and  the  executive  on  both;  the  two  houses  are 

HISTORY    OF    KENTUCKY  •  767 

in  turn  checks  upon  the  executive.  The  judiciary  is  in  some  respects  a  check  upon  the 
legislative  and  executive  departments,  and  yet  responsible  to  them  for  misconduct.  These 
several  bodies  of  magistracy  are  so  many  pillars  or  corner  stones  of  the  temple  of  free- 
dom, the  constitutional  strength  and  independence  of  each  one  of  which  are  essential 
to  its  preservation.  This  is  an  improvement  in  the  science  of  government,  which 
originated  in  the  most  profound  wisdom  and  knowledge  of  human  nature.  Every  man 
who  will  examine  himself,  must  confess  that  he  is  often  led  by  passion  and  prejudice 
into  errors  the  most  gross  and  extravagant;  we  acknowledge  too  that  neighborhoods, 
counties,  and  nations  are  liable  to  err  for  a  moment,  from  the  same  cause.  If  every 
impulse  of  any  community  was  to  be  carried  into  full  effect,  there  would  be  in  such  a 
state,  neither  confidence  nor  safety.  And  hence,  the  security  afforded  by  the  checks 
and  balances  I  have  mentioned;  for  which  we  are  chiefly  indebted  to  the  wisdom  and 
patriotism  of  the  statesmen  of  our  own  country. 

The  distinguished  author  of  "Notes  on  the  State  of  Virginia,"  in  speaking  on  the 
subject  near   the   close   of   our   revolutionary   contest,   says   "that   the   concentrating  all 
the  powers  of  government  into  the  same  hands,  is  precisely  the  definition  of  despotic 
government,   and   that    173   despots   would   be   as   oppressive   as   one.     An   elective  des- 
potism,  says   this  enlightened   statesman,   was  not  the  government  we  fought  for;   but 
one  which  should  not  only  be  founded  on  free  principles,  but  in  which  the  powers  of 
government   should   be   so   divided   and   balanced   among   several   bodies   of   magistracy, 
as    that   no    one    could    transcend    their   limits,    without    being   effectually   checked   and 
restrained  by  the  other.    These  checks  cannot  however  operate  as  restraints  upon  the 
deliberate  sense  of  the  people;  they  can  only  produce  a  pause,  and  give  them  time  for 
consideration;   but  if,  after  these  checks  have,   with   firmness,  and   fidelity,   been   inter- 
posed according  to  the  spirit  of  the  constitution,  the  people  are  still  dissatisfied,  their 
deliberate    will    legitimately    exercised,    must    and    ought    to    prevail.      Fortunately    for 
our  republic  there  is   reason   to  hope,   that  a   little  time  will  generally  be  sufficient  to 
correct  the  errors  to  which  we  are  liable.    When  we  reflect  how  much  the  very  existence 
of  our  government  depends  on  the  virtue  and  intelligence  of  the  people,  and  for  how 
many  ages  the  friends  of  freedom,  and  human  happiness  have  been  struggling  to  devise 
some  form  of  government  alike  secure  against  tyranny  and  anarchy,  how  indispensable 
is  it  to  diffuse  information,  and  qualify  those  who  are  to  succeed  us,  to  understand  the 
plan  and  principles  of  government,  furnished  us  by  our  revolutionary  sages.    Without 
intelligence  the  people  never  can  be  safe  against  the  delusions  to  which  they  are  exposed 
from   the   violence  of  party  spirit,   and   the   arts   and  intrigues   of  designing  ambition. 
Deeming  this  subject  of  deep  interest,  in  every  respect  in  which  it  can  be  presented,  I 
would  suggest  the  propriety  of  appropriating  a  share  of  the  dividends  on  bank  stock, 
with  such  taxes  as  may  be  imposed  on  banks  and  corporations,  with  the  lands  stricken 
off  to  the  state  and  forfeited,  together  with  such  as  may  be  escheated  to  the  common- 
wealth, to  raise  and  constitute  a  school  fund.    There  is  reason  to  believe  that  a  large 
quantity  of   land,   the  property  of   the  commonwealth,   is  now  held  by  individuals,   or 
unsettled:    I  would  therefore  again  recommend  a  revision  of  the  law  of  escheats,  and 
the   appointment   of   escheators.     It  is  probable   that  in  some   instances   land   liable  to 
escheat  is  held  by  innocent  purchasers:   in  such  cases  it  would  be  equitable  to  release 
the  right  of  the  state  upon  reasonable  terms. 

A  state  library,  at  the  seat  of  government,  would  be  very  useful  and  convenient. 
The  members  of  the  legislature,  public  officers  and  judges,  who  attend  the  courts 
held  at  Frankfort,  ought  not  to  be  entirely  dependent  on  the  private  libraries  of 
gentlemen  of  the  bar,  and  other  citizens.  The  surplus  reports  of  the  decisions  of  the 
court   of    appeals    belonging    to    the    commonwealth    might   be    sold   or   exchanged    for 


books.     This    fund    with   a    small    annual    appropriation    would   probably    be   sufficient. 

I  regret  the  necessity  of  once  more  pressing  on  your  attention  the  anti-republican 
and  highly  criminal  practice  of  selling  offices,  which  is  becoming  too  common  and 
indeed  fashionable.  Shall  the  public  offices  in  the  republic  of  Kentucky  be  an  article 
of  sale  in  the  market,  or  the  reward  of  qualifications  and  integrity?  This  is  the 
question  to  be  decided.  If  this  practice  is  sanctioned  or  even  winked  at,  it  will  prove 
that  while  we  profess,  that  the  road  to  public  station,  is  open  to  all,  the  poor  as  well 
as  the  rich,  that  they  are  in  fact  confined  exclusively  to  the  latter.  The  prevalence  of 
such  practices,  especially  if  countenanced,  is  evidence  of  the  decline,  if  not  of  the 
state,  of  the  republican  purity  of  the  government.  I  therefore  recommend  a  revision 
of  the  laws  against  selling  offices,  and  the  enaction  of  severe  penalities,  and  effectual 
provisions  to  suppress  this  pernicious  and  illicit  traffic. 

The  use  of  steam  boats,  in  our  larger  rivers,  seems  likely  to  give  a  new  spring  to 
the  agriculture  and  commerce  of  the  western  country,  and  it  is  believed  great  advantages 
would  be  derived  from  the  use  of  them  on  our  smaller  streams,  if  some  practicable 
plan  could  be  adopted  to  remove  obstructions,  and  improve  them.  Whether  this  should 
be  done  at  the  public  expense,  or  by  inducements  held  out  to  private  individuals  or 
companies  to  undertake  it,  I  submit  to  your  better  judgment.  When  it  is  considered 
that  most  of  our  fertile  lands  are  distant  from  the  Ohio,  and  that  we  are  dependent  on 
our  smaller  rivers  for  the  transportation  of  the  greater  part  of  our  surplus  productions 
to  market,  the  improvement  of  their  navigation  seems  to  demand  the  serious  consideration 
and  attention  of  the  legislature.  The  state  of  our  public  roads,  so  important  in  facili- 
tating communication  between  different  parts  of  the  country,  and  carrying  our  produce 
to  market,  merits  your  notice.  Experience  has  proved  our  plan  for  improving  and 
keeping  them  in  repair  to  be  radically  wrong.  I  would  suggest  the  expediency  of  keeping 
them  in  repair  by  levy  for  the  purpose,  allowing  each  individual  to  pay  in  work  on  the 
road  for  which  he  may  be  taxed.  This  mode  has  succeeded  well  in  other  states  where 
it  has  been  tried.  Of  the  provisions  necessary,  and  proper  on  this  subject,  you  will 

I  take  the  liberty  to  mention  for  your  consideration,  the  expediency  of  taking  some 
immediate  step,  in  cooperation  with  the  general  government,  to  extinguish  the  Indian 
title  to  that  part  of  our  territory  lying  west  of  the  Tennessee  River.  This  tract  of 
country  is  very  valuable,  and  important  in  a  commercial  view,  and  its  settlement  would 
add  much  to  the  wealth,  strength,  and  population  of  the  state. 

I  felicitate  you  and  my  fellow  citizens  generally  on  the  harmony  of  opinion  that 
seems  to  pervade  our  nation.  In  the  language  of  President  Monroe,  discord  does  not 
belong  to  our  system  of  equal  rights,  and  equal  justice.  Every  honest  and  liberal  man 
must  rejoice  at  the  prospect  of  a  political  jubilee,  in  a  deliverance  from  the  despotism 
of  party  names  and  feuds,  which  have  so  long  distracted  the  public  councils,  and  poisoned 
social  intercourse.  "United  we  stand,  divided  we  fall"  was  the  motto  of  our  ancestors, 
who  achieved  our  glorious  revolution.  Let  us  remember  that  ours  is  the  only  republic 
on  the  globe,  and  that  a  union  among  ourselves  is  necessary  to  insure  success  to  our 
system.  Let  us  therefore  obliterate  party  spirit  and  unite  our  efforts  to  give  strength, 
and  maturity  to  our  republican  institutions.  That  we  should  occasionally  divide  on 
important  questions,  which  frequently  occur,  is  to  be  expected.  Collisions  of  opinion 
is  often  useful  in  eliciting  truth,  by  able  discussions  to  which  it  gives  rise.  The  American 
people  were  nearly  equally  divided  on  the  question  of  adopting  or  rejecting  the  federal 
constitution;  but  this  difference  of  opinion  was  not  made  a  ground  for  eternal  pros- 
cription or  party  division.  Some  difference  of  opinion  occurred  with  regard  to  the 
national   bank,   the   navy,   and   many  other  questions   which   have  since   arisen.      In   the 


progress  of  this  government,  new  and  important  measures  often  produce  an  honest 
difference  of  opinion,  which  ought  to  be  tolerated  with  the  most  charitable  indulgence. 
Most  of  these  subjects  have  had  their  day,  and  if  we  take  a  retrospect  of  the  history 
of  parties,  and  public  men,  in  the  United  States,  and  test  them  by  public  sentiments 
as  now  settled,  all  will  be  found  to  have  been  partly  right,  and  partly  wrong.  None 
can  claim  an  exemption  from  error.  And  shall  rational  men,  citizens  of  a  free  state, 
be  divided  by  the  mere  magic  of  unmeaning  names  and  terms?  A  party  organized  under 
any  particular  name  merely  for  party  or  personal  objects  is  dangerous  in  our  republic, 
and  its  spirit  is  despotism.  In  order  to  preserve  the  accountability  of  public  men,  a 
fundamental  principle  of  a  free  government,  it  is  necessary  that  the  people  should  be 
in  a  situation  to  pass  an  impartial  judgment  upon  public  measures,  and  the  conduct  of 
public  men.  Influenced  by  considerations  of  this  nature,  and  a  spirit  of  conciliation, 
I  have  to  assure  you  of  my  cordial  cooperation,  in  all  measures  calculated  to  promote 
the  happiness,  and  prosperity  of  our  common  country. 

In  closing  my  communication,  I  invite  you  to  join  me,  in  returning  thanks  to  the 
Author  of  all  good,  for  the  abundant  crops,  peace  and  happiness  with  which  our  state 
and  nation  are  blessed;  and  let  us  implore  Him  to  extend  to  His  kind  and  protecting 
care  to  our  southern  brethren  now  struggling  for  freedom  and  independence.  As  re- 
publicans we  cannot  be  indifferent  to  their  cause.  That  they  ought  to  be  independent 
of  the  powers  of  Europe,  nature  herself  has  decreed.  From  the  school  of  freedom 
which  we  have  established,  there  is  reason  to  hope  they  will  learn  to  institute  republican 
forms  of  government;  and  although  it  may  not  be  necessary  or  expedient  for  us  to 
participate  in  their  contests,  let  us  beseech  the  same  kind  Providence  that  watched  over 
us  in  times  of  difficulty  and  trial,  to  crown  their  efforts  with  success. 

Frankfort,  December  2,  1817. 
Niles'  Register,  Vol.  XIII,  pp.  386-389,  February  7,  1818. 



Common  Schools 

Mr.  Taylor,  from  the  committee  on  education,  made  the  following  report,  which,  on 
his  motion,  was  referred  to  the  committee  of  the  whole,  and  ordered  to  be  printed. 

Article  ____ 

Sec.  1.  "The  diffusion  of  knowledge  and  learning  among  men  being  essential  to 
the  preservation  of  liberty  and  free  government,  and  the  promotion  of  human  virtue 
and  happiness,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  general  assembly  to  establish,  within  ____  years 
next  after  the  adoption  of  this  constitution,  and  forever  thereafter  keep  in  existence, 
an  efficient  system  of  common  schools  throughout  this  commonwealth,  which  shall  be 
equally  open  to  all  the  white  children  thereof. 

Sec.  2.  The  fund  called  and  known  as  the  school  fund,  consisting  of  $1,225,768.42, 
secured  by  bonds  given  by  the  state,  and  payable  to  the  board  of  education,  and 
$73,500  of  stock  in  the  Bank  of  Kentucky,  also  the  sum  of  $51,223.29,  being  the 
balance  of  interest  on  the  school  fund  for  the  year  1848,  over  and  above  the  charges 
against  that  interest  for  said  year;  all  of  which  said  sums  of  money  and  stock,  and 
the  interest  and  dividends  accruing  thereon  and  therefrom,  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby, 


set  apart,  dedicated,  declared  to  be,  and  shall  remain,  a  perpetual  fund;  the  principal 
of  which  shall  never  be  diminished  by  legislative  appropriation  or  enactment.  The  in- 
terest thereof,  together  with  any  other  fund  that  may  arise  by  taxation,  heretofore  or 
hereafter  imposed  by  the  general  assembly  in  aid  of  common  schools,  shall  be  inviolably 
applied  and  devoted  to  the  creation,  support,  and  encouragement  thereof  in  this  common- 
wealth, for  the  equal  benefit  of  all  the  children  therein,  whose  instruction  shall  be  pro- 
vided for  by  law;  and  no  law  shall  be  made  authorizing  said  fund,  or  any  part  thereof, 
to  be  diverted  to  any  other  use  or  purpose  whatsoever,  than  that  to  which  the  same  is 
herein  before  dedicated. 

Sec.  3.  The  interest  arising  from  the  fund  in  the  second  section  of  this  article  men- 
tioned, as  also  any  sum  which  may  have  arisen,  or  may  hereafter  arise  from  taxation 
imposed  from  the  purposes  aforesaid  or  otherwise,  shall,  in  any  system  of  common 
schools  which  the  general  assembly  may  establish,  be  distributed  among  the  several 
counties,  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  children  therein. 

Sec.  4.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  general  assembly  to  provide  for  the  investment 
of  the  sum  of  $51,223.29,  in  the  second  section  of  this  article  mentioned,  in  some  safe 
and  profitable  manner,  the  interest  upon  which  shall  be  applied  as  in  said  second  sec- 
tion directed. 

Sec.  5.  Whenever,  for  the  period  of  one  year,  there  shall  remain  unused  of  the  fund 
set  apart  and  made  applicable  by  the  second  section  of  this  article  to  the  establishment 
and  support  of  common  schools,  the  sum  of  ten  thousand  dollars,  it  shall  be  the  duty 
of  the  governor  to  fund  the  same,  which  shall  constitute  a  portion  of  the  permanent 
fund  for  the  support  of  common  schools;  the  interest  arising  thereon  only  to  be  ap- 
plied in  aid  thereof,  as  in  the  second  section  of  this  article  mentioned:  Provided, 
That  if  any  county  have  failed  to  organize  common  schools  therein  for  five  years,  it 
may,  at  any  time  after  an  organization,  draw  whatever  sum  then  be  due  to  it,  provided 
the  same  has  not  been  funded  as  herein  directed. 

Sec.  6.  The  general  assembly  shall  provide  the  ways  and  means  for  the  prompt 
payment  and  safe  custody  of  the  interest  now  due,  or  which  may  hereafter  accrue 
upon  the  bonds  given  by  the  state,  and  payable  to  the  board  of  education. 

Sec.  7.  There  shall  be  elected,  by  the  qualified  electors  in  this  commonwealth,  a 
superintendent  of  public  instruction,  who  shall,  hold  his  office  for  __  years,  and  whose 
duties  and  salary  shall  be  prescribed  and  fixed  by  law." 

*     *     * 

Mr.  Hardin:  "I  did  expect  to  have  heard  from  the  chairman  of  the  committee,  (Mr. 
Taylor,)  some  explanation  of  this  system  of  common  schools,  and  it  may  be  that  he 
designs  to  give  us  one  yet.  I  am  as  much  a  friend  to  the  diffusion  of  education,  and 
perhaps,  according  to  my  means,  have  done  as  much  towards  that  end,  as  any  man  in 
the  state;  not  only  in  educating  those  I  feel  bound  from  nature  to  educate — my  own 
children — but  others.  Yet  I  am  unwilling  to  have  any  provision  of  this  kind  adopted 
in  the  constitution.  We  have  now  packed  it  very  heavy,  and  I  do  not  believe  it  will 
carry  this  additional  load;  particularly  after  what  we  did  a  few  moments  since,  in 
relation  these  commissioners  to  revise  the  laws.  .  .  . 

I  desire  to  offer,  for  the  consideration  of  the  convention,  a  few  facts  and  figures, 
in  explanation  of  my  course  upon  this  subject.  When  the  United  States  distributed 
to  Kentucky  her  proportion  of  the  surplus  revenue,  amounting  to  $1,433,757.39,  Ken- 
tucky pledged  herself,  that  she  would  set  apart  $850,000  of  that  money  for  common 
school  purposes.  The  school  fund,  as  a  fund,  never  had  an  existence,  except  in  that 
mere    pledge    of    the    state    to   herself;    there   never   was   a    dollar   appropriated   to    tha 


common  school  fund,  except  in  this  instance  of  $850,000.     That  money  we  borrowed 
— we  call  it  borrowing — for  thirty-five  years. 

To  raise  the  amount  this  section  proposed  would  require  a  tax  of  near  three  cents. 
Now,  has  there  been  any  vote  in  the  state  upon  this  additional  tax?  I  know  of  none; 
and  for  my  own  part,  I  should  prefer  this  matter  should  be  left  open  to  legislation. 
It  is  not  worth  while  for  the  convention  to  do  all  the  legislation  of  the  country  right 
at  once.  Let  us  leave  some  little  for  the  legislature  to  do.  Are  you  afraid  of  the 
legislature?  Surely  not.  If  it  is  necessary,  they  will  do  it — if  not,  they  will  do  as 
much  as  is  convenient.  ... 

On  the  three  cents  proposed  to  be  levied,  we  would  pay  perhaps  $1,500  or  $2,000; 
and  yet  we  have  never  had  a  free  school,  nor  will  we  ever  have  one  in  Nelson  county; 
and  I  will  challenge  any  county  in  the  state,  to  produce  an  equal  population,  with 
only  equal  means,  that  expends  more  money  on  colleges  and  schools  of  various  kinds, 
that  we  do  in  Nelson  county. 

I  have  no  opinion  of  free  schools  any  how — none  in  the  world.  They  are  generally 
under  the  management  of  a  miserable  set  of  humbug  teachers  at  best.  .  .  . 

a.  The  worst  taught  child  in  the  world,  is  he  who  is  taught  by  a  miserable  country 
school  master;  and  I  will  appeal  to  the  experience  of  every  man  here  who  ever  went  to 
those  schools,  to  say  how  hard  it  is,  to  get  clear  of  the  habits  of  incorrect  reading  and 
pronouncing,  they  have  contracted,  at  these  country  schools.  For  myself,  I  will  say, 
it  cost  me  nearly  as  much  labor  as  the  study  of  the  legal  profession  itself. 

Now,  Kentucky  embraces  over  40,500  square  miles,  and  free  schools  cannot  educate 
scholars,  upon  a  larger  theatre  than  nine  square  miles;  and  if  we  scatter  them  all  over 
the  state  fairly,  it  would  require  a  number  of  schools  beyond  what  the  means  of  the 
state,  after  paying  the  expenses  of  government,  could  provide.  Not  less  than  4,500 
free  schools  would  be  required;  or  if  we  do  not  do  that,  the  result  will  be,  that  the 
poor  and  thinly  peopled  counties,  although  taxed  for,  would  not  have  the  benefit  of 
those  free  schools,  that  will  be  the  result.  I  would  not  send  a  child  to  a  free  school, 
and  would  rather  pay  for  his  education  myself. 

This  thing  will  be  manifestly  unjust  in  its  operations  upon  the  country,  as  compared 
with  the  towns  and  cities,  on  the  Ohio  border  particularly.  It  is  manifestly  unjust  as 
to  a  large  portion  of  the  people  of  Kentucky,  in  a  religious  point  of  view.  There  is 
Catholic  population  of  perhaps  sixty  thousand  in  Kentucky.  We  know  that  they  de- 
vote more  money,  time,  and  energy,  to  the  education  of  their  children,  than  any  other 
religious  denomination  in  the  state;  and  I  say  it,  because  coming  from  a  protestant,  I 
hope  the  admission  will  be  taken  as  true.  Do  you  believe  that  they  will  ever  have  the 
management  of  our  free  school  system?  Do  you  believe  that  they  will  ever  send  their 
children  to  a  free  school?  No,  never,  never.  I  talked  to  the  leading  Catholics,  and 
they  protested  against  it.  And  yet,  some  sixty  thousand  people  are  to  be  taxed  for  free 
schools,  to  which  they  will  never  send  a  child. 

Will  the  members  of  this  convention,  by  the  adoption  of  this  report,  fix  its  pro- 
visions upon  the  people  as  long  as  this  constitution  shall  last?  You  are  to  pay  the  in- 
terest on  the  several  sums  amounting  to  something  like  $74,000  or  $76,000,  for  all  time 
to  come,  if  you  do  that.  Then  no  matter  how  unpopular  or  how  objectionable  it  may  be 
to  the  people,  they  cannot  get  rid  of  it  without  calling  another  convention.  I  beg  of 
the  convention  to  bear  this  in  mind,  and  not  put  it  in  the  constitution.  Leave  it  open 
to  the  legislature.     In  the  name  of  God,  are  we  to  leave  nothing  to  the  legislature?  .  .  . 

Leave  them  a  little  to  do — let  them  decide  what  shall  hereafter  be  done  as  to  these 
free  schools.     I  had  far  rather  that  this  tax  of  three  cents  should  be  appropriated  to 


the  endowment  of  colleges  and  academies,  for  the  education  of  young  men  capable  of 
teaching,  than  see  it  thrown  away,  as  is  here  proposed. 

I  am  confident  that  the  country  will  not  approve  of  the  system.  It  may  be  an  ad- 
vantage to  the  towns,  but  it  will  be  a  great  burden  on  the  country,  to  which  they  should 
not  be  asked  in  justice  to  yield.  The  towns  should  remember,  as  the  old  saying  goes 
among  the  women,  "if,  when  you  go  to  market  you  expect  to  get  meat,  you  must  ex- 
pect to  get  bones  also";  and  they  must  expect  to  get  their  share  of  inconveniences  as 
well  as  advantages,  by  living  in  town.    I  hope,  therefore,  we  shall  not  adopt  this  report." 

*»»     ifc     ^ 

Mr.  Gholson:  "I  am  as  much  in  favor  of  common  school  education  as  any  gentleman 
of  this  floor,  but  it  is  well  known  that  we  have  no  school  fund,  unless  we  take  it  out  of 
the  pockets  of  the  people.  If  we  put  into  this  constitution  the  provision  now  before 
us,  the  money  will  have  to  be  raised  by  additional  taxation;  and  to  this  I  cannot  consent. 

On  the  subject  of  education,  it  cannot  surely  be  that  this  convention  will  tax  the 
people  against  their  will.     Let  us  pass  it  by,  and  leave  it  to  the  people's  representatives." 

*     *     * 

Mr.  Proctor:  "Sir,  while  we  are  making  a  constitution  that  confers  on  the  people 
the  power  of  choosing  all  the  officers  of  the  government,  both  civil  and  political,  how 
important  is  it  that  we  should  also  extend  to  them,  as  far  as  we  can,  the  means  by 
which  they  may  inform  themselves  as  to  the  nature  and  responsibilities  of  those  high 
trusts  thus  confided  to  their  charge.  Much,  Mr.  President,  has  been  said  upon  the 
floor  of  this  convention  about  the  capacity  of  the  people  of  Kentucky  for  self-govern- 
ment; and  while  I  believe  that  the  people  of  Kentucky  will  compare  with  any  upon 
the  globe  for  virtue,  patriotism,  and  hospitality;  and  that  they  are  perhaps,  possessed 
of  more  native  genius,  and  fertility  of  intellect  than  any  people  who  have  ever  lived 
in  any  age  or  clime;  yet,  sir,  the  fact  is  not  to  be  disguised,  that  there  are  a  large 
number  of  persons  who  are  both  ignorant  and  uneducated,  and  subject  to  be  controlled 
by  the  vicious  and  unprincipled.  It  appears  by  the  males  and  females  over  the  age  of 
five  and  under  twenty  years  of  age,  233,710  persons.  Of  this  number,  there  were  in 
colleges  and  universities  1,419;  in  academies  and  grammar  schools  4,906;  in  common 
schools  24,641;  making  a  total  of  30,966,  leaving  over  200,000  children  between  the 
ages  of  five  and  twenty  not  in  school.  And  most  deplorable  of  all,  Mr.  President,  is 
the  fact,  that  there  was  at  the  same  period  of  time  in  this  proud  old  commonwealth  of 
ours,  of  which  we  boast  so  much,  over  forty  thousand  free  white  citizens  over  the  age 
of  twenty  years,  who  could  neither  read  nor  write;  a  fact  that  is  not  very  flattering  to 
our  vanity  as  Kentuckians. 

If  it  is  right  that  the  people  be  educated — if  it  is  right  that  the  fund  which  the 
people  of  the  state  have  so  generously  voted  to  tax  themselves  with,  for  the  purposes 
of  sustaining  a  system  of  common  schools,  should  be  sacredly  applied  to  that  purpose 
— if  sir,  it  is  right  that  the  money  which  was  set  apart  to  the  state  of  Kentucky — by 
the  general  government,  and  which  was  originally  intended  for  the  purposes  of  educa- 
tion, should  be  applied  to  that  purpose  alone — why  I  ask,  should  we  leave  the  matter 
to  the  future  control  and  management  of  the  legislature?  If  the  thing  is  right,  why 
should  we  not  take  the  responsibility  and  act  upon  it?  Why  leave  to  others  to  do  that 
which  we  are  required  to  do  ourselves?  Why  put  off  the  good  work,  a  work  in  which 
our  children  and  our  children's  children  are  most  deeply  and  most  vitally  interested. 
Mr.  President,  there  is  no  doubt  this  day — many  a  "mute  Milton"  in  the  mountains  of 
Kentucky,  the  energies  and  powers  of  whose  mind  have  been  repressed  and  checked 
by    "chill,    penury,    and   want,"    yes   sir,    minds   which    if   early   cultivated,    might    have 


"commanded  the  applause  of  listening  senates"  and  who  might  have  raised  themselves 
above  the  common  level  of  mankind  and  have  achieved  honor  for  themselves  and  glory 
for  their  country.  But  from  the  situation  in  which  they  have  been  placed,  the  grandeur 
of  nature  has  availed  them  nothing,  and  their  mountain  homes,  which  under  the  proper 
state  of  intellectual  improvement  might  have  echoed  the  song  of  the  poet,  or  the  elo- 
quence of  the  orator,  has  remained  as  a  sterile  and  uncultivated  waste. 

Mr.  President,  I  have  thought  it  due  to  myself,  and  to  those  whom  I  represent,  to 
say  this  much.  And  sir,  whatever  may  be  the  action  of  this  convention,  I  shall  console 
myself  by  the  reflection  that  in  my  humble  efforts,  in  behalf  of  a  system  of  common 
schools,  to  the  best  of  my  ability,  I  have  discharged  my  duty,  to  myself,  my  consti- 
tuents and  posterity." 

;|;        %        %. 

Mr.  C.  A.  Wickliffe:  "What  has  become  of  the  school  fund  since  that  time,  I  do 
not  know.  But  I  am  opposed  to  adopting  as  a  part  of  the  constitution,  this  common 
school  system,  sometimes  called  the  free  school  system.  I  use  the  term  common,  as 
opposed  to  individual  or  private  schools. 

If  we  have  a  school  fund  secured,  and  set  apart  by  the  legislature  of  the  country, 
I  want  to  leave  that  fund  to  the  disposition  of  the  legislature  for  educational  purposes." 

*     *     * 

Mr.  Taylor:  "The  gentleman  from  Nelson  (Mr.  Hardin,)  propounded  to  us  a 
singular  question,  one  which  I  dare  answer,  and  which  I  will  make  the  record  before 
my  answer.  Said  he,  are  you  afraid  to  trust  the  legislature? — I  am.  He  asked  it 
with  great  emphasis  and  confidence — I  answer  it  in  the  same  spirit — I  am  afraid  to  trust 
the  legislature;  and  the  reasons  for  that  distrust,  I  will  give,  drawn  from  legislative 
records  on  this  subject.  .  .  . 

In  the  year  1836  there  had  accumulated  in  the  treasury  of  the  United  States  about 
twenty-eight  millions  of  dollars  beyond  the  demands  against  it,  the  most  of  which  had 
arisen  from  the  sales  of  the  public  lands,  the  common  property  of  the  people.  Con- 
gress determined  that  large  amount  of  surplus  revenue  should  not  lay  there  idle 
and  unproductive;  nay,  sir,  fearing  perhaps  that  it  might  be  devoted  to  bad  and  sinister 
purposes,  passed  an  act  ordering  it  to  be  distributed  among  the  several  states  in  the 
ration  of  their  representation  in  that  body,  and  thus,  sir,  the  most  singular  spectacle 
was  exhibited  to  the  world,  of  a  government  making  among  the  governed,  a  parental 
distribution  of  twenty-eight  millions  of  dollars  which  had  accumulated  in  its  coffers,  a 
spectacle  never  before  seen,  and  which  I  fear  will  never  be  seen  again,  at  once  the 
noblest  and  most  cheering  commentary  upon  free  government,  and  the  integrity  and 
justice  of  its  administration. 

Kentucky  accepted  her  share  upon  the  condition  imposed  by  congress;  and  upon  the 
23rd  day  of  February,  1837,  passed  an  act  in  which  I  find  the  following  section: 

"Be  it  further  enacted,  That  the  profits  arising  from  one  million  dollars  of  the  surplus 
revenue  of  the  United  States,  deposited  and  to  be  deposited  with  the  state  by  virtue 
of  the  act  of  congress  of  the  11th  of  June  1836,  be  and  is  hereby  set  apart  and  forever 
dedicated   to    founding   and   sustaining   a   general   system   of   public   instruction   in   this 



Sir,  to  what  nobler  purpose  could  such  a  fund  have  been  dedicated.  The  legislature 
of  Kentucky  felt  then  as  we  now  feel;  being  the  just  and  proper  reflex  of  public  senti- 
ment, what  did  the  representatives  of  the  people  do?  They  set  apart  one  million  dollars 
and  forever  dedicated  it  to  a  general  system  of  public  instruction.  .  .  . 


Well,  sir  what  has  become  of  this  fund  and  of  its  accumulations?  Permit  me  to 
read  from  the  report  of  the  superintendent  of  public  instruction: 

"In  the  midst  of  such  circumstances  as  these,  the  state  of  Kentucky  found  herself 
embarked  in  an  extensive  system  of  internal  improvements,  designed  to  develop  her 
resources  and  increase  the  general  wealth.  The  funds  necessary  to  carry  on  her  exten- 
sive operations,  were  raised  by  the  public  credit,  exhibited  in  the  form  of  state  bonds, 
which  were  issued  and  sold  to  a  large  amount;  and  in  order  to  sustain  the  credit  of  these 
bonds,  and  provide  the  means  for  the  regular  payment  of  interest  accruing  on  them, 
and  the  final  discharge  of  the  bonds  themselves,  a  sinking  fund  was  created,  and  a 
large  portion  of  the  proceeds  of  the  taxes,  annually  handed  over  to  the  commissioner 
of  that  fund.  The  bonds  held  by  the  board  of  education  represented  $850,000,  which 
the  state  having  first  consecrated  to  the  cause  of  education,  subsequently  used  in  prose- 
cuting its  plans  of  internal  improvement,  the  board  of  education  stood,  in  regard  to 
the  bonds  it  thus  held,  precisely  in  the  relation  of  any  other  fair  holder  of  these  internal 
improvement  bonds;  unless,  indeed,  the  peculiar  nature  and  origin  of  the  school  fund, 
thus  invested,  should  have  given  a  peculiar  sacredness  to  the  debt  thus  held  by  that 
board.  Yet,  it  is  most  painful  to  be  obliged  to  state,  that  the  legislature  of  the  state, 
for  the  year  1844-45,  took  a  view  of  this  matter  so  entirely  different,  that  by  the  4th 
section  of  the  act,  approved  February  10,  1845 — chapter  264,  of  the  laws  of  that  session 
— it  required  all  the  state  bonds  by  the  governor  of  the  commonwealth,  and  to  be,  by 
him,  burn  in  the  presence  of  the  high  officers  of  state.  As  if  to  mock  the  great  cause 
which  had  thus  been  betrayed,  the  act  proceeded  to  declare,  that  lists  should  be  made 
out  of  the  evidences  of  debt  thus  burnt,  and  that  these  lists,  though  deprived  by  the 
act  itself  of  all  value  in  the  way  of  delivery,  transfer,  or  assignment,  and  practically 
robbed  of  all  advantage,  thenceforth,  from  the  sinking  fund,  which  had  been  created 
to  sustain  and  finally  discharge  just  such  bonds,  should,  nevertheless,  be  held  and  taken, 
as  in  the  place  of  the  bonds  that  had  been  burnt,  and  be  as  sacred  as  they  had  been. 
Practically,  that  is,  sacred  enough  to  be  burnt  themselves,  whenever  the  exigences  of  all 
public  credit  might  seem  to  render  such  a  proceeding  desirable  against  the  defenceless 

So  sir,  we  see  this  fund  was  first  dedicated  to  the  improvement  of  the  head  and 
heart,  the  morals  and  the  intellect  of  the  country,  to  the  noblest  of  all  improvements — 
to  the  accumulation  of  that  wealth  "which  taketh  no  wings  and  flyeth  not  away" — of 
which  no  adverse  fortune  can  ever  deprive  us,  and  against  which  no  commission  of  bank- 
ruptcy can  ever  issue.  "Who  so  knoweth  the  things  of  a  man,  pave  the  spirit  of  the 
man  that  is  in  him?"  The  legislature  have  not  spread  on  the  record  the  reasons  which 
induced  them  to  order  those  bonds  to  be  burnt.  They  were  afraid,  I  infer,  that  they 
would  be  put  in  market.  They  directed  them  to  be  listed,  and  if  the  auditor's  office 
should  be  burned,  the  tangible  evidences  of  this  large  debt  to  the  children  of  the  state 
would  be  gone;  there  are  no  bonds  as  I  understand  in  existence.  Has  the  interest  on 
this  eight  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars  been  paid,  and  kept  ready  (to  use  the 
language  of  the  act  of  1837)  for  abstraction?  No  sir.  On  the  20th  day  of  December, 
1848,  a  bond  for  $308,768.42,  being  the  arrears  of  interest  due  upon  said  $850,000, 
was  executed  by  the  state.  There  is  also  $51,223.29  of  interest  due  for  the  year  1848. 
So  it  will  be  seen  that  the  interest  has  not  been  paid;  and  this  large  interest  bond  of 
$308,768.42  is  payable  at  the  pleasure  of  the  legislature.  Should  not,  I  ask,  the  people 
be  justly  jealous  of  the  legislature?  Have  they  not  a  right  to  be  so  on  this  subject; 
and  being  so,  I  as  one  of  the  friends  of  education,  am  for  placing  in  the  constitution 
which   we   are   now    forming   a   clause,   dedicating   this  great   fund   to   this   still   greater 


cause.  It  is  the  honor  enough  to  be  a  delegate  on  this  floor;  but  it  is  a  still  higher 
honor  to  have  been  instrumental  in  securing  this  fund  to  the  glorious  cause  of  education. 
Mr.  President,  I  threaten  no  gentleman  on  this  floor  with  his  constituents — I  point 
no  one  to  the  reckoning  which  will  be  made  with  him  in  reference  to  the  custody  and 
use  of  this  great  fund.  Home,  sir;  'tis  the  most  beautiful  and  fascinating  word  in  the 
English  language,  doubtless  on  account  of  its  associations — grouping  within  its  circle, 
wife,  children,  and  friends.  I  dare  any  man  here  to  go  home  and  look  the  mother  of 
his  children  in  the  face,  and  tell  her,  who  is  the  partner  of  his  joys,  his  troubles,  and 
anxieties,  that  he  opposed  the  constitutional  devotion  and  security  of  this  money  for 
the  education  of  her  children.  I  want  every  mother  to  know  that  if  the  father  of  her 
children  shall  be  taken  away,  that  there  is  a  fund  set  apart  by  the  constitution  of  her 
country,  for  their  education — that  though  they  are  indeed  orphans,  yet  their  moral  and 
intellectual  culture  has  been  provided  for  by  the  state,  whose  rulers  they  are  to  in  a 
few  short  years.  Yes,  gentlemen,  when  you  shall  return  home,  and  sit  down  at  your 
own  firesides,  rendered  festive  by  your  presence,  and  secure  and  happy  by  your  presence, 
when  your  children — the  buds  and  blossoms  along  the  pathway  of  human  life — shall  be 
throwing  their  little  arms  around  your  neck,  and  telling  you,  in  their  artless  simplicity, 
the  little  domestic  incidents  that  have  occurred  in  your  absence,  can  you,  in  such  an 
hour,  tell  the  wife  and  mother  that  you  have  had  an  opportunity  of  providing  a  system 
of  schools  for  them,  and  have  not  done  it?  Will  you  throw  over  this  sunshine  of  the 
heart  the  pall  of  neglected  and  violated  social  obligation  and  duty,  by  your  failure  to 
protect  and  secure  this  fund  from  legislative  rapacity  and  duplicity?" 

Mr.  Root:  "Here  are  assembled  a  hundred  wise  men,  not  of  the  east,  but  of  the 
west,  engaged  in  a  work  which  is  to  affect  the  destinies,  for  good  or  evil,  of  the  people 
of  this  commonwealth,  perhaps  for  a  century  to  come.  They  have  the  great  public 
interests  in  their  hands.  Will  they  let  the  opportunity  pass  of  acting  in  accordance 
with  it?  Will  they  do  it?  Is  there  a  man  here  who  is  prepared  to  do  it?  I  believe 
that  the  people  are  prepared  for  a  general  system  of  education.  I  believe,  according 
to  the  report  of  the  honorable  chairman  of  the  committee  on  education,  we  ought  to 
dedicate  that  entire  fund  to  the  founding  of  a  system  of  general  education.  I  think 
the  people  will  concur  in  the  adoption  of  that  measure,  and  I  believe  that  every  man 
who  votes  for  it  will  be  hailed  by  his  constituents  as  a  benefactor  of  his  race. 

Here    we    have   a    learned    body   of    men,    understanding    the   great   interests   of   the 

commonwealth;  now  strike  for  the  interest  of  your  constituents,  and  my  word  for  it, 

if  you  do  die  politically  in  the  attempt  to  do  the  people  good,   your  praises  will  be 

echoed,    and   your   names   eternized,   when   a   new   generation   shall   arise   and   call   you 


*     *     * 

Mr.  Bowling:  "The  fund  called  and  known  as  the  school  fund,  consists  of  $1,- 
225,768.42,  secured  by  bonds  given  by  the  state,  and  payable  to  the  board  of  educa- 
tion; $72,500  of  stock  in  the  Bank  of  Kentucky,  and  $51,223.29,  balance  of  interest 
of  the  school  fund  for  the  year  1848,  making,  in  the  aggregate,  the  sum  $1,350,491.71. 
The  interest  upon  this  fund,  on  which  the  state  pays  five  per  cent,  amounting  to 
$67,524.58,  when  added  to  the  two  cent  tax  voted  by  the  state  upon  each  $100  worth 
of  taxable  property,  which  amounts  to  $56,000,  would  constitute  an  annual  school 
revenue  of  $125,524.58.  This  sum  when  divided  among  192,999  children,  the  total 
number  of  the  commonwealth,  would  give  to  each  per  annum,  64  cents  only.  At  first 
blush    it   would   appear   that   a   sum   so   inconsiderable   was   too   small   to   lay   even   the 


corner  stone  of  this  benign  system.  Yet  a  further  enquiry  will  demonstrate  its  suf- 
ficiency to  perpetuate  an  efficient  system  of  free  schools  in  every  commonwealth,  for 
nearly  five  months  in  every  year.  Allowing  an  area  of  six  miles  square  to  a  school 
district,  it  would  require,  in  the  whole  state,  twelve  hundred  and  fifty  teachers;  whose 
services  at  $20  per  month,  (and  that  amount,  when  it  was  known  to  be  certain,  at 
the  end  of  the  session,  would  procure  good  ones,)  for  five  months,  would  amount  to 
$125,000 — a  sum  only  $1,475.42  over  and  above  the  annual  school  revenue — so  that 
if  the  state  were  to  seal  hermetrically,  her  coffers  to  the  cries  of  her  children  for 
mental  bread  and  light  which  shineth  in  darkness,  the  system  of  free  schools  would 
find  an  efficient  basis  in  the  national  donation,  and  the  charity  voted  by  the  people, 
if   once   this   holy   fund  was  secured  against   the   fingers   of   a   time-serving   legislature. 

It  is  my  honest  conviction  that  the  people  desire  that  a  system  of  free  schools  should 
be  fixed  in  the  constitution.  It  has  been  the  fashion  of  gentlemen  in  this  hall  to  vol- 
unteer prognoses  as  to  what  would  gain  votes  for  the  new  constitution,  or  militate 
against  its  reception  by  the  people.  But,  sir,  let  these  hundred  chosen  delegates  go 
home  and  tell  the  anxious  thousands  that  will  greet  their  return,  that  a  part  of  our 
labors  here,  insures  to  the  descendants  of  this  land  of  heroes  and  of  song,  the  keys 
to  the  temple  of  knowledge.  That  henceforth,  under  the  new  organization,  schools 
are  to  spring  up  in  every  neighborhood,  and  to  be  as  free  as  the  gush  of  waters  from 
the  mountain  rock.  In  the  beautiful  language  of  my  friend  from  Mason,  (Mr.  Taylor,) 
— who  is  indeed  imbued  with  the  spirit  of  the  beautiful — that  they  will  arise  like  fire- 
flies at  summer  sunset,  giving  life  and  hope  to  each  other — light  to  the  young,  hope  to 
the  middle-aged,  and  consolation  to  the  old. 

Tell  them  that  the  mountains  and  the  valleys  and  the  plains  of  this  heavenly  heri- 
tage are  to  be  studded  with  school  houses,  which  like  the  temples  of  the  living  God, 
are  to  be  free  to  all,  without  money  and  without  price.  Tell  the  children  of  the  poor 
and  unfortunate  that  hope  heretofore,  that  mystic  shadow  of  good,  which  receded 
as  they  advanced,  and  whose  home  was  fabled  terminus  of  the  rainbow  has  been 
made  to  receive  substantive  proportions  and  to  become  a  smiling  reality. 

Tell  them  that  fountains  of  living  water  have  been  opened  up,  in  which  the  budding 
desire  for  knowledge  may  lave  its  thirst,  and  where  all  are  invited  to  come  and  par- 
take freely.  Let  this  be  told  there  sir,  and  a  voice  redolent  of  thanksgiving  and  bene- 
diction will  go  up  from  half  a  million  of  the  best  of  our  people,  to  the  God  of  the 
Widow  and  the  fatherless." 

-fc         *r         t» 

Mr.  C.  A.  Wickliffe:  "I  subscribe  in  the  main  to  all  that  has  been  said,  or  can  be 
said,  in  favor  of  the  necessity  and  the  importance  of  such  a  duty." 

*     *     * 

Mr.  T.  J.  Hood:  "But  as  a  last  argument  by  the  learned  gentleman  from  Nelson, 
(Mr.  Hardin,)  against  any  constitutional  provision,  securing  and  establishing  the  school 
fund  heretofore  set  apart,  we  are  met  with  the  startling  annunciation  that  there  is  no 
school  fund;  that  as  most  it  is  but  a  debt  which  the  state  owes  to  herself,  and  which 
she  may  at  any  time  cancel;  that  the  money  has  all  been  expended,  and  so,  in  truth, 
and  in  fact,  there  is  no  school  fund.  That  is,  when  the  argument  is  analyzed  and 
translated  into  plain  English,  (about  which  we  have  heard  so  much  to-day,)  we  are  to 
be  told  that  the  dedication  of  $850,000,  some  years  ago,  to  common  school  purposes, 
and  its  subsequent  investment  in  state  bonds,  bearing  interest,  so  that  the  fund  might 
become  productive,  and  the  schools  sustained,  without  trenching  upon  or  destroying 
the  principle,  was  all  a  splendid  farce,  and  to  amuse  and  delude  the  people — while  the 


money  was  being  sunk  in  the  bottoms  of  your  rivers,  and  spread  along  your  roads  in 
various  works  of  internal  improvement;  and  now,  sir,  when  the  play  is  through,  and 
the  money  all  gone,  the  delusion  is  to  be  brushed  away,  and  the  eyes  of  the  people  to 
be  opened  to  the  fact  that  there  is  no  school  fund.  This  is  a  system  of  spacious  reasoning 
which,  I  trust,  the  great  state  of  Kentucky  will  not  subscribe  to.  Sir,  those  bonds  were 
executed  in  good  faith,  and  the  honor  and  credit  of  the  state  were  pledged  to  their 
payment,  and  to  the  payment  of  the  interest  upon  them.  The  character  of  every  citizen 
is,  to  some  extent,  identified  with  the  honor  and  good  faith  of  the  state,  and  Kentucky 
will  not,  in  my  humble  opinion,  be  true  to  herself  and  her  past  distinguished  reputa- 
tion, if  she  does  not  fully  redeem  the  pledge  given  by  these  bonds  to  the  poor  children 
of  her  citizens.  She  must  either  pay  those  bonds  or  repudiate  them.  There  is  no  other 
alternative.  If  she  should  choose  the  latter,  then  I  confess  the  rising  generation  will 
be  without  a  remedy.  But  what  becomes  of  the  fair  fame  of  this  good  old  common- 
wealth?    Sir,  Kentucky  will  not  repudiate  those  bonds  or  any  other  honest  debts  she 

has  ever  contracted." 

^     >^     >s< 

Mr.  C.  A.  Wickliffe  entered  into  some  further  explanations,  and  then  withdrew  his 
amendment  (with  which  Mr.  Barlow's  also  fell,)  and  submitted  a  modified  amendment, 
as  follows: 

"The  capital  of  the  fund,  called  and  known  as  the  common  school  fund,  consisting 
of  $1,225,768.42,  for  which  bonds  have  been  executed  by  the  state  to  the  board  of 
education,  and  $73,500  of  stock  in  the  Bank  of  Kentucky;  also  the  sum  of  $51,223.29, 
balance  of  interest  on  the  school  fund  for  1848,  unexpended;  together  with  any  sum 
which  may  hereafter  be  raised  in  the  state,  by  taxation  or  otherwise,  for  purposes  of 
education,  shall  be  held  inviolate,  for  the  purpose  of  sustaining  a  system  of  common 
schools;  the  interest  and  dividends  of  said  fund,  together  with  any  sum  which  may  be 
produced  by  taxation,  may  be  appropriated  in  aid  of  common  schools,  but  for  no  other 
purpose.  The  general  assembly  shall  invest  said  $51,223.29  in  some  safe  and  profitable 
manner,  and  any  portion  of  the  interest  and  dividends  of  said  school  fund,  which  may 
not  be  needed  in  sustaining  common  schools,  shall  be  invested  in  like  manner.  The 
general  assembly  shall  make  provision,  by  law,  for  the  payment  of  interest  of  said  school 
fund:  Provided,  that  each  county  shall  be  entitled  to  their  proportion  of  the  income 
of  said  fund,  and  if  not  called  for  school  purposes,  it  shall  be  reinvested  for  the  benefit 
of  each  county,  from  time  to  time." 

Mr.  Turner  moved  the  previous  question,  and  the  main  question  was  ordered  to 
be  now  put. 

The  amendment  of  the  gentleman  from  Nelson  was  then  adopted. 

15— Vol.    II 




Isaac  Shelby,  June  4,  1792. 
James  Garrard,  June  1,  1796. 
James  Garrard,  June  2,  1800. 
Christopher  Greenup,  Sept.  5,  1804. 
Charles  Scott,  Sept.,   1808. 
Isaac  Shelby,  Sept.,  1812. 
George  Madison   (a),  Sept.,  1816. 
Gabriel  Slaughter  (b),  Oct.  21,  1816. 
John  Adair,   Sept.,   1820. 
Joseph  Desha,  Sept.,  1824. 
Thomas  Metcalfe,  Sept.,  1828. 
John  Breathitt  (a),  Sept.,  1832. 
James  T.  Morehead  (c),  Feb.  25,  1834. 
James  Clark  (a),  Aug.  30,  1836. 
Charles  A.  Wickliffe  (d),  Aug.  27,  1838. 
Robert  P.  Letcher,  Sept.,  1840. 
William  Owsley,  Sept.,  1844. 
John  J.  Crittenden   (e),  Sept.,  1848. 
John  L.  Helm,  July  1,  1850. 
Lazarus  W.  Powell,  Sept.,  1851-55. 
Charles  S.  Morehead,  Sept.,  1855-59. 
Beriah  Magoffin,   Sept.,   1859-62. 
James  F.  Robinson,  Sept.,  1862-63. 
Thomas  E.  Bramlette,  Sept.,  1863-67. 
John  L.  Helm  (a),  Sept.,  (5d)   1867. 
John  W.  Stevenson   (g),  Sept.,  1867-71. 
Preston  H.  Leslie  (h),  Sept.,  1871-75. 
James  B.  McCreary,  Sept.,  1875-79. 
Luke  P.  Blackburn,  Sept.,  1879-83. 

J.  Proctor  Knott,  Sept.,  1883-87. 

Simon  B.  Buckner,  Sept.,  1887-91. 

John  Young  Brown,  Sept.,  1891-95. 

William  O.  Bradley,  Dec,  1895-99. 

William  S.  Taylor    (i),  Dec,   1899;  Jan.   31, 

William    Goebel    (j),   Jan    31,    1900;    Feb.    3, 

J.  C.  W.  Beckham,  Feb.  3,  1900;  Dec,  1903. 
J.  C.  W.  Beckham,  Dec  8,  1903;  Dec,  1907. 
Augustus    E.    Willson,    Dec.    10,    1907;    Dec, 

James  B.   McCreary,   Dec.    12,    191 1,  to  Dec, 

Augustus   O.    Stanley,   Dec.   7,    191 5,   to  May, 

James    D.    Black,    May    19,    1919,    to    Dec.    9, 

Edwin    P.    Morrow,    Dec.    9,    191 9,    to    Dec, 

W.    J.    Fields,    Dec.    n,    1923,   to   Dec,    1927. 
Flem  D.  Sampson,  1927-1931. 
Ruby  Laffoon,  1931-1935. 
A.  B.  Chandler  (f),  1935-1939. 
Keen    Johnson     (k),    Oct.    9,     1939-Dec.     12, 

Keen  Johnson,  Dec,  1939-1943. 
S.  S.  Willis,  Dec.  7,  1943-47. 

(a)  Died   in   office. 

(b)  The  fifth  Lieutenant-Governor.  Gabriel  Slaughter  became  Governor  October  21,  1816, 
upon  the  death  of  Governor  George  Madison  and  did  not  then  preside  as  Speaker  of  the 
Senate.  He  had  been  the  third  Lieutenant-Governor  and  presided  over  the  Senate  for  four 

(c)  James  T.  Morehead,  the  ninth  Lieutenant-Governor,  became  Governor,  February  22, 
1834,  after  the  death  of  Governor  John  Breathitt. 

(d)  The  tenth  Lieutenant-Governor,  Charles  A.  Wickliffe,  became  Governor,  October  5, 
1836,  upon  the  death  of  Governor  James  Clark. 

(e)  Governor  John  J.  Crittenden  resigned  July  31,  1850,  to  become  U.  S.  Attorney-General, 
and  Lieutenant-Governor  John  L.  Helm  became  Governor. 

(f)  Resigned  to  become  U.  S.  Senator,  October  9,  1939. 

(g)  John  W.  Stevenson,  eighteenth  Lieutenant-Governor,  became  Governor  upon  the  death 
of   Governor  John  L.   Helm,   September   8,    1867,   and   never  presided  over  the   Senate. 

(h)  Governor  John  W.  Stevenson  resigned  February  13,  1871,  having  been  elected  to  the 
U.  S.  Senate,  and  Preston  H.  Leslie  became  Governor. 

(i)  William  Goebel  contested  the  seat  of  William  S.  Taylor,  and  was  awarded  the  certifi- 
cate on  January  31,  1900,  by  vote  of  both  Houses  of  the  Legislature. 

(j)  William  Goebel  was  shot  from  the  executive  building  by  an  assassin,  while  walking 
to  the  legislative  building  on  January  30,  1900,  dying  on  February  3,  1900.  He  was  declared 
elected  on  January  31,  1900,  and  was  sworn  in  as  Governor.  Upon  GoebePs  death,  J.  C.  W. 
Beckham,  who  was  declared  elected  Lieutenant-Governor  with  William  Goebel,  be